Skip to main content

Full text of "Messages, addresses, and public papers of Terry Sanford, Governor of North Carolina, 1961-1965"

See other formats



Digitized  by 

the  Internet  Archive 

in  2015 




Governor  Terry  Sanford 

North  Carolina  Sf  at*  Library 






Edited  by 

Memory  F.  Mitchell 
Editor,  Division  of  Publications 
State  Department  of  Archives  and  History 

Council  of  State 
State  of  North  Carolina 


Before  he  left  office,  Governor  Terry  Sanford  expressed  the 
opinion  that  the  public  addresses  and  papers  of  his  administra- 
tion should  be  held  to  one  volume.  The  overwhelming  number 
of  addresses,  dedication  ceremonies,  informal  talks,  statements 
for  the  press,  news  conferences,  articles,  and  reports  made  the  job 
of  elimination  of  material  the  most  difficult  phase  of  preparing 
this  volume  for  the  press.  Even  a  hasty  review  of  the  complete 
file  of  material  would  impress  anyone  with  the  tremendous  ener- 
gy of,  work  done  by,  and  contributions  made  by  Governor  San- 

Several  criteria  were  used  in  determining  which  addresses  to 
include  in  full,  which  to  summarize,  and  which  only  to  list.  Ap- 
pearances at  significant  meetings  and  events,  speeches  in  which 
new  policies  or  ideas  were  brought  to  light,  and  typical  addresses 
on  various  subjects  were  considered;  an  effort  was  made  to  pub- 
lish in  full  meaningful  materials  fitting  one  or  more  of  these 
standards.  Where  summaries  in  a  page  or  less  were  substituted 
for  full  addresses,  the  central  theme  and  main  points  were  given 
without  the  inclusion  of  much  detail. 

Relatively  few  of  the  many  proclamations,  executive  orders, 
and  statements  could  be  used;  here  again,  an  effort  was  made  to 
select  those  of  particular  significance  and  those  which  were 
illustrative  of  the  activities  and  programs  of  the  Governor  and 
of  his  administration. 

Funds  for  this  volume  were  provided  by  the  Council  of  State, 
as  has  been  the  custom  for  volumes  of  papers  of  other  governors. 
The  editor  wishes  to  thank  Governor  Sanford  himself  for  his 
suggestions  and  advice;  his  press  secretary,  Mr.  Graham  Jones, 
for  checking  many  points,  answering  innumerable  questions, 
helping  with  the  selection  of  illustrations,  and  giving  valuable 
advice  throughout  the  months  the  volume  was  in  preparation; 
and  Dr.  Christopher  Crittenden,  director  of  the  North  Carolina 
State  Department  of  Archives  and  History,  for  his  encourage- 
ment, support,  and  guidance.  Mrs.  Nancy  S.  Bartlett  and  Miss 
Marie  D.  Moore,  editorial  assistants  with  the  State  Department 
of  Archives  and  History,  deserve  and  are  hereby  given  recognition 
and  thanks  for  their  many  hours  of  tedious  and  painstaking  work. 
Mrs.  Bartlett  prepared  the  list  of  appointments,  and  she  and 
Miss  Moore  did  research  for  headnotes  and  footnotes,  helped 
prepare  copy  for  the  printer,  and  rendered  assistance  in  ways  far 
too  numerous  to  mention.  Appreciation  is  also  expressed  to  Miss 

Brenda  M.  Smith,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  Swindell,  and  Mrs.  Ann  W. 

Little,  who  assisted  with  the  proofreading  and  the  indexing. 
All  illustrations  used  in  the  book  were  furnished  by  Mr.  Graham 

Memory  F.  Mitchell 

November  1,  1966 



Preface    v 

Biographical  Sketch,  January  5,  1961   xxi 

Inaugural  AddresS;,  January  5,  1961    3 

Messages  to  Joint  Sessions  of  the  General  Assembly: 

Budget  Message,  February  9,  1961    11 

Special  Message  on  Education,  March  6,  1961    26 

Biennial  Message,  February  7,  1963    34 

Budget  Message,  February  8,  1963    67 

Special  Message  on  Traffic  Safety,  April  2,  1963    75 

Message  to  the  General  Assembly  at  Cullowhee,  May  14,  1963    81 

Address  to  the  Special  Session  of  the  General  Assembly, 

October  14,  1963    86 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries  of  Public  Addresses: 

University  of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill,  November  21,  1960    91 

Association  of  the  U.  S.  Army,  Braxton  Bragg  Chapter,  Fort 

Bragg,  January  24,  1961   102 

North  Carolina  Press  Association,  Chapel  Hill,  February  2,  1961*   106 

Wilson  Industrial  Council  Industry  and  Education  Dinner, 

Wilson,  February  6,  1961*   107 

Grifton  Junior  Chamber  of  Commerce,  Grifton,  February  10,  1961*   107 

Farmers  Cooperative  Council  of  North  Carolina,  Raleigh, 

February  21,  1961   108 

North  Carolina  Prison  Department  Personnel,  Raleigh, 

February  22,  1961*   113 

City-wide  PTA  Rally,  Fayetteville,  February  28,  1961*   113 

Education  Rally,  Smithfield,  March  9,  1961   114 

Confederate  Centennial  Day,  Louisburg,  March  18,  1961*   119 

Education  Rally,  Goldsboro,  March  20,  1961*   119 

Future  Farmers  of  America,  Coats,  March  23,  1961*   120 

Report  to  the  People  over  State-wide  Television  Network,  Raleigh, 

March  23,  1961*   '  121 

Northeastern  North  Carolina  Industrial  Development  Conference, 

Tarboro,  April  5,  1961   122 

North  Carolina  Mother's  Day  Program,  Raleigh,  April  10,  1961*   126 

Fourth  Annual  Authors  Luncheon,  Goldsboro,  April  18,  1961*   126 

1961  Convention  of  North  Carolina  Congress  of  Parents  and  Teachers, 

Winston-Salem,  April  19,  1961*   127 

Salute  to  East  Carolina  College,  Greenville,  April  26,  1961*   128 

Bath  High  School  Chapter  of  Future  Farmers  of  America,  Bath,  April 

28,  1961*   128 

Southeastern  North  Carolina  Industrial  Development  Conference, 

Clinton,  May  3,  1961*   129 

Dedication  Address  at  Washington  County  Union  School,  Roper, 

May  4,  1961*   129 

Sixty-fifth  Annual  Convention,  North  Carolina  Bankers  Association, 

Pinehurst,  May  9,  1961*   130 

*  Summarized 


Table  of  Contents 

Ohio  Valley  Industrialists  and  Businessmen,  Ohio  Valley  Tour,  May 

22-26,  1961   130 

High  Point  College  Graduation  Exercises,  High  Point,  May  28,  1961*.— 135 
Woman's  College  Alumnae  of  Wake  County,  Raleigh,  May  29,  1961*  .135 
Presbyterian  Junior  College  Commencement,  Maxton,  June  5,  1961*  ..-136 
Western  North  Carolina  Industrial  Development  Conference 

(delivered  by  Hargrove  Bowles,  Jr.),  Waynesville,  June  6,  1961*   136 

North  Carolina  Association  of  Broadcasters,  Durham,  June  8,  1961   137 

Youth  Fitness  Commission,  Raleigh,  June  10,  1961   143 

Annual  Conference,  Teachers  of  Vocational  Agriculture,  Greensboro, 

July  13,  1961*     146 

Dedication  of  Federal  Housing  Administration  Office,  Greensboro, 

July  13,  1961*     146 

Dedication  of  Benson  National  Guard  Armory,  Benson,  July  16, 

1961   147 

South  Carolina  Education  Week  Conference,  Columbia,  South 

Carolina,  July  18,  1961   150 

State  4-H  Club  Week  Meeting,  Raleigh,  July  26,  1961   159 

Presentation  of  Freedom  Association  World  Peace  Award  to  Dr.  Frank 

Porter  Graham,  Eighth  Annual  Southeastern  World  Affairs  Institute, 

Blue  Ridge,  July  29,  1961*   165 

Summer  Leadership  Conference,  North  Carolina  Classroom  Teachers 

Association,  Mars  Hill,  August  2,  1961*   166 

Annual  Superintendents  Conference,  Mars  Hill,  August  9,  1961*   166 

Agribusiness  Caravan  Luncheon,  Raleigh,  August  10,  1961*   167 

Daniels  Family  Reunion,  Wanchese,  August  19,  1961   168 

National  Security  Seminar,  Fort  Bragg,  August  25,  1961   169 

Charlotte-Mecklenburg  School  Convocation,  Charlotte,  August  30, 

1961*   172 

Ceremony  of  Transfer  of  U.S.S.  "North  Carolina"  from  United  States 

Navy  to  State  of  North  Carolina,  Bayonne,  New  Jersey,  September 

6,  1961*   173 

Semiannual  Meeting,  Tidewater  Alumni  Chapter,  University  of  North 

Carolina,  Norfolk,  Virginia,  September  6,  1961*   173 

Northwestern  North  Carolina  Industrial  Conference,  Wilkes- 

boro,  September  7,  1961*   174 

Weeks  Law  Golden  Anniversary  Celebration,  Biltmore  Forest,  Ashe- 

ville,  September  26,  1961*   175 

Dedication  of  Business  and  Professional  Women's  Club  Headquarters, 

Chapel  Hill,  October  1,  1961*   175 

South  Piedmont  District  NCEA,  Kannapolis,  October  3,  1961   176 

State  Convention  of  Democratic  Women  of  North  Carolina,  Winston- 
Salem,  October  5,  1961   184 

Fifty-fifth  Annual  Meeting,  North  Carolina  Textile  Manufacturers 

Association,  Pinehurst,  October  6,  1961*   187 

Annual  Meeting,  Fifth  District  Medical  Society,  Pinehurst,  October 

11,   1961*   187 

Dedication  Ceremonies,  Juvenile  Evaluation  Center,  Swannanoa, 

October  14,  1961*   188 

Kentucky  Democratic  Dinner,  Lexington,  Kentucky,  October  14, 

1961*     188 

*  Summarized 

Table  of  Contents 


Opening  Ceremonies  of  the  Ninety-fourth  North  Carolina  State  Fair, 
Raleigh,  October  16,   1961*   189 

Governor's  Conference  on  Economic  Development,  Chapel  Hill, 

November  1,  1961*   190 

South   Central   Piedmont   North   Carolina  Industrial  Development 
Conference,  Concord,  November  2,  1961*   190 

Luncheon  Meeting  of  New  York  City  Bankers,  New  York  City,  Novem- 
ber 6,  1961*   .-  _-..191 

College  of  the  Albemarle  Dedication  and  Inauguration  Ceremonies, 
Elizabeth  City,  November  7,  1961*   192 

North  Carolina  State  School  Boards  Delegate  Assembly,  Chapel  Hill, 
November  8,  1961*      192 

Tenth  Anniversary  Ceremonies,  University  of  North  Carolina  School 
of  Nursing,  Chapel  Hill,  November  8,  1961*   193 

North  Carolina  Resource-Use  Education  Conference,  Durham,  Novem- 
ber 16,  1961*   193 

Northeastern  Soil  and  Water  Conservation  Districts,  Edenton,  Novem- 
ber 16,  1961*   194 

Twenty-sixth  Annual  Meeting  of  the  North  Carolina  Farm  Bureau 

Federation,  Raleigh,  November  21,  1961   194  - 

Report  to  the  People  Over  State-wide  Television  and  Radio  Network, 
Raleigh,  November  27,  1961   202 

North  Central  North  Carolina  Industrial  Development  Conference, 
Elon  College,  November  29,  1961*   211 

First  Congressional  District  Young  Democratic  Clubs  Rally,  Nags 
Head,  December  8,  1961*   212 

North  Carolina  Annual  Meeting  of  Traffic  Safety  Council,  Raleigh, 
December  18,   1961*   213 

North  Carolina  Young  Democratic  Clubs  Meeting,  Statesville,  January 
6,  1962*     213 

North   Carolina   Industrial   Development   Foundation,  Greensboro, 
January  11,  1962*     214 

Mid-Year  Conference,  Marathon  Chapter  Number  Two,  Order  of 
Ahepa,  Charlotte,  January  14,  1962*   215 

Mooresville  Chamber  of  Commerce,  Mooresville,  January  16,  1962*   215 

North  Carolina  Press  Association,  Chapel  Hill,  January  18,  1962*   216 

Fourth  Annual  Highway  Conference,  Raleigh,  January  30,  1962   216 

Salem  Chamber  of  Commerce  Annual  Dinner,  Salem,  Virginia, 

February  1,  1962*   220 

Temple   Emanuel  Brotherhood  Meeting,   Greensboro,   February  2, 
1962*   221 

Granville  Industrial  Dedication  Day,  Oxford,  February  6,  1962*   221 

North  Carolina  Citizens  Committee  for  Better  Schools,  Raleigh, 

February  22,  1962*   222 

To  Students  of  North  Carolina  Over  State-wide  Television,  Raleigh, 
March  1,  1962   222 

Board  of  Directors  Meeting  of  the  North  Carolina  Traffic  Safety 
Council,  Inc.,  Greensboro,  March  15,  1962*   231 

Eighty-first  Annual  Meeting  of  the  North  Carolina  Teachers  Associ- 
ation, Raleigh,  April  12,  1962*   231 

Annual  Meeting,  North  Carolina  Credit  Union  League,  Raleigh,  April 
14,  1962*   232 

*  Summarized 


Table  of  Contents 

Inauguration  Exercises  Luncheon,  Gardner-Webb  Junior  College, 
Boiling  Springs,  April  16,  1962*   232 

Conference  on  Food  Processing  and  Marketing,  Raleigh,  April  17, 
1962*   233 

Dinner  Honoring  John  W.  Umstead,  Jr.,  Chapel  Hill,  April  18, 
1962*   233 

Savings  Bond  Meeting,  Raleigh,  April  19,  1962*   234 

Dedication  of  U.S.S.  "North  Carolina"  Memorial,  Wilmington,  April 
29,  1962*   234 

North  Carolina  Conference  for  Social  Service,  Raleigh,  April  30, 
1962   235 

Atlanta  Alumni  Chapter  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  Atlanta, 
Georgia,  May  2,  1962*   239 

Medical  Society  of  North  Carohna,  Raleigh,  May  8,  1962*   239 

North  Carolina  State  Democratic  Convention,  Raleigh,  May  17, 

1962*   240 

Graduation  Exercises,  Appalachian  State  Teachers  College,  Boone, 
May  26,  1962*   241 

June  Dairy  Month  "Kick-Off"  Breakfast,  Raleigh,  June  1,  1962*   241 

Commencement  Exercises,  North  Carolina  School  for  the  Deaf,  Mor- 
ganton,  June  6,  1962*   242 

Report  to  the  People  Over  State-wide  Television  and  Radio  Network, 
Raleigh,  June  6,  1962   242 

Opening  Session  of  Summer  Workshop  at  Southern  Regional  Edu- 
cation Board  Meeting,  Williamsburg,  Virginia,  June  15,  1962*   250 

Annual  Luncheon,  North  Carolina  Association  of  County  Commis- 
sioners, Morehead  City,  June  18,  1962*   251 

North  Carolina  Methodist  Conference,  Kinston,  June  19,  1962*   251 

Southern  Association  of  Baptist  Colleges  and  Schools  and  Education 
Committee  of  the  Southern  Baptist  Convention,  Winston-Salem, 
June  27,  1962*   252 

National  Governors  Conference,  Hershey,  Pennsylvania,  July 

2,   1962*   253 

National  Association  of  County  Officials,  New  York  City,  July  11, 
1962   254 

Dedication  of  the  Charlotte  Industrial  Education  Center,  Charlotte, 
July  18,  1962   260 

Avery  County  Chamber  of  Commerce,  Crossnore,  August  1,  1962*  .  265 

Annual  Meeting,  North  Carolina  Police  Executives  Association, 
Raleigh,  August  3,  1962*   265 

Ceremonies  Commemorating  the  Establishment  of  the  First  Soil  Con- 
servation District  in  America,  Wadesboro,  August  7,  1962*   266 

Special  Address  on  the  Food  Processing  Industry  Over  State-wide 

Television  Network,  Durham,  August  7,  1962   266 

Eleventh  Annual  Legislative  Work  Conference,  Southern  Regional 
Education  Board,  Biloxi,  Mississippi,  August  16,  1962*   274 

Introduction  of  Sir  Edward  Boyle  at  the  Three  Hundred  and  Seventy- 
fifth  Anniversary  Celebration  of  the  Birth  of  Virginia  Dare,  Manteo, 
August  18,  1962*   274 

Dedication  of  Interstate  85  Link  in  Gaston  County,  McAdenville, 
August  25,  1962*   275 

*  Summarized 

Table  of  Contents  xi 

Dedication  of  Royster  Building  at  Cherry  Hospital,  Goldsboro,  Septem- 
ber 12,  1962*   276 

Annual  Reunion  of  Airborne  Association,  Washington,  D.  C,  Septem- 
ber 13.  1962*   276 

Methodist  Men  of  Gastonia  District,  Polkville,  September  13,  1962   277 

Court  Improvements  Amendment,  WTVD,  Durham,  September  28, 
1962*   278 

Southern  Regional  Education  Board,  Hollywood,  Florida,  October 
1,  1962*   -  278 

"Problems  of  a  Governor"  Panel,  Southern  Governors  Conference, 

Hollywood,  Florida,  October  4,  1962*   279 

First  Congressional  District  Democratic  Rally,  Edenton,  October  9, 
1962*   280 

State-wide  School  Dropout  Meeting,  Raleigh,  October  11,  1962*   280 

Haywood  County  Democratic  Rally,  Waynesville,  October  22,  1962  -—281 

North   Carolina   State    Grange   Convention,    Kinston,    October  26, 
1962*   285 

Report  to  the  People  Over  State-wide  Television  and  Radio  Network, 
Raleigh,  October  31,  1962   285 

Veterans  Day  Ceremony  on  Battleship  U.S.S.  "North  Carolina,"  Wil- 
mington, November  11,  1962*   291 

Founders  Day  Celebration  at  Methodist  College,  Fayetteville,  Novem- 
ber 15,  1962     292 

Dedication  of  North  Carolina  National  Bank  Building,  Charlotte, 
November  26,  1962*   301 

Commission  on  Secondary  Schools  of  Southern  Association  of  Colleges 
and  Schools,  Dallas,  Texas,  November  28,  1962   301 

Shaw  University,  Raleigh,  December  3,  1962*   307 

Southern  Albemarle  Convention,  Plymouth,  December  8,  1962*   ^307 

Faculty  Club  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill, 
January  8,  1963*   308 

Bright  Leaf  Tobacco  States  Conference,  Raleigh,  January  28,  1963—- 309 

First  Institute  for  Parole  Board  Members,  Chapel  Hill,  February  11, 
1963   311 

American  Association  of  School  Administrators,  Atlantic  City,  New 
Jersey,  February  19,  1963*   319 

"North  Carolina  Day"  at  Sales  Executives  Club  of  New 

York,  New  York  City,  February  26,  1963   320 

Introduction  of  Vice-President  Lyndon  B.  Johnson,  Raleigh,  March  30, 
1963*   327 

Dedication,  School  of  Public  Health  Building,  University  of  North 
Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill,  April  7,  1963*   327 

First  National  Conference,  National  Committee  for  Support  of  the 
Public  Schools,  Washington,  D.  C,  April  8,  1963*   328 

Chicago  Appreciation  Luncheon  for  Charlotte  Chamber  of  Commerce, 
Chicago,  Illinois,  April  17,  1963*   329 

Annual  Sixth  District  Meeting,  Omega  Psi  Phi  Fraternity,  A  &  T 
College,  Greensboro,  April  27,  1963   329 

National  Association  of  Hosiery  Manufacturers,  Atlantic  City,  New 
Jersey,  April  29,  1963*   333 

Capitol  Press  Club  Dinner  Honoring  Vice-President  Lyndon  B.  John- 
son, Washington,  D.C.,  May  18,  1963   334 

*  Summarized 

xii  Table  of  Contents 

1963   Commencement  Exercises,   University  of   North   Carolina  at 

Chapel  Hill,  June  3,  1963*     338 

The  Governor's  School  of  North  Carolina,  Winston-Salem,  June  10, 

1963   339 

Summer  Workshop,  Southern  Regional  Education  Board,  Chapel  Hill, 

June  12,  1963*     343 

North  Carolina  Association  of  Broadcasters,  Durham,  June  17,  1963   344 

State  Future  Farmers  of  America  Convention,  Raleigh,  June  27, 

1963*   351 

Legislative  Work  Conference,  Southern  Regional  Education  Board, 

Oklahoma  City,  Oklahoma,  August  8,  1963*   352 

Convention  of  Associated  Master  Barbers  of  North  Carolina,  Durham, 

September  2,  1963   -  353 

North  Carolina  State  Employees  Association,  Durham,  September  7, 

1963*   356 

State-Federal  Conference  on  Mental  Retardation,  Warrenton,  Virginia, 

September  19,  1963       356 

Southeastern  Regional  Conference  of  the  American  Public  Welfare 

Association,  Asheville,  September  25,  1963*    365 

Society  of  American  Archivists  and  American  Association  for  State  and 

Local  History,  Raleigh,  October  3,  1963*   365 

Legislative  Work  Conference  of  New  England  Board  of  Higher  Edu- 
cation, Portsmouth,  New  Hampshire,  October  8,  1963*   366 

Raleigh  Home  Builders  Association,  Raleigh,  October  9,  1963*   367 

Twentieth  Annual  Teachers  Institute,  Raleigh,  October  10,  1963*   367 

Maryland  State  Teachers  Association,  Baltimore,  Maryland,  October 

17,  1963   368 

Quarterly  Conference  of  the  Board  of  Conservation  and  Development, 

Asheville,  October  22,  1963     373 

North  Carolina  Association  of  Realtors,  Asheville,  October  24,  1963  —.373 
Dedication  of  Satellite  Tracking  and  Data  Acquisition  Facility,  Ros- 

man,  October  26,  1963*   377 

Dedication  of  Kerr  Scott  Dormitory,  East  Carolina  College,  Greenville, 

November  3,  1963*   378 

State  Principals  Conference,  Greensboro,  November  7,  1963*   378 

Ohio  Association  of  School  Administrators,  Ohio  School  Business 

Officials,  and  the  Ohio  School  Boards  Association,  Columbus,  Ohio, 

November  12,  1963*   379 

North  Carolina  Association  for  Retarded  Children,  Raleigh,  November 

13,   1963*   380 

Harvard  University:  The  Alfred  D.  Simpson  Lecture  of  1963,  Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts,  November  15,  1963   380 

Kentucky  Association  for  Mental  Health,  Louisville,  Kentucky, 

November  19,  1963*   396 

National  Conference  on  Government  of  the  National  Municipal 

League,  Detroit,  Michigan,  November  19,  1963*   397 

Albemarle  Area  Development  Association,  Edenton,  December  13, 

1963*   398 

Dedication  of  First  Flight  Airport,  Kill  Devil  Hills,  December  17, 

1963     398 

Dedication  of  W.  W.  Holding  Industrial  Education  Center,  Raleigh, 

January  8,  1964*       400 

*  Summarized 

Table  of  Contents 


^     North  Carolina  Press  Association,  Chapel  Hill,  January  16,  1964*   401 

Distinguished  Service  Award  and  Bosses'  Night  Banquet,  Hickory, 

January  30,  1964*   402 

Annual  Workshop  for  Cottage  Counselors,  Eagle  Springs,  February  4, 

1964*   402 

Industrial  Development  Conference,  Raleigh,  February  6,  1964*   403 

Tarheel    Electric   Membership   Association,    Raleigh,    February  11, 

1964*   403 

Rotary  District  769,  Southern  Pines,  March  7,  1964*   404 

Travel  Council  of  North  Carolina,  Raleigh,  March  16,  1964*   404 

Testimony  Before  the  Federal  Trade  Commission,  Washington,  D.C., 

March  18,  1964*    .-____-405 

Forty-fourth  Annual  Convention  of  American  Association  of  Junior 

Colleges,  Bal  Harbour,  Florida,  April  1,  1964*   406 

National  Association  of  Tobacco  Distributors,  Miami  Beach,  Florida, 

April  6,  1964   406 

Davidson  County  NCEA  Banquet,  Lexington,  April  8,  1964*   417 

Educare,  Los  Angeles,  California,  April  10,  1964*   418 

Western  Carolina  College  Assembly,  Cullowhee,  April  14,  1964*   419 

Meeting  of  County  Chairman  of  John  Fitzgerald  Kennedy  Library 

Drive,  Chapel  Hill,  April  16,  1964*   419 

Statement  Before  the  United  States  House  of  Representatives,  Ad  Hoc 

Subcommittee  on  the  War  on  Poverty  Program  of  the  Committee  on 

Education  and  Labor,  Washington,  D.C.,  April  17,  1964*   420 

Foundations  Group,  New  York  City,  April  21,  1964*   421 

Governor's  Conference  on  Occupational  Health,  Greensboro,  April 

23,  1964*   422 

North  Carolina  Products  Week  Luncheon,  Raleigh,  April  24,  1964*  -422 
Dedication  of  Herbert  C.  Bonner  Bridge,  Oregon  Inlet,  May  2,  1964*  ____423 
Ground-breaking  Ceremonies,  North  Carolina  Jewish  Home  for  the 

Aged,  Clemmons,  May  3,  1964*   423 

Institute  of  Religion,  Raleigh,  May  5,  1964*   424 

Welcome  to  President  Lyndon  B.  Johnson,  Rocky  Mount,  May  7, 

1964   425 

Student  Activities  Banquet,  Raleigh,  May  12,  1964*   428 

John  F.  Kennedy  Memorial  Tribute,  Chapel  Hill,  May  17,  1964   429 

Farm-Industry  Day,  Woodleaf,  May  19,  1964*   430 

State  Democratic  Convention  of  1964,  Raleigh,  May  20,  1964   431 

Testimony,   Special   Appalachian   Committee   of   the   House  Public 

Works  Committee,  Washington,  D.C.,  May  22,  1964*   433 

Commencement  Exercises  of  1964,  University  of  North  Carolina, 

Chapel  Hill,  June  1,  1964*   434 

Report  to  the  Governors  Conference,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  June  8,  1964  ..434 
North  Carolina  Association  of  County  Commissioners,  Morehead  City, 

June  15,  1964*   439 

American  Symphony  Orchestra  League  and  Community  Arts  Councils, 

Detroit,  Michigan,  June  20,  1964   440 

Dedication  of  Wayne  County  Technical  Institute,  Goldsboro,  June 

24,  1964*   449 

Dedication  of  Stanley  Power  Tools  Plant,  New  Bern,  June  25,  1964*  ____449 
State-wide  Television  Address  on  Political  Campaign,  Charlotte,  June 

26,  1964   450 


xiv  Table  of  Contents 

Student  NEA  Notables  Dinner,  Seattle,  Washington,  July  2,  1964*   454 

Democratic  Unity  Dinner,  Charlotte,  July  31,  1964   455 

Raleigh  Food  Brokers  Dinner,  Raleigh,  August  12,  1964*   456 

Pioneer  Corn  Company  Open  House,  Laurinburg,  August  29,  1964*  — 457 
Carnegie  Awards  Banquet  of  Winston-Salem  Optimist  Club,  Winston- 
Salem,  September  5,  1964*   458 

Dinner  Honoring  the  Duke  Endowment,  Charlotte,  September  24, 

1964*   458 

Carolina  Textiles,  Inc.,  Plant  Dedication,  Monroe,  September  24, 

1964*   459 

Forty-second  Annual  Western  District  NCEA  Meeting,  Asheville, 

September  29,  1964*   460 

State-wide  Planning  Meeting  on  School  Construction,  Raleigh,  October 

I,  1964   460 

Southern  Association  of  State  Planning  and  Development  Agencies, 

Raleigh,  October  5,  1964*   463 

Dedication  Ceremonies  for  New  Dormitories  at  Chowan  College,  Mur- 

freesboro,  October  17,  1964*   463 

Piedmont  Crescent  Tour  Banquet,  Charlotte,  October  20,  1964   464 

Governor's  Travel  Information  Conferences,  Greenville,  Winston- 
Salem,  Asheville,  October  28,  29,  30,  1964*   466 

Opening  of  the  Advancement  School,  Winston-Salem,  November  8, 

1964  '  467 

Governors  Conference  on  Education,  Atlanta,  Georgia,  November 

II,  1964*   468 

New  Jersey  Education  Association,  Atlantic  City,  New  Jersey,  Novem- 
ber 13,  1964*   469 

Dedication  of  State  Legislative  Building  (delivered  by  Hugh  Cannon) , 
November  20,  1964   470 

Dedication  of  Sandhills  Community  College,  Southern  Pines,  Novem- 
ber 25,  1964*   471 

Convention  of  the  National  Council  of  Teachers  of  English,  Cleve- 
land, Ohio,  November  26,  1964*   472 

Dedication  of  Gaston  College,  Dallas,  December  6,  1964*   472 

Dedication  of  Site  for  Food  Science  Building,  North  Carolina  State  of 
the  University  of  North  Carolina  at  Raleigh,  December  11,  1964*   473 

Prodigal  Sons  and  Daughters  of  North  Carolina  Luncheon,  Washing- 
ton, D.C.,  December  21,  1964   474 

Report  to  the  People  over  State-wide  Television  and  Radio  Network, 
Raleigh,  January  4,  1965   479 

List  of  Other  Speeches  and  Addresses   491 


Proclaiming  a  State  of  Emergency  as  a  Result  of  Damage  from  Devas- 
tating Storm,  March  8,  1962     525 

Proclaiming  Thanksgiving  Day,  November  22,  1962   526 

Proclaiming  an  Extraordinary  Session  of  the  General  Assembly,  Octo- 
ber 10,  1963     527 

Proclaiming  Electors  for  President  and  Vice-President,  December  9, 
1964   528 

Proclaiming  January  7  and  8,  1965,  for  the  Festivities  and  Ceremonies 
for  the  Inauguration  of  Dan  K.  Moore,  January  7,  1965   529 

*  Summarized 

Table  of  Contents 


Executive  Orders: 

Establishing  the  Governor's  Commission  on  Educational  Television, 
May  15,  1962     533 

Establishing  the  North  Carolina  Outer  Banks  Seashore  Park  Com- 
mission, August  3,  1962   534 

Establishing  the  Governor's  Commission  on  the  Status  of  Women, 
October  11,  1963  -     536 

Establishing  the  North  Carolina  Arts  Council,  December  3,  1964   538 


Designating  North  Carolina's  Opening  of  the  Civil  War  Commemo- 
ration, January  6,  1961    —   543 

Designating  "Brotherhood  Week,"  February  6,  1961   544 

Regarding  State  Personnel,  April  12,  1961   544 

Concerning  Economic  Legislation,  April  24,  1961   545 

Announcing  the  North  Carolina  International  Trade  Fair,  April  27, 

1961     546 

Commending  the  North  Carolina  Senate  on  Passage  of  the  Revenue 

Act,  June  8,  1961    -   547 

Applauding  the  Passage  of  the  Appropriations  Act  by  the  State  House 

of  Representatives,  June  8,  1961   548 

On  the  Settlement  of  the  Mars  Hill  School  Controversy,  June  13, 

1961     548 

On  Executive  Clemency,  July  4,  1961   552 

On  Employment  of  Ex-Prisoners,  July  27,  1961   553 

On  the  Death  of  Lieutenant  Governor  H.  Cloyd  Philpott,  August  19, 

1961  555 

Statement  of  Friendship  with  Mexico,  September  10,  1961   555 

On  the  Governor's  Commission  on  Education  Beyond  the  High 

School,  September  15,  1961   556 

Urging  Economy  in  Government,  November  25,  1961   559 

Christmas  Statement,  December  20,  1961   560 

On  the  Burch-Brewer  Case,  January  7,  1962   560 

On  Pride  in  North  Carolina's  Progress,  January  11,  1962   563 

On  the  Ports  Authority  Bonds  Matter,  March  2,  1962   564 

Designating  "Peace  Corps  Day,"  March  12,  1962   565 

On  Per  Capita  Income,  May  1,  1962   565 

On  the  Death  of  Charlie  Gold,  June  28,  1962   566 

On  the  Deaths  of  North  Carolina  Officers  in  Viet  Nam,  July  19, 

1962   566 

On  the  Saving  of  Tax  Funds,  August  4,  1962   567 

On  the  Proposed  Environmental  Health  Center,  September  5,  1962   567 

Designating  "Youth  Appreciation  Week,"  November  9,  1962   570 

On  Medical  Care  for  Indigents,  December  26,  1962   571 

Designating  "Carl  Sandburg  Day,"  December  27,  1962   572 

Designating  "Job  Corps  Week,"  January  2,  1963   572 

Proclaiming  the  Tercentenary  of  the  Carolina  Charter  of  1663,  Janu- 
ary 4,  1963   574 

On  Industrial  Progress,  January  10,  1963   574 

Reporting  School  Improvements,  January  17,  1963   576 

Observation  for  a  Second  Century,  January  18,  1963   578 

On  Establishing  the  Good  Neighbor  Council,  January  18,  1963   579 

On  the  Development  of  the  Cape  Fear  River  Basin,  March  14,  1963  --580 
On  the  Future  of  Recreation  in  North  Carolina,  March  15,  1963   582 


Table  of  Contents 

On  Highway  Construction  and  Maintenance,  March  29,  1963   584 

On  the  Proposed  Breatholizer  Bill,  April  26,  1963   585 

Designating  "Law  Day,"  April  30,  1963   586 

Proposal  on  Behalf  of  the  Forgotten  Children,  May  5,  1963   587 

On  North  Carolina's  Part  in  the  Space  Age,  May  5,  1963   591 

Favoring  a  Fair  Minimum  Wage,  June  2,  1963   594 

On  the  Death  of  Pope  John  XXIII,  June  3,  1963   595 

On  the  Progress  and  Potentials  of  North  Carolina,  June  5,  1963   595 

On  Bible  Readings  and  Prayers  in  the  Public  Schools,  June  18,  1963— -596 

Statement  to  Negro  Leaders  Meeting  at  the  Capitol,  June  25,  1963   597 

On  the  Need  for  a  Special  Session  of  the  General  Assembly,  June  26, 

1963   599 

Statement  at  Meeting  of  the  North  Carolina  Good  Neighbor  Council, 

July  3,  1963   600 

On  the  Founding  of  the  North  Carolina  Fund,  July  18,  1963   601 

Urging  Students  Back  to  School,  August  15,  1963   602 

On  Fund  Approved  for  Advance  Purchase  of  Right-of-Way,  October 

3,  1963   603 

On  the  Elsie  Webb  Controversy,  October  12,  1963   603 

On  the  Redistricting  of  the  State  Senate,  October  23,  1963   606 

On  Driver  Training  Requirement  for  Youth,  November  4,  1963   607 

Reaction  to  the  Assassination  of  President  John  F.  Kennedy,  Novem- 
ber 22,  1963   607 

On  the  Death  of  President  John  Fitzgerald  Kennedy,  November  23, 

1963   607 

Impressions  Received  During  First  Conference  with  President  Johnson, 

November  26,  1963   608 

On  Natural  Resources  of  the  State,  December  13,  1963   609 

On  His  Role  in  the  Primary  Campaign,  January  26,  1964   610 

On  Establishing  the  Learning  Institute  of  North  Carolina,  February 

2,  1964   611 

On  the  Vocational  Education  Program,  February  12,  1964   613 

On  the  Research  Triangle,  February  12,  1964   613 

On  the  New  Western  Residence  for  the  Governor,  March  9,  1964   614 

On  the  President's  Anti-poverty  Program,  March  18,  1964   614 

Designating  Special  Time  for  the  Aging  in  North  Carolina,  April  17, 

1964   616 

On  Community  Projects  to  be  Supported  by  Federal  Grant,  April  20, 

1964   617 

Announcing  the  Location  of  the  State  School  of  the  Performing  Arts, 

April  30,  1964   618 

Concerning  Highway  Patrol  Matters,  May  9,  1964   619 

On  the  Success  of  the  Kennedy  Memorial  Drive,  May  17,  1964   621 

Appeal  for  Responsible  Campaign  Behavior  and  Attitudes,  May  24, 

1964   621 

Urging  Citizens  to  Vote,  May  29,  1964   622 

Denouncing  Actions  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  as  Illegal,  June  22,  1964  .—623 

On  the  Civil  Rights  Act,  July  7,  1964   624 

On  the  Death  of  L.  Y.  Ballentine,  July  19,  1964   626 

Urging  Support  of  the  Democratic  Candidate  for  President,  July 

23,  1964   626 

Reply  to  Friends  Desiring  to  Promote  His  Candidacy  for  Vice-Presi- 
dent, August  18,  1964   628 

Comment  on  the  Democratic  Ticket,  August  26,  1964   629 


Table  of  Contents 

Articles  on  Subject  of  "Strategy  for  State  Development"   629 

Announcing  the  "Whistle  Stop  Tour"  of  Mrs.  Lyndon  B.  Johnson, 

September  27,  1964   634 

Statement  Made  on  Election  Evening,  November  3,  1964   635 

Appeal  for  Support  of  the  Tobacco  Quota  Referendum,  December  3, 

1964   636 

Warning  to  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  December  7,  1964   637 

On  the  Decision  to  Pardon  Boyd  Pay  ton,  December  31,  1964   638 

News  Conferences: 

August  10,  1961   638 

Appointments   649 

Index  751 


Facing  Page 

Inauguration  day,  January  5,  1961    6 

The  Sanford  family  in   1961    7 

The  Governor  addressing  the  General  Assembly    64 

The  Governor  and  the  Council  of  State,  1964    65 

"Pie   in   the  Sky"   118 

The  Governor  and  Mrs.  Sanford  participating  in  Civil  War  Centennial 

observance   119 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cecil  Sanford   126 

Governor  Sanford  with  Judy  Pleasant  and  her  letter   127 

President  Kennedy's  visit  to  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  1961   172 

U.S.S.  "North  Carolina"   173 

Miss  America  of  1962  with  Governor  Sanford     324 

The  Governor  at  new  industrial  plant   325 

Dedication  of  Kerr  Scott  Dormitory  at  East  Carolina  College   378 

Governor  Sanford  with  portrait  of  Governor  Charles  B.  Aycock   379 

The  Governor  and  his  son  water-skiing   404 

Concern  with  tobacco  problems   405 

Visit  of  President  Johnson  to  Rocky  Mount  farm   428 

Tribute  to  President  John  F.  Kennedy,  May  17,  1964   429 

The  Governor  at  Transylvania  Music  Camp  in  Brevard   448 

Group  leaving  for  New  York,  to  participate  in  North  Carolina  Day 

at  the  World's  Fair   449 

Award  to  the  Governor  by  the  National  Education  Association   486 

"Stones  for  the  House  that  Terry  Built"   487 

Birthday  party  to  celebrate  North  Carolina's  tercentenary   574 

Participation  of  the  Governor  at  trade  fair   575 

Good  Neighbor  Council   600 

The  Governor  with  projects  submitted  to  the  North  Carolina  Fund   601 

The  Governor  with  blind  children  examining  Faith  7  capsule   610 

Learning  Institute  of  North  Carolina  meeting   611 

Campaign  visit  of  President  Johnson  in  fall  of  1964   626 

Governor  Sanford  jumping  from  training  tower  at  Fort  Bragg   627 



Graham  Jones 

"The  hopes  of  North  Carolina,  the  hopes  of  America  and  the 
hopes  of  our  world  will  rise  higher  from  the  desks  of  the  class- 
rooms than  from  the  launching  pads  at  Cape  Canaveral." 

Thus  did  Terry  Sanford  evaluate  education  in  the  early  1960's 
during  the  race  for  space. 

Terry  Sanford  made  quality  education  the  overriding  issue 
of  three  arduous  campaigns  for  office  in  1960  and  he  made  quality 
education  the  number-one  goal  of  his  four  years  as  Governor. 

Two  weeks  after  his  election,  Sanford  addressed  an  audience  of 
educators  from  across  North  Carolina  at  Memorial  Auditorium 
on  the  campus  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel 

During  the  preceding  year,  he  had  outlined  the  broad  general 
framework  of  the  Quality  Education  Program.  On  the  campus 
of  the  oldest  state  university  in  the  nation,  that  November  night, 
he  delivered  one  of  the  longest  addresses  of  his  career.  In  that 
address,  he  spelled  out  the  specifics  of  the  Quality  Education 

Dr.  James  Bryant  Conant,  President  Emeritus  of  Harvard 
University  called  the  program  "a  landmark  in  American  edu- 

An  elderly  professor,  sitting  on  a  back  row  of  the  large  audi- 
torium, said:  "Good  Lord!  He  meant  what  he  said  during  the 

It  was  perfectly  natural  that  the  young  Governor-elect  of 
North  Carolina  should  have  chosen  Chapel  Hill  for  his  "State- 
ment of  Faith  and  Purpose  in  Education." 

For  it  was  at  the  University  of  North  Carolina  that  he  had 
worked  his  way  through  to  an  undergraduate  degree.  It  was  at 
Chapel  Hill  where  he  had  met,  courted,  and  won  for  his  wife  a 
vivacious  and  charming  young  coed  from  Hopkinsville,  Ken- 
tucky, Margaret  Rose  Knight. 

It  was  at  Chapel  Hill  that  he  and  Margaret  Rose  had  set 
up  housekeeping  following  his  years  of  service  in  Europe  during 
World  War  II.  And  it  was  at  Chapel  Hill  where,  following 
World  War  II,  he  earned  his  law  degree  and  served  as  Assistant 
Director  of  the  Institute  of  Government. 

But  more  important  than  his  many  personal  attachments  to 
Chapel  Hill,  was  the  influence  of  the  university  on  the  state  of 
North  Carolina  for  more  than  a  century  and  a  half. 


Terry  Sanford 

Often  when  newsmen  from  other  states  interviewed  the  Gover- 
nor, they  would  raise  the  question:  "What  makes  North  Carolina 
different?"  Invariably,  Governor  Sanford  ranked  the  University 
of  North  Carolina  as  one  of  the  major  reasons. 

Terry  Sanford  came  to  the  university  from  the  farm  trading 
town  of  Laurinburg  where  he  was  born  August  20,  1917.  His 
father  was  the  soft-spoken  Cecil  L.  Sanford,  an  independent 
merchant  and  realtor.  His  mother,  Elizabeth  Martin  Sanford, 
a  native  of  Salem,  \'irginia,  taught  in  the  public  schools  for  forty 

When,  in  1966,  Sanford  published  his  first  book  But  What 
About  the  People?  he  dedicated  it  to  his  mother  "who  heightened 
my  interest  in  education"  and  to  his  father  "who  heightened  my 
interest  in  politics." 

Terry  Sanford's  entry  into  politics  came  in  1928,  when,  as  an 
eleven-year-old,  he  marched  in  a  torchlight  parade  in  Laurinburg 
for  Al  Smith.  He  carried  a  sign  proclaiming,  "Me  and  Ma  Is  For 

After  graduating  from  Laurinburg  High  School,  Sanford  stud- 
ied for  a  semester  at  Presbyterian  Junior  College  at  Maxton 
before  transferring  to  the  university  at  Chapel  Hill.  Like  many 
of  his  classmates  during  the  depression  of  the  1930's,  Sanford 
worked.  He  delivered  newspapers.  He  washed  dishes  in  a  cafe. 
He  was  a  bus  boy  at  Swain  Hall.  He  was  an  assistant  manager  of 
a  dormitory  and  he  was  a  laundry  agent. 

During  his  student  days,  Sanford  found  time  to  win  the 
presidency  of  his  dormitory  and  a  seat  in  the  Student  Legislature. 
In  student  politics,  he  met  many  of  the  men  who  twenty  years 
later  would  help  elect  him  Governor. 

As  for  his  courtship  with  the  coed  majoring  in  English,  he 
says  with  a  grin  that  he  knew  Margaret  Rose  Knight  a  year 
before  he  got  up  nerve  enough  to  ask  her  for  a  date. 

However  the  shyness  did  not  stop  him  from  marrying  Margaret 
Rose  on  July  4,  1942,  while  Sanford  was  serving  as  a  special  agent 
for  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investis^ation. 

Shortly  after  their  marriage,  Sanford  left  his  draft-exempt  post 
with  the  FBI  to  enlist  in  the  paratroops.  He  won  his  jump  boots 
and  the  bars  of  a  second  lieutenant  before  being  shipped  to 

During  the  war,  he  fought  in  five  campaigns  in  Italy,  France, 
Belgium,  and  Germany.  Included  in  those  campaigns  was  a 
jump  with  the  517th  Parachute  Combat  Team  into  the  invasion 
of  Southern  France  and  action  in  the  Battle  of  the  Bulge,  the 
last  German  attack  of  the  war. 

After  returning  to  the  States,  Sanford  returned  to  Chapel  Hill 

Terry  Sanford 


to  complete  work  on  his  law  degree  which  he  earned  in  1946. 
For  the  next  two  years,  he  served  as  an  assistant  director  of  the 
Institute  of  Government. 

In  1948  he  moved  to  Fayetteville  where  he  set  up  his  law  prac- 
tice. In  Fayetteville,  he  was  active  in  church,  veterans,  and  civic 

In  the  Methodist  church,  he  was  a  district  lay  leader  and 
chairman  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Methodist  College. 

He  served  as  a  charter  member  of  the  Fayetteville  Area  In- 
dustrial Development  Commission,  as  president  of  the  Fayetteville 
Junior  Chamber  of  Commerce,  as  director  of  the  Chamber  oi 
Commerce,  as  chairman  of  the  Fayetteville  Red  Cross,  as  presi- 
dent of  the  United  Services  Fund,  and  as  a  director  of  the  Chil- 
dren's Home  Society  of  North  Carolina.  He  was  active  in  the 
Masons,  the  Shrine,  and  the  Rotary  Club. 

Fellow  veterans  elected  him  Judge  Advocate  of  the  North 
Carolina  Department  of  the  American  Legion. 

It  was  from  Fayetteville  that  he  launched  his  first  state-wide 
campaign  for  political  office.  In  1949  Sanford  successfully  sought 
the  presidency  of  the  Young  Democratic  Clubs  of  North  Caro- 
lina. In  a  vigorously  contested  race  at  New  Bern,  Sanford  won 
over  two  opponents. 

In  that  YDC  campaign,  Sanford  had  the  strong  support  of  O. 
Max  Gardner,  Jr.,  of  Shelby.  In  1960,  from  the  bed  that  multiple 
sclerosis  confined  him  to,  Gardner  wrote  the  check  for  Sanford's 
filing  fee  for  Governor. 

In  1950  North  Carolina's  "Go  Forward  "  Governor  W.  Kerr 
Scott  appointed  Sanford  as  a  member  of  the  State  Ports  Authority 
which  he  served  during  a  period  of  major  expansion  of  North 
Carolina's  deep-water  ports  at  Morehead  City  and  Wilmington. 

By  1952  Sanford  was  running  for  and  winning  the  State 
Senate  seat  from  Cumberland  County. 

When  Scott  began  to  get  ready  to  run  for  the  United  States 
Senate  in  1954,  he  chose  Terry  Sanford  as  his  state  campaign 
manager.  The  Scott  family  and  the  "Branchhead"  leadership 
rallied  behind  Sanford's  campaign  of  1960. 

So  did  Charles  M.  Johnson,  the  man  Kerr  Scott  had  defeated 
for  Governor  in  1948. 

Sanford's  campaign  organization  was  diverse  and  so  was  his 
support  across  the  state.  That  support  included  men  of  as  widely 
varying  views  as  Charles  A.  Cannon,  head  of  the  historically 
nonunion  Cannon  Mills,  and  W.  Millard  Barbee,  president  ol 
the  State  AFL-CIO.  It  included  strong  advocates  of  civil  rights 
and  strong  advocates  of  state  rights.  It  included  distinguished 
professors  on  college  campuses  and  men  and  women  who  could 


Terry  Sanford 

barely  write  enough  to  vote. 

In  short,  the  Sanford  team  included  the  kind  of  coalition  that 
elected  Franklin  Roosevelt,  and  it  was  a  fair  composite  of  the 
populace  of  North  Carolina. 

Sanford  left  no  doubt  as  to  where  he  stood  on  the  major  issues 
of  the  day. 

He  detailed  those  positions  in  an  address  to  the  Young  Demo- 
cratic Club  at  Chapel  Hill  early  in  1960  in  a  32-point  "Positive 
Program  for  Progress."  And  he  spelled  them  out  as  he  traveled 
into  every  one  of  the  state's  100  counties. 

Running  against  Sanford  in  the  campaign  were  three  strong 
candidates:  Malcolm  E.  Seawell,  Attorney  General  of  North  Caro- 
lina under  Governor  Hodges;  John  D.  Larkins,  Democratic 
National  Committeeman  and  former  Chairman  of  the  State 
Democratic  Executive  Committee;  and  Dr.  I.  Beverly  Lake, 
former  Assistant  Attorney  General  and  former  Professor  of  Law 
at  Wake  Forest  College. 

During  the  first  primary,  the  attacks  centered  on  Sanford,  who 
was  generally  acknowledged  as  the  front-runner. 

Because  of  his  strong  support  for  the  Quality  Education  Pro- 
gram and  his  frank  pledge  to  raise  new  taxes  if  necessary  to  pay 
the  cost,  Sanford  was  labeled  "High  Tax  Terry"  and  accused 
of  playing  Santa  Glaus. 

One  opponent  charged  that  Sanford  was  promising  "pie  in  the 

To  that  charge,  Sanford  answered  with  a  quick  grin:  "If  it's 
pie  in  the  sky,  let's  put  it  in  the  oven  and  start  cooking." 

Seawell  and  Larkins  were  eliminated  in  the  first  primary  and 
Sanford  led  Dr.  Lake  by  an  88,000-vote  plurality. 

In  the  runoff,  the  race  issue  was  a  major  question. 

Sanford's  position  was  short  and  clear:  "What  we  need,"  he 
said,  "is  massive  intelligence,  not  massive  resistence." 

Sanford  and  his  supporters  took  a  lesson  from  the  1950  Demo- 
cratic primary  runoff  for  the  United  States  Senate  when  the  race 
question  became  the  decisive  factor. 

Rather  than  lose  the  initiative,  they  took  the  offensive.  Sanford 
workers,  who  had  been  up  until  dawn  counting  votes  of  the  first 
primary,  were  back  at  work  in  Room  4-B  of  Raleigh's  Carolina 
Hotel  by  noon  of  Sunday,  May  29,  1960.  At  8  a.m.  on  Monday, 
Sanford  was  holding  his  customary  Monday  morning  press  con- 
ference at  the  Carolina. 

There  followed  four  weeks  of  campaigning  from  the  Atlantic 
to  the  Appalachians  and  from  the  dawn  shifts  at  mill  gates  to 
midnight  handshaking  at  factory  doors. 

Sanford's  theme  during  the  second  primary  was:  "Let's  not 

Terry  Sanford 


close  our  schools,  let's  improve  them." 

For  a  week  or  two  of  those  hot  June  days,  the  electorate  of 
North  Carolina  seemed  precariously  balanced  between  moder- 
ation and  massive  resistance,  between  a  New  Day  and  a  return 
to  Rip  Van  Winkle,  between  moving  out  into  the  mainstream 
of  American  life  and  a  trip  up  a  dead-end  tributary. 

But  when  North  Carolinians  voted  on  Saturday,  June  25,  they 
cast  a  76,000-vote  majority  for  Sanford  and  for  his  New  Day 

Within  a  couple  of  weeks  of  his  nomination,  Sanford  was  in 
Los  Angeles  for  the  National  Democratic  Convention.  The  morn- 
ing after  arriving,  he  held  a  press  conference  and  strongly  en- 
dorsed Senator  John  F.  Kennedy. 

Some  of  Sanford's  strongest  supporters  had  warned  him  before 
he  left  North  Carolina  for  the  convention  that  if  he  backed 
Kennedy,  he  would  never  be  Governor.  Sanford  not  only  en- 
dorsed the  Massachusetts  Catholic,  he  made  one  of  the  seconding 

Sanford  and  eleven  other  Tar  Heel  delegates  voted  for  Ken- 
nedy and  promptly  were  dubbed  "the  Dirty  Dozen." 

A  deluge  of  angry  telegrams  and  irate  letters  descended  on 
Sanford  headquarters  at  the  Carolina  Hotel  and  the  Sanford 
quarters  in  Los  Angeles. 

Anti-Catholic  newspaper  ads  and  literature  began  to  pop  out 
across  North  Carolina.  The  man  who  had  just  won  a  tremendous 
victory  over  racial  prejudices,  with  the  passions  still  running  hot, 
returned  to  North  Carolina  to  face  a  fight  against  religious 

Sanford  did  not  hesitate  for  a  moment.  He  told  the  voters  in 
town  after  town  that  he  believed  Jack  Kennedy  would  make 
North  Carolina  and  America  a  great  President,  "another  young 
Roosevelt."  And,  he  said  in  effect,  if  you  don't  want  to  vote  for 
Kennedy,  don't  vote  for  me! 

Historical  precedent  seemed  against  Kennedy  and  Sanford. 
The  only  time  that  North  Carolinians  had  voted  for  a  Republi- 
can for  President  since  the  Civil  War  was  in  1928  when  Catholic 
Al  Smith  headed  the  Democratic  ticket.  Moreover,  North  Caro- 
lina's Democratic  majorities  for  President  had  been  dwindling 
ever  since  1936— to  the  point  that  Adlai  Stevenson  squeaked  out 
a  majority  of  only  15,000  in  1956. 

When  the  votes  were  counted  on  November  8,  North  Caro- 
lina was  still  Democratic,  with  a  57,000-vote  majority  for  Ken- 
nedy and  a  122,000-vote  majority  for  Sanford. 

In  his  inaugural  address,  Sanford  repeated  his  campaign 
promises  for  the  Quality  Education  Program,  for  an  accelerating 


Terry  Sanford 

drive  for  new  industry,  for  a  reinvigorated  farm  economy,  and 
for  new  roads. 

In  general,  he  pledged  his  administration  to  a  New  Day  in  the 
Old  North  State. 

"I  call,"  he  said,  "on  all  citizens  to  join  with  me  in  the  au- 
dacious adventure  of  making  North  Carolina  all  it  can  and  ought 
to  be." 

The  youngest  Governor  of  North  Carolina  since  Charles 
Aycock  was  not  long  is  displaying  his  own  audacity. 

Sanford  had  been  in  the  Capitol  but  sixty  days  when  he  went 
upstairs  on  Monday  night,  March  6,  1961,  to  deliver  his  Special 
Budget  Message  on  Education  before  a  joint  session  of  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

It  is  a  story  as  old  as  parliamentary  government  that  legis- 
lators and  constituents  like  to  vote  for  appropriations  but  dislike 
the  taxes  that  make  the  appropriations  possible. 

In  his  address  that  winter  night,  Cfovemor  Sanford  asked 
for  both:  a  Quality  Education  Program  that  would  add  $100 
million  of  enrichment  funds  to  North  Carolina's  public  schools, 
and  removal  of  hundreds  of  exemptions  in  North  Carolina's 
sales  tax  and  called  for  additional  levies  on  alcoholic  beverages  to 
pay  the  cost. 

One  of  the  sales  tax  exemptions  that  was  to  be  removed  was 
that  on  food. 

In  concluding  his  address.  Governor  Sanford  told  the  legislators 
in  whose  hands  the  Quality  Education  Program  rested: 

The  hour  is  at  hand  when  North  Carolina  can  begin  its  bold  march 
forward.  We  begin  this  march  in  these  halls  by  reaching  out  and  grasping 
the  hands  of  our  greatest  possession,  our  children  and  our  grandchildren. 

The  hand  we  grasp  today  is  the  strong  handclasp  to  the  future,  the  hand 
of  a  leader  in  the  world's  struggles. 

I  thank  you  for  your  attention  to  the  future  of  North  Carolina. 

As  he  had  anticipated,  the  tax  was  unpopular. 

Why,  shouted  critics,  didn't  he  recommend  a  tax  on  luxuries? 
Wasn't  he  taking  bread  out  of  the  mouths  of  children  with  the 
food  tax? 

He  answered  promptly,  on  March  9  in  an  address  at  Smithfield: 

If  we  tax  bread,  we  also  will  be  taxing  cake.  If  we  tax  fatback,  we  also 
will  tax  caviar.  If  we  tax  corn  meal,  we  also  will  tax  filet  mignon. 

No  one  is  going  to  go  hungry  because  of  this  tax.  But  the  children  of 
North  Carolina  will  go  thirsty  for  quality  education  if  we  do  not  enact  this 
program  for  better  schools. 

The  Governor  took  the  same  kind  of  message  across  the  state 
during  the  following  ninety  days.  It  made  no  difference  whether 

Terry  Sanford 


he  was  speaking  to  bankers  or  barbers,  businessmen  or  farmers,  at 
country  clubs  or  county  fairs.  His  speeches  invariably  turned  out 
to  be  pleas  for  the  Quality  Education  Program  and  the  tax  to 
support  it. 

The  Governor  also  passed  along  the  message  to  members  of 
the  General  Assembly  morning  after  morning  over  red-eye  gravy 
at  the  Mansion,  day  after  day  over  coffee  at  the  Capitol,  and 
night  after  night  over  cigars  back  at  the  Mansion. 

On  the  key  votes.  Governor  Sanford  and  the  Quality  Edu- 
cation Program  won  by  a  three-to-one  majority  in  the  House  and 
a  four-to-one  majority  in  the  Senate. 

The  North  Carolina  Education  Association,  whose  members 
had  been  among  Governor  Sanford's  strongest  supporters,  pro- 
vided this  checklist  of  what  the  Quality  Education  Program 

1.  Pay  increases  for  teachers  and  all  other  school  personnel. 
(The  pay  raises  for  the  teachers  averaged  22  per  cent.) 

2.  Addition  of  2,826  teachers  for  North  Carolina's  rapidly 
multiplying  student  enrollment,  and  the  addition  of  44  assistant 
superintendents,  25  supervisors  and  more  home  economics  and 
vocational  teachers. 

3.  Clerical  assistants  for  schools  with  $1.50  per  pupil  allocated 
to  provide  the  clerks. 

4.  Library  allotment  doubled— from  50  cents  per  pupil  to 
1 1.00,  and  instructional  supplies  raised  from  $1.12  to  $1.50  per 

5.  In-service  courses  for  professional  improvement  of  teachers 
provided  at  a  cost  of  $300,000,  and  300  additional  teacher-train- 
ing scholarships  offered. 

6.  Increased  salaries  for  college  personnel  and  an  additional 
$70,100  for  expansion  of  television  teaching. 

7.  Increased  funds  for  industrial  education  centers  and  a 
strengthened  Department  of  Public  Instruction. 

8.  Establishment  of  the  Department  of  Curriculum  and  Re- 
search to  keep  curriculums  of  the  public  schools  abreast  of  the 
latest  developments  and  techniques. 

The  National  Education  Association  ranked  North  Carolina  as 
the  pace  setter  in  the  nation  in  the  advancement  of  education. 

Sanford  went  on  the  stump  again.  This  time  he  told  superin- 
tendents, principals,  and  teachers  that  the  burden  now  rested 
upon  their  shoulders. 

He  carried  his  quality  education  message  directly  to  school 
children  across  the  state.  He  told  the  students— whites,  Negroes, 
and  Indians,  first  graders  through  seniors:  "You  can't  get  quality 
education  out  of  a  'Ready  Mix  Box.'  You  have  to  work  for  it." 


Terry  Sanford 

He  warned  them  that  "brainpower  has  replaced  backpower." 
Altogether,  Sanford  spoke  to  an  estimated  279,000  students  in 
their  schools. 

The  influence  of  the  Quality  Education  Program  extended  far 
beyond  the  borders  of  North  Carolina.  When  the  Governor  and 
a  team  of  other  North  Carolinians  visited  Cincinnati  on  a  travel 
mission  in  May,  1961,  they  were  shown  an  Ohio  education 
journal  urging  action  in  the  Buckeye  state  comparable  to  that 
which  Sanford  had  begun  in  North  CaroUna. 

Several  successful  candidates  for  high  public  office  in  other 
states  asked  for,  and  received,  copies  of  Governor  Sanford's 
Quality  Education  Program. 

During  his  four  years  as  Governor,  Sanford  was  invited  to 
speak  on  quality  education  from  Columbia,  South  Carolina,  to 
Los  Angeles  and  Seattle;  and  from  Biloxi,  Mississippi,  and  Dallas, 
Texas,  to  Harvard  and  Yale  universities. 

In  all,  he  spoke  in  thirty  other  states  during  his  administration, 
almost  always  on  quality  education. 

When  he  attended  his  first  Southern  Governors  Conference  at 
Nashville,  Tennessee,  in  the  summer  of  1961,  Sanford  was  elected 
chairman  of  the  Southern  Regional  Education  Board  and  was 
re-elected  the  following  year. 

Throughout  his  campaigns  for  Governor  and  throughout  his 
administration,  Sanford  spoke  for  education  as  a  whole,  "from 
the  first  grade  through  the  graduate  school." 

After  the  1961  legislative  victory  for  public  education,  the 
Governor  appointed  a  blue-ribbon  Commission  on  Education 
Beyond  the  High  School.  Headed  by  noted  Winston-Salem  at- 
torney Irving  E.  Carlyle  and  including  strong  educational  and 
lay  leaders  from  across  North  Carolina,  the  commission  sub- 
mitted to  the  Governor  a  thorough  study  of  the  state's  needs  for 
education  beyond  the  high  school  and  recommendations  on  how 
to  meet  those  needs. 

Governor  Sanford  strongly  endorsed  the  program  and  threw 
the  weight  of  his  administration  behind  its  adoption  by  the 
1963  General  Assembly. 

The  highlights  of  the  Governor's  Higher  Education  Act  were: 

1.  Establishment  of  a  network  of  comprehensive  community 
colleges  across  the  state  so  that  higher  education  would  be  within 
the  geographic  and  economic  reach  of  tens  of  thousands  of  North 
Carolina  boys  and  girls  who  could  not  afford  to  go  away  to  school. 
The  comprehensive  community  colleges  were  to  be  financed 
jointly  by  state  and  local  governments.  They  were  to  provide 
courses  ranging  from  teaching  illiterate  adults  how  to  read  and 
write  to  vocational  training  and  college  parallel  work. 

Terry  Sanford 


2.  Establishment  of  three  new  senior  colleges— one  in  the  East 
at  Wilmington,  one  in  the  Piedmont  at  Charlotte,  and  one  in 
the  West  at  Asheville. 

3.  Stipulation  that  North  Carolina  should  have  one  university 
with  its  campuses  at  Chapel  Hill,  Raleigh,  and  Greensboro,  and 
such  other  campuses  in  the  future  as  the  trustees  and  the  General 
Assembly  should  deem  advisable. 

The  section  on  the  Consolidated  University  paved  the  way  for 
full  university  status  at  Raleigh  and  Greensboro  and  made  possi- 
ble the  subsequent  addition  of  Charlotte  College  as  the  Uni- 
versity of  North  Carolina  at  Charlotte. 

The  consensus  of  educators  was  that  Governor  Sanford's  Higher 
Education  Act  of  1963  ranked  in  importance  with  the  Revolution- 
ary Constitutional  provision  for  a  university  and  with  the  con- 
solidation of  the  university  in  1931. 

In  education,  as  in  other  fields,  Governor  Sanford  constantly 
searched  for  new  ideas  on  how  to  do  the  job  better. 

Among  the  new  ideas  in  education  that  he  translated  into 
being  were  the  following: 

The  Governor's  School  at  Winston-Salem  where  gifted  chil- 
dren could  study  each  summer  in  an  eight-week  course  of  instruc- 
tion from  talented  teachers. 

The  North  Carolina  School  of  the  Arts,  a  resident  school  pro- 
viding training  in  the  arts  by  outstanding  instructors. 

The  Advancement  School  to  afford  under-achieving  students 
the  chance  to  catch  up  and  to  provide  the  state  a  laboratory  for 
teaching  teachers  how  to  reach  students  who  were  not  performing 
up  to  their  abilities. 

The  Learning  Institute  of  North  Carolina  at  Durham  to  pro- 
vide research  programs  for  the  improvement  of  education. 

Operation  Second  Chance,  a  retraining  program  for  dropouts 
in  three  sections  of  the  state. 

A  privately  financed  loan  program  to  help  high  school  gradu- 
ates get  the  money  to  go  on  to  college.  "If  you  have  the  will  and 
the  skill,"  Sanford  told  high  school  seniors,  "we  will  help  you 
find  the  way."  He  did  so  with  the  aid  of  the  North  Carolina 
Bankers  Association. 

One  group  that  weighed  heavily  on  the  Sanford  conscience  was 
the  mentally  retarded,  whom  he  called  "the  forgotten  children." 

The  first  trip  he  made  after  returning  to  North  Carolina  fol- 
lowing the  Los  Angeles  convention  in  1960  was  to  the  mental 
hospitals  of  the  state.  Escorting  Sanford  from  hospitals  at  Morgan- 
ton  to  Goldsboro  was  John  W.  Umstead,  Jr.,  Chairman  of  the 
State  Hospitals  Board  of  Control  and  a  champion  of  the  mentally 
retarded  and  the  mentally  ill. 


Terry  Sanford 

The  young  gubernatorial  nominee  and  the  veteran  legislator 
spent  a  week  visiting  with  boys  and  girls  who,  at  the  time,  seemed 
to  have  no  chance  in  life  other  than  to  be  treated  as  well  as 
some  pet  animal. 

Later,  Governor  Sanford  was  to  remember  the  wards  he  saw 
on  that  trip.  He  summed  up  his  feelings  this  way: 

Of  all  the  inventions  down  through  the  centuries,  of  all  the  discoveries 
since  the  time  of  Eden,  of  all  the  miracles  of  nature,  there  is  none  that 
approaches  the  magnificence,  the  intricacies  or  the  potentials  of  the  human 

It  is  an  indictment  of  our  society  and  the  society  of  other  nations  that 
while  learning  to  open  canned  foods  electrically,  to  broadcast  voices  and 
pictures  electronically;  to  manufacture  cars  with  automatic  gears  and  power 
steering  and  power  brakes  and  without  cranks,  to  dam  the  greatest  of  our 
rivers;  to  irrigate  the  most  arid  of  our  lands;  to  travel  safely  under  the 
polar  cap;  to  fire  missiles  across  oceans  and  continents;  and  to  reach  toward 
the  stars  themselves— that  while  doing  all  of  these  things,  we  have  failed  to 
find  the  solution  to  the  problems  of  mental  retardation. 

To  speed  the  search  toward  the  solution,  Governor  Sanford 
asked  the  1963  General  Assembly  for  funds  to  establish  a  Center 
for  Mental  Retardation  at  Chapel  Hill  for  the  training  of  special 
teachers,  for  expansion  of  vocational  training,  and  for  an  allot- 
ment to  the  State  Board  of  Health  for  the  identification  and 
evaluation  of  retarded  children. 

The  members  of  the  1963  General  Assembly  strongly  approved 
the  program. 

Although  education  was  the  overriding  issue  of  his  campaigns 
for  office  and  the  overriding  goal  of  his  administration,  Sanford 
was  keenly  aware  of  the  need  for  new  industry  with  new  and 
better-paying  jobs  in  North  Carolina. 

The  children  who  were  studying  under  the  Quality  Education 
Program  would  need  good  jobs  when  they  finished  their  edu- 

The  rural  people  coming  off  the  farms  because  of  mechani- 
zation needed  jobs. 

Industrial  employees  being  automated  out  of  work  needed  jobs. 

Governor  Sanford  sought  to  secure  those  jobs  in  a  number  of 
ways.  He  took  a  tour  of  industrial  centers  in  the  Ohio  Valley 
(Pittsburgh,  Columbus,  Dayton,  Indianapolis,  and  Cincinnati) 
in  May,  1961,  with  leaders  from  across  the  state.  He  provided 
strong  leadership  for  two  International  Trade  Fairs  at  Charlotte 
to  bring  buyers  from  other  states  and  foreign  countries  to  North 
Carolina  to  see  Tar  Heel  products.  He  invited  industrialists  with 
prospective  new  plants  to  the  Mansion  on  Blount  Street.  And  he 
told  the  North  Carolina  story  to  audiences  of  businessmen  in 
New  York,  Chicago,  and  other  major  cities. 

Terry  Sanford 


At  the  end  of  his  administration,  the  State  Department  of 
Conservation  and  Development  reported  the  score  for  new  in- 
dustry during  the  Sanford  years: 

The  greatest  investment  in  new  and  expanded  plants  in  any 
four-year  period  in  North  Carolina's  history  was  made  from  1961 
to  1965,  more  than  $1.2  billion  worth.  This  investment  created 
120,489  new  jobs  and  increased  annual  payrolls  in  the  state  by 
more  than  |400  million. 

The  United  States  Department  of  Labor  later  reported  that 
during  the  period  in  which  Terry  Sanford  was  Governor,  North 
Carolina  outstripped  all  other  states  in  the  rate  of  increase  for 
nonfarm  jobs. 

In  agriculture,  Governor  Sanford  placed  his  greatest  emphasis 
on  food  processing. 

Symbolic  of  that  emphasis  were  scores  of  new  food  plants  and 
a  new  Food  Science  Building  at  North  Carolina  State  University. 

Speaking  on  the  Raleigh  campus,  Sanford  summarized  his 
thoughts  on  food  processing:  "Today,  the  most  important  thing 
is  not  how  many  pecks  of  pickled  peppers  Peter  Piper  picks. 
What's  important  is  how  many  pecks  of  pickled  peppers  Peter 
Piper  processes,  packages  and  make  profits  on." 

Despite  advances  on  education,  industrial,  and  agricultural 
fronts.  Governor  Sanford  worried  about  the  low  living  standards 
of  many  North  Carolinians. 

Among  the  things  that  ^vorried  him  ^vas  the  fact  that  North 
Carolina  suffered  from  one  of  the  highest  rates  of  illiteracy,  one 
of  the  lowest  rates  of  per  capita  income  and  some  of  the  poorest 
housing  in  the  nation. 

As  a  strong  advocate  of  the  free  enterprise  system,  he  believed 
the  economy  was  only  so  strong  as  its  weakest  links. 

As  a  devout  church  member,  he  felt  he  was  his  brother's 
keeper.  He  was  concerned  for  the  underfed  and  underclothed 
child,  for  the  physically  and  fiscally  disabled  and  for  the  indigent 

The  Governor  moved  in  several  ways  to  lift  the  hopes  and 
the  lives  of  the  underprivileged.  Included  in  those  moves  was 
action  to  improve  the  lot  of  migrant  farm  workers  and  support 
for  extending  and  increasing  the  state's  minimum  wage  act. 

Governor  Sanford  expressed  his  concern  for  the  underprivi- 
leged in  a  letter  to  state  agency  heads  after  Christmas  of  1962. 

He  wrote:  "I  saw  a  raggedly-clothed  boy  who  had  worn  his 
shoes  through  to  the  cold  December  ground.  I  wondered  whose 
job  it  is  to  help  him.  ...  I  talked  with  a  little  girl  who  had  not 
had  a  decent  meal  since  school  was  out." 

The  Governor  concluded  his  letter  this  way:  "Those  in  need 


Terry  Saxford 

of  help  are  not  just  'cases.'  These  are  people.  Our  people.  They 
need  our  help.  We  cannot  do  our  job  by  sitting  down  and  wait- 
ing for  them  to  come  to  us.  Reach  out.  Find  them.  Seek  them  out. 
Don't  miss  one." 

In  1963  Governor  Sanford  led  in  the  establishment  of  the 
North  Carolina  Fund  which  was  designed  to  seek  out  the  poor 
and  to  help  them  become  self-respecting  and  self-supporting. 

The  fund  "ivas  incorporated  after  months  of  preliminary  work 
with  the  Ford  Foundation  and  the  Z.  Smith  Reynolds  and  the 
Mary  Reynolds  Babcock  foundations.  The  Ford  Foundation 
contributed  87  million  to  the  fund,  the  Z.  Smith  Reynolds  Foun- 
dation gave  81,625,000,  and  the  Mary  Reynolds  Babcock  Foun- 
dation allocated  5875,000. 

Sanford  summarized  the  need  and  the  goal  of  the  North  Caro- 
lina Fund: 

In  North  Carolina  there  remain  tens  of  thousands  whose  family  income  is 
so  low  that  daily  subsistence  is  always  in  doubt.  There  are  tens  of  thousands 
who  go  to  bed  hun,grv,  get  up  hungry  and  go  to  school  hungry.  There  are 
tens  of  thousands  of  voung  people  who  have  no  skills  and  no  present  likeli- 
hood to  get  a  skill.  There  are  tens  of  thousands  who  live  in  houses  that  are 
a  blight  on  the  landscape. 

There  are  tens  of  thousands  whose  dreams  will  die.  Some  of  this  poverty 
is  self-imposed  and  some  is  undeserved.  All  of  it  withers  the  spirit  of  children 
who  neither  imposed  it  nor  deserve  it.  These  are  the  children  of  poverty  who 
tomorrow  will  become  the  parents  of  poverty. 

^Ve  hope  to  break  this  cycle  of  poverty.  That  is  what  the  North  Carolina 
Fund  is  all  about. 

Governor  Sanford  and  the  North  Carolina  Fund  invited  Tar 
Heel  communities  to  submit  proposals  for  comprehensive  attacks 
on  po\erty  that  Avould  serve  as  pilot  projects.  The  Community 
Action  Programs  ^\"ere  designed  to  tie  together  the  efforts  of  edu- 
cational, ^velfare,  health,  employment,  and  other  public  and 
private  agencies. 

The  call  brought  in  51  proposals  covering  66  counties. 

Another  major  effort  of  the  fund  ^vas  designed  especially  for 
the  children  of  poverty.  Under  the  Comprehensive  School  Im- 
provement Program,  often  called  the  "3-R's  Project,"  the  fund 
allocated  82  million  to  the  State  Board  of  Education  ^vith  match- 
ing funds  from  the  state.  Under  that  project,  hundreds  of  schools 
throughout  the  state  worked  to  improve  the  foundation  courses 
for  children  in  the  first  three  grades. 

^Vhen  the  United  States  Congress  ^vas  holding  hearings  on 
the  federal  anti-povertv  program,  Governor  Sanford  ^vas  invited 
to  IVashington  to  testifv'  on  the  progress  of  North  Carolina's 
program  ^^vhich  already  ^vas  underway.  After  adoption  of  the  fed- 
eral legislation.  President  Lyndon  B.  Johnson  invited  the  Cover- 

Terry  Sanford 


nor  to  Washington  to  witness  the  signing  of  the  act. 

During  the  four  years  of  the  Sanford  administration  a  constant 
question  was  a  problem  that  is  as  old  as  pigmentation—  the  prob- 
lem of  people  of  different  races  living  together  peacefully. 

After  the  Revolutionary  War,  North  Carolinians  had  refused 
to  ratify  the  constitution  until  the  first  American  civil  rights  act 
had  been  approved— the  Bill  of  Rights. 

North  Carolinians  took  pride  in  that  heritage.  They  also  took 
pride  in  the  fact  that  during  the  Civil  War  Tar  Heels  were  "first 
at  Bethel,  farthest  at  Gettysburg  .  .  .  and  last  at  Appomattox." 

To  this  old  state  the  young  Governor  brought  a  new  message 
for  a  New  Day.  In  his  inaugural  address,  he  said:  "As  we  move 
into  the  challenging  and  demanding  years  ahead,  no  group  of 
our  citizens  can  be  denied  the  right  to  participate  in  the  oppor- 
tunities of  first-class  citizenship." 

In  an  address  to  a  convocation  of  South  Carolina  educators  in 
Columbia,  on  July  18,  1961,  the  Governor  declared:  "The  South 
is  rising  again!  It  is  not  rising  through  secession  from  the  Union, 
nor  through  insurrection,  nor  through  nullification.  It  is  rising 
through  education,  through  commerce  and  through  agriculture." 

He  concluded  that  address  by  noting  that  "the  South  can  rise 
and  march  again.  We  will  make  this  march  not  with  bayonets 
but  with  textbooks.  We  will  not  be  firing  on  Fort  Sumter.  We  will 
be  firing  on  the  dungeons  of  ignorance." 

Throughout  his  administration,  Terry  Sanford  worked  to 
translate  his  words  of  good  will  into  concrete  action. 

When  Freedom  Riders  traveled  through  North  Carolina  there 
was  precious  little  news  filed.  The  rides  didn't  make  news  be- 
cause there  were  no  incidents. 

Sanford  recalled  afterward  with  a  happy  chuckle  that  the 
closest  thing  to  a  riot  during  the  travels  occurred  at  the  bus 
station  in  Raleigh.  A  mob  of  people— whites  and  Negroes— con- 
verged there  one  night.  The  soft  drink  machine  had  stripped  a 
gear  and  was  dispensing  free  drinks.  Everyone  wanted  a  free  drink. 

Another  incident  that  permitted  a  bit  of  laughter  in  the 
usually  grim  and  potentially  explosive  confrontation  occurred 
when  the  American  Nazi  Party  sent  self-styled  "Hate  Riders" 
through  the  state.  As  he  did  so  often  to  prevent  racial  conflict 
and  possible  bloodshed,  Governor  Sanford  called  quietly  on  the 
State  Highway  Patrol  for  assistance.  A  patrol  car  was  assigned 
to  follow  the  car  from  the  time  it  entered  North  Carolina  from 
Virginia  until  the  time  it  made  its  exit.  As  he  was  nearing  the 
South  Carolina  border,  the  driver  of  the  "hate"  car  took  a  wrong 
turn  and  got  lost.  The  patrolman,  following  the  best  tradition 
of  courtesy  and  helpfulness  of  the  Highway  Patrol,  gave  the 


Terry  Sanford 

driver  directions  to  the  road  out  of  North  Carolina  and  bade 
him  goodbye. 

There  were  militants  in  both  races  who  seemed  determined  to 
break  North  Carolina's  record  of  moderation  and  restraint. 

One  was  Robert  Williams  of  Monroe,  whom  the  National  As- 
sociation for  the  Advancement  of  Colored  People  had  expelled. 
Williams  collected  a  small  arsenal  of  weapons  and  grew  a  Fidel 
Castro  beard.  Williams'  activities  in  North  Carolina  came  to  an 
end  when  he  and  several  others  were  charged  with  kidnapping 
a  white  couple.  Williams  fled  the  state  and  made  his  way  to  Cuba 
where  for  several  years  he  made  propaganda  broadcasts  for  the 
Cuban  Communists.  From  Cuba,  he  reportedly  went  on  to  Com- 
munist China. 

In  an  address  to  the  Southern  Association  of  Colleges  and 
Secondary  Schools  in  Dallas,  Texas,  on  November  28,  1962, 
Governor  Sanford  again  tied  his  belief  in  the  human  dignity  of 
all  men  to  education: 

"We  need  our  own  and  a  new  kind  of  Emancipation  Procla- 
mation which  will  set  us  free  to  grow  and  build,  set  us  free  from 
the  drag  of  poor  people,  poor  schools,  from  hate,  from  dema- 
goguery.  .  .  .  This  kind  of  proclamation  can  be  written  in  one 
word:  Education." 

Early  in  his  term,  Governor  Sanford  began  laying  the  ground- 
work for  major  and  positive  action  on  the  race  question. 

He  led  up  that  action  deliberately.  Key  steps  along  the  way 
were  a  statement  on  North  Carolina's  economy  and  an  address 
to  fellow  Methodists  at  Polkville. 

In  the  statement.  Governor  Sanford  noted  that  North  Caro- 
lina's per  capita  income  would  jump  ten  places  on  the  national 
scale  of  states  if  Negro  income  were  as  high  as  the  income  of 
white  citizens. 

In  the  address  at  Polkville,  he  argued  that  the  religious  beliefs 
of  North  Carolina  could  not  be  reconciled  with  second-class 

Then,  on  January  18,  1963,  Governor  Sanford  went  again  to 
Chapel  Hill  to  address  the  North  Carolina  Press  Association.  In 
less  than  five  minutes  Sanford  delivered  probably  the  shortest 
address  a  Governor  had  ever  made  to  the  newsmen.  And,  most 
of  the  editors  agreed,  the  most  important. 

Noting  that  1963  was  the  one-hundredth  anniversary  of  the 
emancipation  of  Negroes  from  slavery  in  America,  Governor 
Sanford  said: 

"Now  is  a  time  not  merely  to  look  back  to  freedom  but  forward  to  the 
fulfillment  of  its  meaning.  Despite  great  progress,  the  Negro's  opportunity 
to  obtain  a  good  job  has  not  been  achieved  in  most  places  across  the  country. 

Terry  Sanford 


Reluctance  to  accept  the  Negro  in  employment  is  the  greatest  single  block 
to  his  continued  progress  and  the  full  use  of  the  human  potential  of  the 
nation  and  its  states. 

"The  time  has  come  for  American  citizens  to  give  up  this  reluctance,  to 
quit  unfair  discriminations,  and  to  give  the  Negro  a  full  chance  to  earn 
a  decent  living  for  his  family  and  to  contribute  to  higher  standards  for  him- 
self and  all  men.  .  .  ." 

The  Governor  then  announced  establishment  of  the  Good 
Neighbor  Council  whose  duties  would  be  to  encourage  employ- 
ment across  North  Carolina  without  regard  to  race  and  to  urge 
all  young  people  to  become  better  educated  and,  thereby,  quali- 
fied for  employment  opportunities  as  they  opened. 

To  head  the  Good  Neighbor  Council,  Sanford  appointed 
veteran  state  official  David  S.  Coltrane.  Dr.  James  T.  Taylor  of 
North  Carolina  was  named  vice-chairman  and  the  places  on  the 
council  were  filled  by  leaders  of  both  races,  including  repre- 
sentatives of  some  of  the  most  important  companies  in  the  state. 

The  editors  and  reporters  who  heard  the  Good  Neighbor  ad- 
dress gave  the  Governor  a  standing  ovation.  More  important,  the 
news  media  of  the  state  carried  support  of  the  council  across  the 

That  pleased  the  Governor,  but  it  did  not  surprise  him.  He 
knew  as  personal  friends  the  editors  and  reporters  of  Tar 
Heel  newspapers,  radio  and  television  stations  from  Manteo  to 
Murphy.  During  his  four  years  in  office,  a  large  majority  of 
North  Carolina's  'Tourth  Estate"  supported  the  Governor  on 
his  major  programs,  while  never  abdicating  the  right  to  take 
shots  at  him  whenever  the  mood  arose. 

Newsmen  were  frequent  visitors  at  the  Governor's  Mansion 
during  the  Sanford  years.  They  came  for  breakfasts  and  for 
briefings.  Included  were  editors  of  the  smallest  weeklies  in  North 
Carolina  and  such  nationally  syndicated  columnists  as  Scotty 
Reston  of  the  New  York  Times,  Drew  Pearson,  and  author 
Theodore  White. 

Under  the  guidance  of  the  Governor  and  Margaret  Rose  San- 
ford, an  open  door  policy  was  maintained  at  the  old  Victorian 
house  on  Blount  Street.  Tens  of  thousands  of  Tar  Heels  and 
visitors  from  other  states  and  other  nations  were  welcomed  there. 

During  the  Sanford  tenancy,  the  Mansion  was  the  site  for 
such  white  tie  occasions  as  the  symphony  balls,  initiated  by  the 
Governor  to  raise  funds  for  the  North  Carolina  Symphony,  and 
such  blue  jean  parties  as  an  old-fashioned  peach  ice  cream  churn- 
ing the  Governor  arranged  for  several  hundred  orphans. 

Adding  enthusiasm  and  laughter  to  the  stately  rooms  of  the 
Mansion  were  the  Sanford  children,  Betsy  and  Terry,  Jr.  From 


Terry  Sanford 

time  to  time,  Governor  Sanford  would  momentarilv  suspend 
conferences  with  top  state  officials  to  listen  to  a  report  on  young 
Terrv''s  football  game  and  to  hear  about  a  new  dress  Betsv 

Toward  the  end  of  his  administration,  Governor  Sanford  sat 
down  in  the  Mansion  Librarv  with  one  of  his  long  legal  pads 
and  began  to  jot  do^vn  a  list  of  programs  he  had  underwav. 

He  compiled  a  list  of  88  projects,  a  number  that  members  of 
his  staff  thought  was  conservative.  ""He  has  more  irons  in  the  fire 
than  a  blacksmith,"  noted  one  friend. 

Among  the  highlights  of  the  achievements  made  bv  North 
Carolina  under  the  Sanford  administration  were: 

The  Qualitv  Education  Program,  which  Dr.  Frank  Porter 
Graham  called  the  greatest  advance  in  education  throughout 
North  Carolina's  historv. 

The  accelerating  drive  for  ne^\'  industrv,  which  produced 
120,000  new  jobs  and  which,  according  to  United  States  govern- 
ment figures,  made  North  Carolina  the  pace  setter  in  the  nation. 

A  reinvigoration  of  the  agricultural  economv  ^vith  a  new  em- 
phasis on  food  processing. 

The  establishment  of  an  anti-poverty  program  that  sen^ed  as  a 
model  for  states  across  the  nation. 

The  encouragement  of  peaceful  and  progressive  race  relations 
based  on  decency  and  democracy  during  a  time  of  upheaval  in 

The  first  court  reform  in  North  Carolina  in  the  twentieth 

The  establishment  of  the  State  Board  of  Science  and  Tech- 
nology' to  assure  that  North  Carolina,  ^vhich  ^vas  a  century-  late 
in  the  Industrial  Revolution,  ^vould  be  at  the  launching  of  the 
Space  Age. 

The  first  reapportionment  of  the  State  House  of  Represen- 
tatives and  the  State  Senate  in  twenty  years. 

Prison  policies  that  led  to  a  decreasing  prison  population  in 
North  Carolina  while  most  states  ^vere  suffering  increases. 

The  construction  of  thousands  of  miles  of  new  secondary,  pri- 
marv.  and  interstate  roads. 

A  budget  policv  that  "^vas  "fiscallv  sound  and  forward  bound" 
and  under  which  some  of  the  largest  surpluses  in  Tar  Heel 
history  were  compiled. 

During  Terrv  Sanford's  administration,  a  lot  of  roads  were 
built.  A  lot  of  buildings  ivere  raised.  And  a  lot  of  crops  ^vere 

But  the  roads  ^\"ill  wear  out  and  the  buildings  someday  will 
be  razed  and  the  crops  will  be  rotated. 

Terry  Sanford 


The  lasting  monument  to  Terry  Sanford  will  rise  in  the  minds 
of  the  boys  and  girls  who  went  to  school  during  the  Sanford  years 
and  in  the  minds  of  their  children  and  their  grandchildren. 

He  said  that  education  was  the  rock  on  which  he  would  build 
the  house  of  his  administration. 

Education  also  was  the  rock  on  which  his  stature  rose. 



Memorial  Auditorium,  Raleigh 
January  5,  1961 

[As  one  newspaperman  described  the  inauguration  ceremonies  of  Gov- 
ernor Terry  Sanford,  "Pomp  and  politics  dominated  the  day."  The  formali- 
ties marking  the  beginning  of  a  new  administration  were  brought  to  a 
colorful  climax  at  noon  on  Thursday,  January  5,  1961,  when,  in  Raleigh's 
Memorial  Auditorium,  official  acceptance  of  the  office  of  chief  executive  oc- 
curred. In  ceremonies  lasting  less  than  an  hour.  Governor  Sanford,  Lieutenant 
Governor  Cloyd  Philpott,  and  numerous  other  state  officials  took  their 
respective  oaths  of  office  administered  by  members  of  the  North  Carolina 
Supreme  Court.  Immediately  after  the  ceremonies,  an  inaugural  parade  was 
staged  on  Fayetteville  Street,  witnessed  by  Governor  Sanford  and  other 

There  is  a  new  day  in  North  Carolina! 

I  am  here  not  to  proclaim  it,  but  rather  to  acknowledge  its 

It  is  here  because  our  people  are  seeing,  with  new  vision,  the 
richness  and  vastness  of  the  resources  of  North  Carolina.  It  is 
here  because  they  have  seized  upon  the  ideas  which  will  turn 
these  resources  into  limitless  achievement. 

There  is  an  eagerness,  an  alertness,  a  confidence,  a  will  to  move 
ahead,  that  has  now  caught  up  our  people  and  fired  them  with 
the  reality  of  a  new  day. 

It  is  here  because  of  the  past  achievements  of  the  people  who 
have  dreamed  and  worked  and  sacrificed  for  North  Carolina 
throughout  this  century. 

It  is  here  because  Charles  Brantley  Aycock^  had  a  great  heart 
and  dauntless  vision,  and  because  he  made  North  Carolina  believe 
in  universal  education  in  an  uncertain,  uneasy  and  difficult  day. 

The  new  day  is  at  hand  because  Glenn,^  Kitchin,^  Craig,^  and 

^Charles  Brantley  Aycock  (1859-1912),  lawyer,  Governor  of  North  Carolina, 
1901-1905.  During  his  administration  improvements  in  state  educational  standards 
were  realized,  including  the  establishment  of  three  colleges,  expansion  of  public 
schools,  and  increase  of  teachers'  salaries.  Beth  G.  Crabtree,  North  Carolina  Gov- 
ernors, 1585-1958:  Brief  Sketches  (Raleigh:  State  Department  of  Archives  and 
History,  1958),  113-114,  hereinafter  cited  as  Crabtree,  North  Carolina  Governors. 

'Robert  Broadnax  Glenn  (1854-1920),  lawyer,  state  legislator,  state  solicitor, 
United  States  district  attorney,  and  Governor,  1905-1909.  Crabtree,  North  Carolina 
Governors,  114-115. 

^William  Walter  Kitchin  (1866-1924).  editor,  lawyer.  Governor,  1909-1913.  Crab- 
tree, North  Carolina  Governors,  116-117. 

*  Locke  Craig  (1860-1925) ,  farmer,  lawyer  from  Asheville,  Governor,  1913-1917. 
Crabtree,  North  Carolina  Governors,  117-118. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Bickett  ^  were  willing  to  step  out  in  bold  leadership  when  the  day 
was  still  dark. 

The  arrival  of  the  new  day  acknowledges  the  imagination  of 
Morrison^  in  anticipating  the  transportation  requirement  of  a 
growing  state  in  a  growing  region. 

It  acknowledges  the  fiscal  soundness  and  responsibility  con- 
tributed by  McLean''^  and  Gardner,^  and  the  advance  of  higher 
education  under  Morrison,  McLean,  and  Gardner,  culminating 
in  the  consolidation  of  the  Greater  University. 

It  acknowledges  the  courage  of  Ehringhaus,^  who  led  the  way 
to  unpopular  decisions  in  order  that  our  public  schools  could  be 
financed  during  the  depression. 

It  acknowledges  the  stability  and  public  conscience  of  the 
Hoey^^  and  Broughton^^  administrations,  the  medical  care  and 
the  human  concern  of  a  great  and  good  state. 

It  acknowledges  the  sturdy  courage  of  Cherry^^  ^nd  Umstead/^ 
the  still-broadening  public  conscience  in  the  goal  of  total  care  for 
the  mentally  ill  and  retarded. 

It  acknowledges  the  tough-minded,  warm-hearted,  unbeatable 

^  Thomas  Walter  Bickett  (1869-1921)  ,  teacher,  lawyer  from  Franklin  County, 
legislator  in  1907,  Governor,  1917-1921.  Crabtree,  North  Carolina  Governors,  119-120. 

®  Cameron  Morrison  (1869-1953),  lawyer  and  political  leader  widely  credited  with 
the  final  overthrow  of  Republicanism  in  North  Carolina.  While  Governor,  1921- 
1925,  he  helped  unify  the  state  through  the  expansion  of  the  primary  road  system, 
and  he  championed  improvement  in  educational  facilities.  Crabtree,  North  Carolina 
Governors,  120-121. 

^  Angus  Wilton  McLean  (1870-1935),  Democratic  party  leader.  Governor,  1925- 
1929.  He  re-established  the  sound  credit  rating  of  the  state,  expanded  executive 
power,  and  consolidated  state  departments.  Crabtree,  North  Carolina  Governors, 

« Oliver  Max  Gardner  (1882-1947),  Governor,  1929-1933,  state  legislator,  Lieu- 
tenant Governor,  delegate  to  Democratic  conventions.  Among  his  accomplishments 
as  chief  executive  was  the  consolidation  of  the  University  at  Chapel  Hill,  State 
College  in  Raleigh,  and  Woman's  College  in  Greensboro.  Crabtree,  North  Carolina 
Governors,  123-124. 

«John  Christoph  Blucher  Ehringhaus  (1882-1949),  lawyer.  Governor,  1933-1937. 
Advances  made  under  his  leadership  in  social  welfare  included  the  rural  electrifica- 
tion program,  workmen's  compensation  legislation,  and  crop  control.  Crabtree, 
North  Carolina  Governors,  125-126. 

^°  Clyde  Roark  Hoey  (1877-1954),  printer  and  newspaper  publisher,  lawyer,  legis- 
lator. Governor,  1937-1941.  He  advocated  progressive  educational  ideas  and  the 
modern  parole  system.  Crabtree,  North  Carolina  Governors,  126-127. 

"Joseph  Melville  Broughton  (1888-1949),  lawyer,  principal,  community  leader, 
state  legislator,  Governor,  1941-1945.  He  supported  teacher  pay  increase,  a  retire- 
ment plan  for  all  state  employees,  and  an  improved  health  program.  Crabtree, 
North  Carolina  Governors,  125-126. 

^2  Robert  Gregg  Cherry  (1891-1957),  lawyer,  World  War  I  veteran,  state  legisla- 
tor. Governor,  1945-1949.  He  championed  expansion  of  the  state's  health  program. 
Crabtree,  North  Carolina  Governors,  129-130. 

"  William  Bradley  Umstead  (1895-1954) ,  teacher,  civic  and  religious  leader  from 
Durham,  Governor,  1953  until  his  death  in  November,  1954.  Crabtree,  North 
Carolina  Governors,  132-133. 

Inaugural  Address 


drive  of  the  "Great  Agrarian,"  Kerr  Scott/"^  bodily  lifting  up  the 
rural  segment  of  our  economy,  putting  a  new  pulse-beat  into  the 
progressive  heart  of  North  Carolina. 

It  acknowledges  the  life  of  Luther  Hodges, whose  energy 
paved  the  road  of  industrial  development,  and  whose  calm  skill 
steered  us  through  the  threatened  storms  of  racial  strife  to  the 
shores  of  wisdom. 

It  acknowledges  these  and  many  other  things,  and  it  acknow- 
ledges in  the  names  of  these  governors  the  tens  of  thousands  of 
loyal  and  selfless  members  of  the  General  Assembly,  the  teachers, 
the  state  employees,  the  institutions,  the  agencies,  and  the  count- 
less citizens  who  have  shared  each  other's  love  of  North  Carolina. 

It  acknowledges  the  spirit  of  North  Carolina— that  we  are  doing 
well  but  we  must  do  better— that  we  can  do  whatever  we  set  out 
to  do. 

For  many  years  our  progress  was  impeded  by  the  shackles  of 
inadequate  capital,  the  limitations  of  an  economy  in  which  agri- 
culture was  not  sufficiently  matched  with  high-wage  industry,  and 
the  overwhelming  obstacles  of  inadequate  transportation  facilities. 
That  was  yesterday. 

Gone  are  the  shackles. 

Gone  are  the  limitations. 

Gone  are  the  overwhelming  obstacles. 

North  Carolina  is  on  the  move  and  we  intend  to  stay  on  the 

We  are  on  the  move  because  the  leaders  have  drawn  their 
strength  from  the  people  in  a  state  which  requires  her  leaders 
to  stay  close  to  her  people. 

We  are  on  the  move  because  we  have  put  our  fundamental 
faith  in  universal  education. 

We  are  on  the  move  because  we  are  making  the  most  of  the 
natural  resources  God  has  given  us,  and  because  we  are  driving 
hard  to  lift  our  agricultural  and  industrial  income. 

We  are  going  to  continue  to  put  our  faith  in  these  funda- 

^*W.  Kerr  Scott  (1896-1958),  Governor,  1949-1953,  farmer,  champion  of  agrarian 
causes  as  farm  agent,  Grange  leader.  State  Commissioner  of  Agriculture,  1936-1948. 
As  Governor,  he  expanded  state  services  in  such  areas  as  health,  education  facilities, 
transportation  and  communication,  especially  in  rural  areas.  Crabtree,  North  Caro- 
lina Governors,  131-132. 

Luther  Hartwell  Hodges  (1898-  ),  industrialist  from  Leaksville,  civic  leader 
and  public  servant,  Lieutenant  Governor,  1952-1954.  Following  Governor  Umstead's 
death,  he  succeeded  to  the  governorship,  and  was  elected  in  his  own  right  to  the 
next  term,  1956-1960.  Appointed  Secretary  of  Commerce  by  President  Kennedy, 
1961.  Crabtree,  North  Carolina  Governors,  134-135;  William  S.  Powell  (ed.)  ,  North 
Carolina  Lives:  The  Tar  Heel  Who's  Who  (Hopkinsville,  Kentucky:  Historical 
Record  Association,  1962)  ,  606-607,  hereinafter  cited  as  Powell,  North  Carolina 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

mentals:  universal  education,  supporting,  and  supported  by,  a 
stronger  economy. 

I  am  not  going  to  rely  on  dire  statistics  to  prove  my  deter- 
mination to  lift  the  quality  of  education  and  to  broaden  the 
opportunities  of  earning  a  better  living.  Instead  I  am  going  to 
rely  on  faith.  We  have  come  a  long  way  from  a  beginning  which 
rose  out  of  the  ashes  of  disaster  and  despair. 

We  all  are  proud  of  our  universal  education.  But  now,  in  the 
closing  decades  of  the  twentieth  century,  ^ve  must  do  more  than 
merely  make  education  universal.  We  must  give  our  children 
the  quality  of  education  ^vhich  they  need  to  keep  up  in  this 
rapidly  advancing,  scientific,  complex  world.  They  must  be  pre- 
pared to  compete  with  the  best  in  the  nation,  and  I  dedicate  my 
public  life  to  the  proposition  that  their  education  must  be  of  a 
quality  which  is  second  to  none.  A  second-rate  education  for  our 
children  can  only  mean  a  second-rate  future  for  North  Carolina. 

Quality  education  is  the  foundation  of  economic  development, 
of  democracy,  of  the  needs  and  hopes  of  the  nation.  Quality 
education  put  in  its  bleakest  terms  is  survival.  In  its  brightest 
terms,  it  is  life,  and  growth,  and  happiness. 

I  have  already  detailed  my  program  for  quality  education  in 
North  Carolina.  It  is  a  model  program  which  represents  the  best 
thinking  in  the  education  field.  Already  it  has  received  national 
attention  and  comment.  We  are  confident  that  this  is  the  program 
that  the  children  of  North  Carolina  need. 

If  it  takes  more  taxes  to  give  our  children  this  quality  education, 
we  must  face  that  fact  and  provide  the  money.  We  must  never 
lose  sight  of  the  fact  that  our  children  are  our  best  investment. 
This  is  no  age  for  the  faint  of  heart. 

I  believe  that  the  people  of  this  state  will  rise  in  boldness  and 
will  go  for^vard  in  determination  that  ^ve  have  chosen  wisely 
when  we  base  our  future  hopes  on  quality  education.  I  need 
your  help,  your  understanding,  your  firmness  of  purpose,  and 
your  hard  work  if  we  are  to  achieve  this  goal. 

While  quality  education  is  the  rock  upon  which  I  will  build 
the  house  of  my  administration,  we  are  not  going  to  fall  into  the 
error  of  thinking  that  this,  or  any  other  single  emphasis,  will 
alone  build  a  better  North  Carolina. 

Education  supports  the  economy  but  education  must  be  sup- 
ported by  the  economy.  As  we  ^vork  for  quality  in  education  we 
must  at  the  same  time  work  just  as  boldly  for  broader  opportuni- 
ties to  lift  the  income  of  our  people. 

Our  goal  is  not  only  full  development  of  the  talents  of  our 
children,  but  also  the  creation  of  an  expanding  economy  which 
will  give  everyone  a  better  chance  to  make  a  better  living. 

1)  -H 




O  c/5 

^  c 

T3  O 

%  6 


XI  O 

s  s 


The  Governor  and  his  family  were  photographed  in  the  Mansion  in  1961. 
Terry,  Jr.,  the  Governor  and  his  wife,  Margaret  Rose,  and  their  daughter, 
Betsy,  are  shown  in  this  family  picture. 

Inaugural  Address 


I  see  for  us  three  points  of  greatest  economic  emphasis:  lifting 
farm  income;  expanding  industry  and  developing  new  industry; 
and  properly  using,  conserving,  and  developing  our  water  re- 
sources, which  we  have  been  given  in  such  abundance,  and  which 
in  turn  will  contribute  to  the  industrial  and  agricultural  pursuits. 

I  promise  these  next  four  years  will  demonstrate  that  I  believe 
in  the  future  of  farming  and  that  I  have  carried  on  with  the  Ken- 
Scott  fervor. 

I  promise  these  next  four  years  will  demonstrate  that  I  believe 
in  the  potential  of  industrial  development  and  that  I  have  carried 
on  with  the  Luther  Hodges  energy. 

And  with  this  fervor  and  energy  I  pray  that  I  will  always  carry 
on  with  the  faith  of  Aycock  and  Gardner  and  all  the  other 
governors  of  North  Carolina  whose  leadership  and  love  have 
brought  North  Carolina  to  its  new  day. 

As  we  work  here  to  build  a  better  state,  we  will  also  do  our 
part  to  build  a  better  nation. 

Today  we  stand  at  the  head  of  the  South,  but  that  is  not 
enough.  I  want  North  Carolina  to  move  into  the  mainstream 
of  America  and  to  strive  to  become  the  leading  state  of  the 
nation.  We  can  do  it. 

As  the  dynamic  leadership  of  President  John  F.  Kennedy  moves 
us  into  the  New  Frontiers  of  a  changing  world,  we  will  accept 
for  North  Carolina  our  responsibilities  as  citizens  of  the  most 
powerful  nation  in  the  world,  the  last,  best  hope  of  the  free  world. 
We  pledge  to  march  with  President  Kennedy. 

When  the  story  is  written  it  will  be  said  that  North  Carolina 
did  its  part,  that  North  Carolina  contributed  to  the  peoples  of 
the  world  in  the  unending  struggle  for  world  peace  and  world 

We  can  do  this  by  appreciating  that  we  are  a  leading  part  of 
the  leading  free  nation  of  the  free  world,  and  that  everything  we 
do  reflects  good  or  bad  upon  that  leadership.  We  can  do  this  by 
appreciating  that  if  America  is  to  be  strong  for  its  job  of  leader- 
ship, then  it  is  up  to  us  to  make  North  Carolina  strong  for  its 
important  part  of  that  leadership.  Quality  education  and  a 
stronger  economy  thereby  take  on  added  significance  of  a  most 
sobering  nature. 

In  our  segment  of  the  free  world.  North  Carolina  will  conquer, 
settle,  and  civilize  the  New  Frontiers.  While  we  are  observing 
the  big  responsibilities,  we  will  not  forget  the  total  responsibilities. 
If  we  achieve  prosperity,  prosperity  will  not  harden  our  hearts. 

We  are  not  going  to  forget  the  progress  we  have  made  in  the 
treatment  and  care  of  the  mentally  ill  and  the  mentally  deficient. 
We  will  improve  our  program  and  facilities  which  already  stand 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

with  the  most  enlightened  and  advanced  in  America. 

We  are  not  going  to  forget  the  ill,  the  old,  the  dependent,  the 
helpless,  the  handicapped. 

We  are  not  going  to  forget  the  modernization  of  our  programs 
for  penal  institutions  and  juvenile  correctional  institutions. 

We  are  going  to  find  more  effective  ways  to  reduce  the  slaughter 
on  our  highways. 

We  are  not  going  to  forget  the  working  man,  the  laborer,  the 
small  businessman,  who  often  find  the  cards  being  stacked  against 

We  are  not  going  to  forget  the  importance  of  our  libraries, 
our  symphony,  our  dramas,  our  art  museums. 

We  are  not  going  to  forget,  as  we  move  into  the  challenging 
and  demanding  years  ahead,  that  no  group  of  our  citizens  can  be 
denied  the  right  to  participate  in  the  opportunities  of  first-class 
citizenship.  Let  us  extend  North  Carolina's  well-known  spirit  of 
moderation  and  goodwill,  of  mutual  respect  and  understanding, 
in  order  that  our  energies  and  our  resources,  our  abilities  and 
our  ^vills,  may  be  directed  toward  building  a  better  and  more 
fruitful  life  for  all  the  people  of  our  state. 

I  stand  firmly  in  the  footprints  of  Aycock  when  he  chose  the 
creed  for  North  Carolina: 

I  would  have  the  strong  to  bear  the  burdens  of  the  weak  and  to  lift  them 
up  and  make  them  strong,  teaching  men  everywhere  that  real  strength  con- 
sists not  in  serving  ourselves,  but  in  doing  for  others. 

All  these  things  can  be  done,  but  they  cannot  be  done  in  bitter- 
ness of  factional  strife.  We  need  the  help  of  all  people  of  goodwill. 
I  promise  not  to  look  back  to  past  partisan  differences,  but  to 
keep  my  eyes  forward  on  the  hopes  and  goals  of  North  Carolina. 
If  we  work  together  for  the  common  good,  then  all  things  are 

The  General  Assembly,  the  Council  of  State,  the  school  people, 
the  administrative  officers,  the  state  employees  across  the  state 
can  help  move  North  Carolina  forward,  but  they  are  powerless 
without  the  support  and  goodwill  of  the  entire  citizenry. 

I  call  on  all  of  us  to  put  aside  partisan  differences,  to  turn  our 
backs  on  those  things  which  divide  us  and  join  hands  on  those 
things  which  can  help  us  grow  great.  I  promise  to  do  this. 

North  Carolina  is  on  the  march.  We  are  going  forward.  We 
will  continue  to  march  forward. 

I  pledge  to  North  Carolina  my  devotion,  my  time  and  my 
energies,  the  full  measure  of  all  that  there  is  within  me  to  move 
in  the  faith  of  our  fathers  for  a  future  bright  with  promise. 

I  call  on  all  citizens  to  join  with  me  in  the  audacious  adventure 
of  making  North  Carolina  all  it  can  and  ought  to  be. 



[Governor  Sanford  delivered  two  addresses  to  the  joint  sessions  of  the 
House  of  Representatives  and  the  Senate  during  1961  and  four  during  1963. 
When  an  extra  session  of  the  General  Assembly  convened  in  October,  1963, 
the  Governor  again  addressed  the  legislators  in  joint  session.  All  these 
messages  were  delivered  by  the  Governor  in  person.  They  are  printed  in  the 
Journal  of  the  Senate  of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  North  Caro- 
lina, Session  1961,  pp.  11-22,  73-79;  the  Journal  of  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  Session  1961 , 
pp.  19-31,  123-129;  the  Journal  of  the  Senate  .  .  .  ,  1963,  pp.  16-38,  39-44,  191- 
195,  386-389;  the  Journal  of  the  House  of  Representatives  .  .  .  ,  1963,  pp.  20- 
46,  49-54,  307-311,  625-628.  The  journals  of  proceedings  of  the  1963  special 
session  are  included  in  the  1963  volumes.  Governor  Sanford's  message  to  the 
special  session  is  found  on  pages  799-800  of  the  Senate  Journal  and  on  pages 
13-15  of  the  Extra  Session  section  at  the  back  of  the  House  Journal. 

In  addition,  routine  messages  concerning  appointments  were  sent  to  the 
Senate  and  the  House  by  the  Governor  (pp.  535-536,  Senate  Journal,  1961, 
and  241-242,  Senate  Journal,  1963;  pp.  458-459,  House  Journal,  1961,  and 
565-567,  House  Journal,  1963).  A  special  message  was  sent  to  the  Senate  con- 
cerning the  resignation  of  Representative  John  W.  Umstead  {Senate  Jour- 
nal, 1963,  p.  112).  Messages  on  tax  reduction  {Senate  Journal,  1963,  p.  46, 
and  House  Journal,  1963,  p.  72)  and  the  Trade  Fair  {Senate  Journal,  1963, 
p.  87,  and  House  Journal,  1963,  pp.  143-144)  were  sent  by  Governor  Sanford 
to  the  legislators.] 


February  9,  1961 

[In  his  first  message  to  the  General  Assembly,  Governor  Sanford  out- 
lined needs  of  the  state  and  stressed  the  need  for  adequate  financial  support 
to  assure  a  new  day  for  North  Carolina.  He  dissected  the  budget  prepared 
by  the  Advisory  Budget  Commission,  concluding  that  additional  funds  were 
needed.  He  told  the  legislators  that  he  would  discuss  the  matter  of  addi- 
tional revenue  at  a  later  time.  Reaction  was  mixed,  but  the  representatives 
and  senators  on  the  whole  reacted  favorably.  At  least  three  members  of  the 
Advisory  Budget  Commission  were  themselves  convinced  of  the  need  and 
soon  joined  in  efforts  to  provide  funds  beyond  their  own  initial  recommenda- 


Under  the  Executive  Budget  Act,  it  is  the  responsibility  and 
privilege  of  the  Governor  to  come  before  you  at  this  time  and 
set  forth  the  financial  policy  and  program  of  the  state  for  the 
next  biennium  in  the  form  of  a  recommended  budget. 

"Budgets,"  said  the  great  British  Prime  Minister  Gladstone 
three-quarters  of  a  century  ago,  "are  not  merely  matters  of 
arithmetic,  but  in  a  thousand  ways  go  to  the  root  of  the  prosperity 
of  individuals,  interrelations  of  classes,  and  the  strength  of 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

kingdoms."  This  statement  belongs  among  the  truths  that  are 

The  consideration  and  adoption  of  the  State  Budget  is  the 
heaviest  single  responsibility  that  rests  upon  you  as  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  people  of  North  Carolina.  All  that  our  state  is, 
and  all  that  we  hope  her  to  become,  is  closely  tied  to  the  budgets 
which  have  been  and  ^vill  be  adopted  by  the  legislature  over  the 
years.  It  is  in  this  light  that  I  urge  you  to  consider  all  budget 
proposals— not  merely  as  dollars  to  be  collected  and  spent,  but 
as  a  plan  for  providing  the  public  services  which  the  citizens  of 
this  enlightened  state  need,  can  afford,  and  should  have.  The 
budget  is  the  most  powerful  tool  available  to  you  with  which  to 
fashion  and  carry  out  sound  state  governmental  policy,  and 
thereby  to  promote  the  well-being  of  our  citizens. 

Look  about  us,  where  North  Carolina  is  strong  today,  our 
budgets  have  been  strong  in  the  past.  \Vhere  North  Carolina  lags 
today,  our  budgets  have  needed  and  today  need  strengthening. 
W^e  have  not  ahv^ays  been  able  to  do  all  that  ^ve  needed  to  do  to 
strengthen  our  state  in  major  respects;  but  our  past  progress  is 
a  firm  foundation  upon  which,  with  our  increasing  ability  to 
afford  improved  public  services,  we  can  build  for  the  future. 

In  dealing  with  such  a  broad  and  complicated  subject  as  our 
state  budget,  I  will  have  to  speak  at  this  time  in  somewhat  sum- 
mary form.  I  am,  however,  attaching  to  your  copies  of  this  message 
the  Budget  Report  of  my  predecessor,  Governor  Luther  H. 
Hodges,  and  the  Advisory  Budget  Commission.  The  Budget 
Report  explains  very  fully  the  budget  recommendations,  and  I 
urge  that  you  read  it  carefully  before  you  go  into  the  details  of 
budget  requests  and  recommendations.  From  that  report  you 
can  quickly  obtain  a  view  of  the  budget  as  a  whole  that  will 
make  the  details  much  more  meaningful  to  you. 

I  am  also  submitting  herewith  copies  of  all  of  the  budget  docu- 
ments. These  are  in  four  volumes:  the  "A"  Budget,  the  "B" 
Budget,  the  Capital  Improvement  Budget,  and  the  Budget  Digest. 
These  documents  contain  the  specific  requests  and  recommended 
appropriations  for  every  agency  and  institution. 

The  Budget  Report  ^vas  signed  by  the  Director  of  the  Budget, 
all  six  members  of  the  Advisory  Budget  Commission,  the  Director 
of  Administration,  and  the  Acting  State  Budget  Officer.  I  am  sure 
that  they  gave  careful  consideration  to  the  requests  and  needs 
of  all  of  the  state's  institutions  and  agencies  and  apportioned  the 
estimated  available  funds  in  accordance  with  their  best  judgment. 
I  commend  them  for  a  job  well  done.  I  know  that  more  time  and 
effort  have  been  expended  on  this  recommended  budget  than  on 
any  previous  budget  in  our  history.  I  thank  all  state  employees 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


who  assisted  in  its  preparation  for  their  faithful  service  to  the 
state  of  North  Carolina. 

I  especially  express  the  gratitude  of  the  state  of  North  Carolina 
to  J.  K.  Doughton/^  distinguished  public  servant,  splendid  gentle- 
man, who  with  thoroughness  and  with  vision  led  the  deliberations 
of  his  able  associates,  O.  Arthur  Kirkman,^"^  J.  William  Cope- 
land,i8  H.  Clifton  Bluc^^  Clyde  H.  Harriss,^^  and  Joe  C.  Eagles, 
Jr.,21  all  of  whom  labored  long  in  the  public  interest. 

It  was  my  privilege  to  attend  nearly  all  of  the  hearings  before 
the  Governor  and  Advisory  Budget  Commission.  Under  the 
Constitution  and  the  Executive  Budget  Act,  however,  responsi- 
bility for  the  preparation  of  this  budget  rested  entirely  with  the 
previous  administration. 

Given  the  decision  of  those  responsible  for  preparing  this 
budget  to  limit  their  recommendations  to  the  income  which  exist- 
ing revenue  sources  will  yield,  this  is  a  good  budget.  Generally, 
I  approve  it.  It  is  a  forward-looking  budget,  and  provides  a  sound 
base  upon  which  to  build  toward  a  new  day  in  North  Carolina. 

There  are,  however,  a  few  important  areas  in  which  I  am 
convinced  that  this  budget  must  be  increased.  In  a  relatively 
short  time  I  shall  come  before  you  with  additional  recommenda- 
tions for  strengthening  the  budget  at  certain  points,  particularly 
in  its  provisions  for  education.  At  that  time  I  shall  also  recom- 
mend to  you  specific  measures  for  obtaining  the  additional 
revenue  which  my  appropriation  recommendations  will  require. 

In  the  meantime,  I  commend  the  proposed  budget  to  you.  It 
is  worthy  of  the  most  careful  analysis  and  the  soundest  judgment 
you  can  give  it.  Ultimate  responsibility  for  the  adoption  of  the 
budget  rests  solely  with  the  General  Assembly.  In  the  exercise  of 
your  independent  judgment,  you  may  see  fit  to  increase  appropri- 

"  James  Kemp  Doughton  (1884-  )  ,  farmer,  banker  from  Sparta,  representative 
in  General  Assembly,  1949-1955,  Speaker  of  the  State  House  of  Representatives, 
1957.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1957  (Raleigh:  Office  of  the  Secretary  of  State,  1957)  , 
479,  hereinafter  cited  as  North  Carolina  Manual. 

"  O.  Arthur  Kirkman  (1900-  ),  railroad  executive,  bank  official  from  High 
Point,  representative  in  House  of  Representatives,  1949-1951,  state  senator,  1953- 
1959.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1939,  483-484. 

"James  William  Copeland  (1914-  ),  lawyer,  judge,  legislator  from  Woodland, 
state  senator,  1951-1953,  1957-1959,  Legislative  Counsel  to  Governor  Sanford,  1961, 
and  special  judge  of  Superior  Court  since  1961.  Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  285. 

"  Herbert  Clifton  Blue  (1910-  ),  publisher  and  public  servant  from  Aberdeen, 
representative  in  the  General  Assembly  since  1947,  Speaker  of  the  State  House  of 
Representatives,  1963.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  554. 

2°  Clyde  Hampton  Harriss,  Sr.  (1902-  ),  businessman,  insurance  agent,  farmer 
from  Salisbury,  representative  in  the  General  Assembly,  1955-1963.  North  Caro- 
lina Manual,  1963,  579. 

^Joseph  Colin  Eagles,  Jr.  (1910-  )  ,  tobacconist  and  farmer  from  Wilson,  state 
senator  in  General  Assembly,  1949,  1951,  1957,  and  1961.  North  Carolina  Manual, 
1961,  478. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

ations  beyond  those  recommended;  or  you  may  see  fit  to  reduce 
recommended  appropriations.  Throughout  your  deliberations, 
bear  in  mind  that  the  Executive  Budget  Act,  and  responsible 
management  of  the  state's  finances,  require  a  balanced  budget  at 
all  times. 

Throughout  the  remainder  of  this  message,  I  shall  have  occasion 
to  mention  many  figures.  In  the  interest  of  simplicity,  I  shall 
round  off  dollar  figures  and  percentage  figures  and  shall  talk  in 
terms  of  biennial,  rather  than  annual,  revenue  and  appropriations. 


I  find  the  state  of  North  Carolina  today  to  be  in  sound  fiscal 

We  shall  begin  the  next  biennium  with  a  very  substantial 
General  Fund  credit  balance  of  $53  million.  Improved  economic 
conditions  and  resulting  General  Fund  revenue  increases  account 
for  $42  million  of  this  credit  balance,  while  the  remaining  $11 
million  will  come  from  savings  effected  by  keeping  expenditures 
below  appropriations.  And,  let  me  make  it  clear  now  that  the 
budget  recommendations  already  provide  for  the  expenditure  of 
this  $53  million  General  Fund  credit  balance. 

The  Highway  Fund  will  on  July  1,  1961,  have  an  estimated 
balance  of  $26  million  in  state  funds  and  $32  million  in  federal 
funds.  This  total  Highway  Fund  balance  of  $58  million  is  fully 
committed  and  is  not  available  for  appropriation  in  addition  to 
budget  recommendations. 

The  gross  debt  of  the  state  is  $253.5  million,  with  an  additional 
$11.5  million  in  bonds  authorized  but  not  yet  issued.  Of  this 
total,  $37  million  is  fully  provided  for  by  sinking  funds  and 
$106  million  of  secondary-road  bonds  are  serviced  by  a  1-cent- 
per-gallon  gasoline  tax.  Thus,  for  all  practical  purposes  the  net 
debt  of  the  state  is  the  $120  million  in  outstanding  General  Fund 
bonds  issued  since  1949. 


The  resources  estimated  to  be  available  for  expenditure  by  the 
state  during  the  1961-1963  biennium  total  $1,496  million.  Rec- 
ommended appropriations  of  $1,455  million  will  leave  an  esti- 
mated credit  balance  on  June  30,  1963,  of  $42  million,  nearly 
all  of  which  is  committed  to  specific  purposes,  such  as  highway 
construction  and  debt  service. 

The  figures  just  mentioned  include  all  receipts— state  tax  and 
other  revenues,  bond  proceeds,  federal  funds,  and  agency  receipts. 
They  include,  also,  all  proposed  appropriations  for  current 
operations  and  for  capital  improvements. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


Our  budget  is  organized  into  three  major  operating  funds— 
the  General  Fund,  Highway  Fund,  and  Agriculture  Fund— and 
several  smaller  special  funds  earmarked  to  finance  specific  pro- 
grams. Because  their  size  dwarfs  all  others,  I  shall  concentrate  on 
the  General  Fund  and  Highway  Fund  in  the  remainder  of  what 
I  shall  have  to  say  today. 


General  Fund  resources  for  the  coming  biennium,  after  exclud- 
ing federal  funds  and  agency  receipts,  are  estimated  at  $747 
million.  This  sum  consists  of  an  estimated  $53  million  in  begin- 
ning credit  balance,  recommended  capital  improvement  bond 
issue  proceeds  of  $54  million,  and  current  revenues  of  $640 

Recommended  General  Fund  appropriations  total  $747  million, 
of  which  $689  million  is  for  current  operations  and  $58  million  is 
for  capital  improvements.  The  estimated  credit  balance  on  June 
30,  1963,  will  be  only  $15,000. 

I  take  note  of  the  fact  that  this  budget  proposes  that  the  state 
spend  on  current  General  Fund  operations  during  the  1961-1963 
biennium  $49  million  more  than  the  state  is  expected  to  receive 
in  General  Fund  revenue  during  that  period.  The  budget  is  kept 
in  balance  by  spending  all  of  the  $53  million  credit  balance 
accumulated  during  the  1959-1961  biennium. 

If  the  expectations  of  the  makers  of  this  budget  hold  true,  there 
will  be  no  comparable  credit  balance  with  which  to  begin  the 
1963-1965  biennium.  This  means  that  we  will  leave  difficult 
problems  for  the  1963  General  Assembly  in  maintaining  the  level 
of  services  under  the  "A"  Budget. 


General  Fund  revenue  for  the  current  biennium  is  estimated 
at  $620  million.  For  the  next  biennium,  General  Fund  revenue 
is  estimated  at  $640  million,  an  apparent  increase  of  only  $20 
million,  or  3  per  cent.  Budgets,  however,  must  be  built  upon 
revenue  which  is  expected  to  come  in  year  after  year.  As  you 
know,  revenue  for  the  current  biennium  includes  $28  million 
in  "windfall"  receipts  resulting  from  the  adoption  of  the  income 
tax  withholding  system  two  years  ago.  This  $28  million  can  be 
spent  but  once  and  will  not  come  again.  Deducting  those  "wind- 
fall" receipts  gives  1959-1961  General  Fund  revenue  collections 
of  a  recurring  type  in  the  sum  of  $592  million.  By  comparison 
with  that  figure,  the  $640  million  in  revenue  projected  for  the 
1961-1963  biennium  represents  an  increase  of  $59  million,  or  8 
per  cent. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

In  view  of  the  exceptionally  good  General  Fund  revenue  col- 
lections of  this  biennium  in  comparison  with  1957-1959,  there 
may  be  a  strong  temptation  in  some  quarters  to  argue  that  an 
8  per  cent  General  Fund  revenue  increase  is  too  conservative, 
and  that  additional  appropriations  can  be  provided  for  by  the 
painless  expedient  of  raising  the  revenue  estimates.  The  Advisory 
Budget  Commission  does  not,  and  I  do  not,  and  dare  not,  share 
that  hope.  On  the  basis  of  all  the  evidence  now  available,  includ- 
ing general  economic  conditions  and  trends  and  the  relatively 
conservative  revenue  growth  estimates  now  being  made  by  the 
federal  government  and  by  our  sister  states— averaging  less  than 
4  per  cent— I  see  no  present  justification  for  raising  the  Advisory 
Budget  Commission's  8  per  cent  revenue  increase  estimate.  To 
take  any  other  position  would  be  dangerous  and  would  border 
upon  fiscal  irresponsibility.  Should  new  information  cause  a 
change  in  this  view  while  you  are  in  session,  I  shall  so  advise  you. 


Requests  for  General  Fund  appropriations  for  current  opera- 
tions during  the  coming  biennium  totaled  $783  million,  and 
88  per  cent  of  that  amount  is  recommended  for  appropriation. 
Recommended  General  Fund  appropriations  of  $689  million 
constitute  an  increase  in  current  operation  appropriations  of 
$103  million,  or  nearly  18  per  cent  above  comparable  expendi- 
tures for  the  current  biennium. 

"A"  Budget  recommendations  for  maintaining  present  services 
at  existing  levels,  with  suitable  allowance  for  the  increased 
number  of  people  to  be  served,  are  $626  million,  virtually  the  full 
sum  requested.  This  is  an  increase  of  more  than  $40  million 
above  current  expenditures.  "B"  Budget  recommendations,  pro- 
viding for  improved  services,  new  programs,  and  salary  increases, 
total  $61  million  in  comparison  with  the  $156  million  requested. 

General  Fund  capital  improvements  requests  added  up  to  $105 
million.  The  budget  recommends  the  appropriation  of  $58  mil- 
lion for  capital  improvements,  of  which  $4  million  will  be  pro- 
vided from  current  revenue,  $6  million  from  bonds  to  be  issued 
on  legislative  authorization,  and  $48  million  from  bonds  to  be 
issued  on  approval  of  the  voters  of  the  state. 

The  budget  is  arranged  into  about  a  dozen  major  functional 
groupings:  education,  public  welfare,  corrections,  debt  service, 
and  the  like.  The  budget  of  each  agency  and  institution  will  be 
found  under  the  appropriate  functional  heading.  This  enables 
you,  in  apportioning  state  funds,  to  think  primarily  in  terms  of 
the  programs  of  public  service  to  be  performed  and  secondarily  in 

North  CaroHna  State  Library 


Messages  to  the  General  Assembly  17 

terms  of  the  specific  agencies  and  institutions  which  will  perform 

In  discussing  the  provisions  which  this  budget  makes  for  the 
various  functions  of  state  government,  I  shall  talk  more  about 
programs  and  activities  than  about  figures,  and  refer  you  to  the 
appropriate  budget  documents  for  the  details. 


The  general  government  function  includes  the  General  Assem- 
bly, the  Governor's  Office,  the  courts,  the  fiscal  control  and 
revenue  agencies,  the  personnel  agencies,  and  a  few  others.  Recom- 
mended General  Fund  appropriations  for  general  government 
total  $24  million,  up  34  per  cent  from  current  expenditures.  A 
large  part  of  the  increase  is  a  $2.5  million  appropriation  for 
administrative  distribution  to  state  agencies  to  continue  in  force 
the  new  salary  schedules  adopted  July  1,  1960.  These  salary 
schedules  were  adopted  too  late  for  the  necessary  funds  to  be 
included  in  the  "A"  Budget  requests  of  the  agencies.  Other 
increases  in  the  sum  of  $864,000  raise  the  salaries  of  Supreme 
Court  justices  and  Superior  Court  judges  and  solicitors,  and 
provide  for  expanded  activities  of  the  Department  of  Revenue, 
Department  of  Administration,  and  State  Bureau  of  Investigation. 

Another  large  item  is  the  Contingency  and  Emergency  Fund, 
which  is  distributed  almost  entirely  to  agencies  and  institutions 
outside  of  general  government. 


The  most  important  and  the  most  expensive  function  of  our 
state  government  is  education:  support  of  the  public  schools, 
maintenance  of  our  institutions  of  higher  education,  aid  to  five 
community  colleges,  operation  of  schools  for  handicapped  chil- 
dren, and  support  of  the  State  Library,  Department  of  Archives 
and  History,  and  several  other  educational  and  cultural  under- 

Recommended  General  Fund  appropriations  for  the  entire 
education  function,  including  a  proper  share  of  retirement  con- 
tributions and  debt  service,  total  $520  million.  This  is  75.4  per 
cent  of  total  recommended  General  Fund  appropriations  for  all 
purposes.  While  that  percentage  figure  is  down  slightly  from  prior 
years,  the  budget  nevertheless  carries  an  absolute  increase  of 
$70  million,  or  16  per  cent,  over  current  expenditures  for 

For  the  public  schools,  on  which  the  major  share  of  state 
education  funds  are  spent,  recommended  appropriations  total 
$442  million.  This  is  $51  million,  or  13  per  cent,  above  compar- 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

able  expenditures  for  1959-1961,  which  include  the  contingent 
supplemental  salaries  voted  by  the  General  Assembly  two  years 

The  "A"  Budget  contains  a  public  school  appropriation  in- 
crease of  |25  million  to  take  care  of  an  enrollment  growth  of 
19,000  pupils  a  year  and  otherwise  to  continue  current  levels  of 
instruction  and  supporting  services.  The  "B"  Budget  recommen- 
dations provide  for  salary  increases  and  other  improvements  in 
the  public  schools  to  the  extent  of  $40  million,  which  includes 
$14  million  to  convert  the  contingent  supplemental  salaries  now 
being  paid  into  a  part  of  the  continuing  salary  base  for  public 
school  employees. 

I  know  that  improving  the  salaries  of  public  school  teachers 
and  other  school  employees  is  of  major  concern  to  all  of  you. 
Appropriations  of  $35  million,  which  is  the  greater  part  of  the 
public  school  budget  increase,  will  make  possible  a  new  salary 
range  for  public  school  academic  teachers  of  $3,300  to  $5,000  a 
year,  compared  with  the  present  range  of  $2,946  to  $4,557  a  year. 
Salary  increases  in  the  same  proportion  are  recommended  for 
principals,  superintendents,  and  supervisors.  Vocational  teachers' 
salary  schedules,  already  higher  than  those  of  academic  teachers, 
are  also  to  be  increased  proportionately. 

In  addition  to  salary  increases,  the  new  funds  recommended 
will  strengthen  state-level  supervisory  and  administrative  activities 
in  the  public  school  system,  and,  in  many  other  respects,  imple- 
ment the  requests  of  the  State  Board  of  Education. 

The  annual  rate  of  state  support  for  public  school  libraries 
is  increased  from  $1.50  to  $3.00  per  pupil,  and  the  annual  state 
allotment  for  instructional  supplies  is  raised  from  $1.12  to  $1.50 
per  pupil.  Adequate  provision  is  made  for  a  new  program  for 
the  professional  improvement  of  teachers,  for  a  permanent  cur- 
riculum study  and  research  program  under  the  State  Board  of 
Education,  for  the  administration  of  the  National  Defense  Edu- 
cation Program,  and  for  the  development  of  vocational  education 
instructional  materials. 

Local  school  supervision  will  be  improved  by  the  addition  of 
twenty-five  local  unit  supervisors  to  the  present  256,  The  piogram 
for  mentally  retarded  children  received  the  full  financial  support 

In  vocational  education,  the  budget  recommendations  allow 
expansion  of  vocational  instruction  and  vocational  rehabilitation 
programs.  A  new  agricultural  technology  program  is  recom- 
mended. The  nineteen  industrial  education  centers  ^vhich  are 
contributing  so  much  to  the  industrial  growth  of  our  state  will 
receive  $763,000  for  additional  equipment. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly  19 

You  can  readily  see  that  public  schools  have  not  been  exactly 
neglected,  but  it  has  been  deliberately  left  to  us  to  initiate  the 
fulfillment  of  the  bright  promise  of  quality  education  which 
holds  so  much  for  the  future  of  our  people. 

The  over-all  increase  in  General  Fund  appropriations  from 
the  last  budget  to  this  one  is  18  per  cent. 

The  total  increase  for  public  schools  is  13  per  cent. 

The  percentage  of  the  total  General  Fund  budget  is  67.7  per 
cent.  With  all  that  was  done  by  this  Budget  Commission,  and 
it  is  considerable,  we  have  shown  little  progress.  In  1959-1961 
the  percentage  of  our  total  General  Fund  resources  going  to 
public  schools  was  70.4  per  cent.  This  budget,  I  repeat,  allots 
only  67.7  per  cent. 

So  you  can  see  that  in  spite  of  all  we  have  done,  we  are  losing 

The  programs  of  enrichment  cannot  be  implemented  under 
this  budget.  At  least,  forgetting  the  small  percentage  differences 
which  can  be  explained  away  in  several  creditable  ways,  this  is 
pretty  good  evidence  that  we  are  not  making  the  progress  we 
must  make. 

It  can  be  argued  that  we  can  get  along  on  this  level  of  ap- 
propriations, and  we  can,  but  at  this  rate  we  will  never  achieve 
opportunities  of  education  second  to  none. 

I  have  talked  with  Governor  Hodges  and  with  the  members 
of  the  Advisory  Budget  Commission.  They  realize  this  budget 
will  not  achieve  the  goals  in  education  we  must  now  reach.  But 
they  have  done  the  best  possible  within  the  framework  of  the 
tax  structure  with  which  they  worked,  and  they  have  properly 
left  to  us  the  challenge  of  achieving  high  quality  in  our  system  of 
public  schools. 

I  am  sure,  I  am  positive,  that  there  is  contained  in  this  budget 
no  implied  admonition  to  "hold  the  line"  at  the  proposed  figures. 

Rather,  I  am  satisfied,  I  know,  that  it  was  and  is  expected  that 
this  budget  will  serve  as  a  "line  of  departure"  from  which  we 
will  move  to  the  objective  of  quality  education  to  meet  the 
demand  of  a  rapidly  advancing,  changing,  scientific,  complex 

Because  of  the  importance  of  public  schools,  I  have  chosen  to 
talk  about  expanding  our  educational  opportunities  at  a  later 
time  when  we  can  devote  our  attention  exclusively  to  that 
subject,  and  therefore  I  request  your  indulgence  in  allowing  me 
to  deliver  another  and  special  message  on  the  budget  for  public 

Turning  now  to  higher  education:  Appropriations  recom- 
mended for  the  Consolidated  University  of  North  Carolina  and 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

the  nine  other  institutions  of  higher  education  total  |58  million, 
an  increase  of  $12  million,  or  26  per  cent,  beyond  current  ap- 
propriation expenditures. 

Our  university  and  colleges  now  enroll  36,500  students,  or 
53  per  cent  of  those  attending  college  in  this  state.  A  further 
rise  of  4,000,  or  1 1  per  cent,  is  expected  in  the  next  two  years. 

The  Advisory  Budget  Commission  recommends  as  a  policy 
matter  that  college  tuition  rates  be  increased,  on  the  ground 
that  the  per-student  cost  to  the  state  for  higher  education  has 
risen  more  in  proportion  than  has  the  cost  to  the  student  in 
tuition  and  fees.  It  is  recommended  that  the  proceeds  from  these 
additional  tuition  receipts,  totaling  $2.2  million,  be  distributed 
50  per  cent  to  scholarships,  40  per  cent  to  faculty  salaries,  and 
10  per  cent  to  libraries.  The  scholarships  would  offset  the  impact 
of  tuition  increases  on  needy  students. 

Competition  for  qualified  college  faculty  members  is  keen 
through  the  nation,  because  college  enrollment  pressures  are  felt 
nationwide.  Faculty  salary  funds  will  be  increased  under  the  terms 
of  this  budget  by  $3.4  million  from  General  Fund  appropriations 
and  an  additional  $900,000  from  tuition  increases.  Distribution 
of  these  salary  funds  will  be  left  to  the  discretion  of  the  adminis- 
trators of  the  various  institutions,  as  has  been  the  recent  practice. 

The  increase  in  higher  education  appropriations  will,  in 
addition  to  salary  raises,  provide  for  teaching  larger  numbers  of 
students  and  for  the  purchase  of  additional  library  books  and 
instructional  and  scientific  equipment. 

Appropriations  in  aid  of  summer  school  programs  at  the  state 
institutions  will  be  regularized  by  the  appropriation  of  $960,000, 
to  be  distributed  among  the  institutions  in  proportion  to  hours 
of  summer  school  instruction  given.  Grants  to  community  colleges 
will  be  increased  from  $3.25  to  $4.00  per  student  quarter  hour 
of  instruction  in  approved  courses. 


Appropriations  recommended  for  health  and  hospitals  total 
$65  million,  an  increase  of  17  per  cent  over  current  expenditures. 
Most  of  this  increase  represents  the  cost  of  continuing  and  expand- 
ing operations  of  the  mental  institutions  and  the  training  schools 
for  mentally  retarded  children  and  the  extension  and  enrichment 
of  programs  of  the  State  Board  of  Health. 

Funds  are  recommended  to  continue  operations  at  the  present 
levels  of  service  in  Memorial  Hospital  at  Chapel  Hill,  the  sana- 
torium system,  and  other  state  hospitals  and  health  agencies. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 



General  Fund  appropriation  recommendations  for  all  public 
welfare  activities  total  $25  million,  an  increase  of  17  per  cent 
over  current  expenditures.  These  state  appropriations  together 
with  federal  and  county  contributions,  will  provide  |168  million 
for  public  welfare.  This  is  $18  million  more  than  will  be  received 
during  the  current  biennium. 

The  funds  recommended  for  public  welfare  will  support  the 
caseloads  and  average  grants  projected  by  the  state  welfare 
agencies  in  the  Old  Age  Assistance,  Aid  to  Dependent  Children, 
Aid  to  the  Permanently  and  Totally  Disabled,  and  Aid  to  the 
Blind  programs.  These  projections  of  average  caseloads  and 
average  grants  are  based  on  the  continuation  of  recent  trends, 
all  of  which  are  upward  except  for  the  Old  Age  Assistance  case- 

I  suggest  that  you  carefully  evaluate  the  welfare  proposals  and 
assure  yourselves  that  the  recommended  funds  are  sufficient  to 
support  reasonable  increases  in  the  public  assistance  programs. 


The  budget  recommends  appropriations  of  $4.5  million  for  the 
state  juvenile  correction  program,  an  increase  of  29  per  cent  over 
1959-1961  expenditures. 

Included  are  funds  for  the  establishment  of  a  new  Juvenile 
Evaluation  and  Treatment  Center  on  the  Moore  General  Hospital 
property  near  Asheville,  recently  given  to  the  state  by  the  federal 
government.  This  center  will  be  used  for  processing  and  classify- 
ing all  students  assigned  by  the  courts  to  the  correctional  schools, 
as  well  as  for  the  psychiatric  care  and  rehabilitation  of  difficult 

The  Probation  Commission  and  Board  of  Paroles  have  here- 
tofore been  supported  by  the  Highway  Fund.  The  Budget  Report 
recommends  their  transfer  to  the  General  Fund.  Moderate  ap- 
propriation increases  are  proposed  for  each  of  these  agencies. 


For  public  safety  and  regulation,  which  includes  the  military 
and  civil  defense  departments  as  ^vell  as  several  regulatory 
agencies,  appropriations  of  $7  million— an  increase  of  9  per  cent 
—are  recommended.  The  increase  will  go  chiefly  to  the  financial 
responsibility  program  of  the  Department  of  Motor  Vehicles,  the 
civil  defense  program,  and  expanded  activities  of  other  regulatory 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 


Appropriations  recommended  for  natural  resources  and  recrea- 
tion are  $8  million,  which  is  15  per  cent  more  than  current 
expenditures.  This  increase  will  strengthen  the  programs  in  forest 
management,  industrial  development,  commercial  fisheries  re- 
sources, and  water  resources. 


The  agricultural  agencies  will,  under  the  recommended  budget, 
receive  General  Fund  appropriations  totaling  $12  million.  The 
increase  over  current  expenditures  is  $800,000,  or  7  per  cent. 

Included  is  a  General  Fund  appropriation  to  the  Department 
of  Agriculture  of  $2.9  million,  an  18  per  cent  increase  over 
comparable  current  expenditures.  This  sum,  together  with  a 
$2.8  million  appropriation  from  the  Agriculture  Fund,  will  fur- 
nish appropriations  of  $5.7  million  to  the  Department  of  Agri- 
culture. The  increases  will  permit  improved  inspectional  activities 
and  better  tax  collection  by  the  department. 

Salary  increases  for  academic  personnel  in  the  Agricultural 
Experiment  Station  and  the  Cooperative  Agricultural  Extension 
Service,  both  of  which  are  administratively  controlled  by  State 
College,  are  included  in  the  appropriations  to  the  Consolidated 
University  of  North  Carolina.  Modest  increases  are  proposed  in 
other  phases  of  the  budgets  of  those  agencies. 

Several  farms  now  being  operated  at  state  institutions  no 
longer  serve  their  original  purposes,  take  too  much  of  the  time 
of  administrative  personnel,  and  their  orderly  discontinuation 
is  recommended. 


Teachers  and  other  state  employees  belong  to  the  Teachers' 
and  State  Employees'  Retirement  System.  The  state's  contribution 
to  the  Retirement  System  covers  the  employer's  contribution  for 
both  Social  Security  and  the  state  retirement  plan. 

General  Fund  appropriations  to  the  Retirement  System  will 
total  $46  million.  The  increase  of  40  per  cent  over  current 
expenditures  for  this  purpose  is  attributable  to  the  normal  growth 
in  the  number  of  people  on  the  state  payroll,  the  state's  contri- 
bution required  to  match  increased  salaries,  higher  Social  Security 
contribution  rates,  and  larger  contributions  required  to  keep  the 
Retirement  System  in  actuarially  sound  condition. 


General  Fund  debt  service  appropriation  recommendations  of 
$25  million  are  50  per  cent  higher  than  expenditures  for  the 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


current  biennium.  Of  the  increase,  $3.4  million  will  be  required 
to  service  the  debt  outstanding  on  July  1,  1961,  and  another 
$4.9  million  will  be  necessary  to  service  the  capital  improvement 
bonds  which  the  budget  recommends  be  authorized  and  issued. 

SALARY  increases 

Budget  recommendations  for  salary  increases  in  education  have 
already  been  discussed.  For  full-time,  permanent  employees  sub- 
ject to  the  State  Personnel  Act,  the  budget  provides  salary  in- 
creases of  $3  million  from  the  General  Fund  and  $2.85  million 
from  the  High^vay  Fund.  If  this  amount  were  distributed  on  a 
percentage  basis,  it  would  provide  an  across-the-board  pay  raise 
of  3  per  cent.  Recommended  salary  increases  and  additional 
merit  salary  increments  combined  add  7  per  cent  to  the  total 
cost  of  salaries  for  this  group  of  state  employees. 

CAPITAL  improvements 

Recommended  General  Fund  appropriations  for  capital  im- 
provements total  $58  million.  These  appropriations  will  be 
financed  by  a  direct  appropriation  of  $4  million  from  current 
revenues,  $6  million  in  bonds  to  be  issued  on  legislative  author- 
ization, and  $48  million  in  bonds  to  be  issued  upon  approval  by 
the  legislature  and  a  favorable  vote  of  the  people. 

Nearly  half  of  the  capital  improvement  recommendations— 
$26.5  million— is  for  the  institutions  of  higher  education.  This 
sum  represents  about  half  of  the  capital  improvement  requests 
submitted  by  those  institutions. 

The  voted  bond  issue  will  finance  $13.5  million  for  expanded 
state  port  facilities. 

To  relieve  overcrowding  of  our  state  offices  in  Raleigh,  the 
budget  provides  that  the  State  Highway  Building,  which  was 
financed  from  the  Highway  Fund,  and  the  Highway  Commission's 
testing  laboratory  building  be  purchased  by  the  General  Fund 
from  the  Highway  Fund  at  a  price  of  $2,365  million.  The  build- 
ing will  furnish  office  space  for  General  Fund  agencies.  The 
Highway  Commission  will  apply  the  sale  proceeds  to  the  con- 
struction of  a  new  highway  building  in  the  Raleigh  area. 

The  state  has  long  needed  an  appropriate  building  for  its  very 
fine  archives  collection  and  historical  museum,  and  for  its  State 
Library.  To  erect  such  a  building,  an  appropriation  of  $2,692 
million  is  recommended. 

The  Raleigh  Farmers  Market  is  currently  operated  by  the 
State  Department  of  Agriculture  on  an  experimental  basis  under 
a  lease  contract  with  the  owner  of  the  facility.  The  lease  expires 
this  spring.  It  is  recommended  that  the  state  purchase  the  Farmers 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Market  facility  at  a  price  of  |500,000,  in  order  to  continue  and 
improve  the  services  which  the  market  is  rendering  to  the  farmers 
of  the  state. 


Highway  Fund  revenues  are  currently  earmarked  for  the  sup- 
port of  the  State  Highway  Commission,  the  Department  of  Motor 
Vehicles,  and  the  State  Prison  Department. 

All  of  the  balance  of  $58  million  with  which  the  Highway  Fund 
will  begin  the  next  biennium  is  already  committed.  Current 
revenues,  state  and  federal,  are  estimated  at  $331  million  for  1961- 
1963.  Recommended  Highway  Fund  appropriations  total  $358 
million,  leaving  a  balance  at  the  end  of  the  next  biennium  of 
$31  million,  practically  all  of  ^vhich  is  already  reserved  for  debt 
service  and  aid  to  municipalities. 


Estimated  Highway  Fund  state  revenue  for  1961-1963  is  $295 
million— or  7  per  cent  above  current  revenue.  This  increase  rate 
would  have  been  higher,  but  for  the  depressing  effect  of  growing 
numbers  of  compact  and  small  foreign  cars  upon  gasoline  con- 
sumption. It  is  estimated  that  gasoline  consumption  during  this 
year  will  be  about  1  per  cent  less  than  it  would  have  been  if  no 
compacts  had  been  sold. 


In  spite  of  the  anticipated  gain  in  Highway  Fund  state  revenue, 
recommended  appropriations  from  state  and  federal  funds  com- 
bined total  $358  million,  down  $63  million— or  15  per  cent— 
from  current  expenditures.  This  decrease  is  almost  wholly  due 
to  a  drop  of  $62  million  in  federal  funds  to  be  spent  in  1961-1963. 
Appropriations  from  state  funds  are  almost  identical  with  those 
of  the  current  biennium. 


Recommended  appropriations  of  state  and  federal  funds  to  the 
State  Highway  Commission  are  $317  million,  which  is  19  per 
cent  down  from  current  expenditures.  Again,  this  reduction  is 
due  to  a  falling-off  in  federal  construction  funds. 

The  decrease  in  federal  funds  for  highway  construction  comes 
from  the  fact  that  in  prior  years  North  Carolina,  because  it  was 
in  a  position  to  take  immediate  advantage  of  federal  interstate 
system  grants,  received  higher  annual  allocations  for  the  interstate 
system  than  are  now  being  allocated  to  us.  During  1961-1963, 
interstate  allocations  and  expenditures,  as  well  as  other  federal 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


aid  funds,  are  likely  to  remain  constant  unless  some  change  is 
made  in  the  present  federal  highway  program. 


Highway  Fund  appropriations  recommended  for  the  Depart- 
ment of  Motor  Vehicles  are  $19  million,  an  increase  of  6  per 
cent  over  1959-1961  expenditures.  Included  in  the  recommenda- 
tions are  fifty  Highway  Patrol  clerks  who  will  relieve  fifty 
patrolmen  for  road  patrol  service. 


Recommended  Highway  Fund  appropriations  for  the  State 
Prison  Department  are  $32  million,  an  increase  of  22  per  cent 
over  current  expenditures. 

This  increase  of  $5.6  million  will  provide  primarily  for 
reduction  of  working  hours  of  custodial  employees  from  more 
than  sixty  to  forty-eight  hours  a  week,  for  salary  adjustments 
already  authorized  for  certain  classifications  of  prison  employees, 
for  expansion  of  rehabilitation  and  training  activities,  for  im- 
proved security  measures,  and  for  new  programs  of  adult  educa- 
tion and  vocational  education  for  youthful  offenders.  A  major 
reorganization  of  the  prison  system,  especially  as  to  the  number 
and  size  of  field  units  and  facilities,  is  also  contemplated  by  the 


Capital  improvements  recommendations  for  Highway  Fund 
agencies  total  $5.7  million,  of  which  $2.6  million  will  come  from 
the  Highway  Fund  and  the  remainder  from  other  sources.  No 
bonds  are  proposed  for  these  capital  improvements. 

The  recommended  appropriations  will  finance  construction  of 
a  new  State  Highway  building;  necessary  new  prison  facilities; 
and  Highway  Patrol  facilities,  offices,  radio  to^vers,  and  equip- 


In  conclusion,  let  me  say  again  that  the  recommended  budget 
which  I  have  just  outlined  to  you,  and  which  is  about  to  be  placed 
in  your  hands,  constitutes  a  sound  basic  plan  of  state  expenditures 
for  the  upcoming  biennium.  With  the  additions,  which  I  shall 
shortly  recommend  to  you,  I  firmly  believe  that  it  will  enable  us 
to  make  a  long  stride  toward  the  new  day  which  all  of  us  covet 
for  our  beloved  North  Carolina. 

Thank  you. 


March  6,  1961 

[After  outlining  in  broad  terms  the  needs  of  the  state,  particularly  in  the 
field  of  education,  when  he  addressed  the  General  Assembly  in  February, 
the  Governor  felt  it  necessary  to  go  into  more  detail  in  a  later  speech.  In 
March  he  appeared  before  another  joint  session  to  present  in  detail  a  plan 
for  raising  needed  revenues  to  meet  what  he  considered  pressing  needs.  To 
carry  out  his  program  in  the  field  of  education,  Governor  Sanford  recom- 
mended the  elimination  of  the  sales  tax  exemption  on  food  and  other  items, 
effective  July,  1961.  He  also  suggested  that  a  state-wide  vote  on  the  proposal 
be  held  in  November  to  determine  whether  the  tax  should  be  continued  after 
July  1,  1963.  The  "food  tax"  became  the  subject  of  debate  throughout  the 
state  before  it  was  finally  enacted  into  law.  A  day  or  so  after  the  address  to 
the  General  Assembly,  the  Governor  began  receiving  letters  on  the  subject  of 
a  food  tax  for  education.  A  supporter  wrote  that  he  had  resided  in  North 
Carolina  for  two  years  and  had  three  daughters  in  the  public  schools  and 
wanted  "to  express  my  wholehearted  support  of  your  recommendations  for 
aid  to  Education.  I  know  that  every  ounce  of  your  aggressiveness  and  deter- 
mination will  be  required  before  your  proposals  are  adopted  by  the  legis- 
lators." He  concluded  by  saying  that  "The  results  from  your  program  will 
be  better  citizens  for  North  Carolina  and  better  Americans."  Another  wrote, 
"I  am  so  proud  that  you  are  Governor  of  my  State  and  I  want  to  take  this 
opportunity  to  tell  you  so."  Despite  the  fact  that  the  writer  stated  that  she 
and  her  husband  did  not  have  a  child  in  school,  she  knew  that  increased 
taxes  would  be  needed  and  thanked  the  Governor  "for  the  foresight  you 
have  for  children  and  the  future  of  our  state."  Still  another  wrote,  "I  have 
two  sons,  aged  three  and  four.  My  wife  and  I  want  the  best  educational 
opportunities  for  them  that  we  and  our  state  can  afford.  We  can  afford  what 
you  have  asked.  If  we  cannot  afford  this  minimum,  we  cannot  afford  any- 
thing." This  citizen  promised  the  Governor  "support  ...  to  the  very  best 
of  our  abilities  and  resources."  Not  all,  however,  expressed  appreciation  for 
the  Sanford  proposal.  About  seventy  mimeographed  letters,  individually 
signed,  were  sent  with  the  statement:  "I  am  HIGHLY  opposed  to  ANY  tax 
on  the  most  essential  item  (food)  .  I  thoroughly  believe  in  higher  education 
and  will  support  it  100%,  but  in  my  opinion,  revenue  can  be  obtained 
from  other  sources.  ...  If  this  proposal  becomes  law,  believe  me— you  will 


asked,  "How  do  you  have  the  nerve,  and  inconsideration  for  the  people  of 
N.  C.  to  put  tax  on  food?"  Still  another  told  the  Governor,  "Terry 
Sanford's  'New  Day'  is  certainly  dawning  in  North  Carolina,  but  instead  of 
bringing  relief  to  the  already  over-taxed  inhabitants,  it  is  realy  adding 
insult  to  injury."  In  a  letter  addressed  to  the  Governor,  the  Lieutenant  Gov- 
ernor, members  of  the  General  Assembly,  and  the  Speaker  of  the  House,  an 
irate  citizen,  after  criticizing  the  food  tax,  continued  by  saying,  "But  if  your 
\^sic~\  will  stop  the  hole  where  our  tax  money  is  being  wasted,  you  now  have 
enough.  The  Welfare  Department  is  one  that  is  so  large  that  an  elephant 
could  fall  through,  and  the  Board  of  Health  is  in  the  same  class.  The  High- 
way Department  is  still  worse.  There  is  more  tax  money  wasted  than  spent 
for  the  good  of  the  children.  There  are  a  good  many  more  places  that  I 
could  name."  The  Governor's  Office  received  hundreds  of  letters  on  the 
subject  of  a  food  tax  to  support  quality  education  after  the  presentation  of 
this  address,  which  was  televised  on  a  state-wide  network.] 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly  27 

Tonight— on  this  sixth  day  of  March,  1961— we  must  take  a 
deliberate,  penetrating  look  at  the  future. 

Tonight  we  must  begin  to  swing  wide  the  doors  to  the  future 
for  our  children,  for  beyond  the  threshold  lie  the  hopes  and 
aspirations  of  not  only  our  children  but  all  the  world's  children. 

The  last  great  hope  of  the  world  is  democracy  as  we  know  it; 
and  North  Carolina  must  once  again  rally  to  the  cause  just  as 
it  has  from  Kings  Mountain  to  the  Yalu  River. 

Today  we  do  not  take  up  the  sword.  Instead,  we  take  up  the 
pen,  the  educational  pen.  We  put  the  pen  into  the  uncertain, 
eager  hands  of  our  youth,  for  we  know  they  must— and  they  will- 
write  the  future  history  of  North  Carolina,  and  indeed  of  the 
nation  and  the  free  world. 

Any  achievement  by  man  requires  sacrifice— and  tonight  we 
must  look  together  at  a  small  measure  of  sacrifice. 

I  do  not  come  to  you  expecting  popular  acclaim  for  what  I 
have  to  say.  I  do  come  to  do  my  duty  in  full  confidence  that  you 
in  turn  will  do  your  duty. 

When  I  presented  the  budget  to  the  General  Assembly,  I  asked 
that  you  allow  me  to  return  to  recommend  additional  funds  to 
meet  the  basic  needs  for  school  improvement. 

I  have  explained  time  and  again  that  I  believe  the  economic, 
social,  and  moral  development  of  our  state  depends  largely  on  an 
expanding  program  of  quality  education  second  to  none. 

I  have  explained  time  and  again  that  I  believe  it  is  time  that 
North  Carolina  provide  the  opportunities  that  will  put  this  state 
in  the  front  ranks  of  our  community  of  states. 

I  have  explained  to  you  my  reasons  for  believing  that  the 
budget  is  inadequate  to  achieve  the  public  education  goals  we 
must  set  for  our  state.  I  am  sure  that  it  is  generally  acknowledged 
that  we  have  not  done  all  we  can  do. 

I  come  to  you  now  with  the  most  difficult  decision  that  I  have 
had  to  make  since  assuming  the  office  of  Governor,  and,  perhaps, 
the  most  difficult  of  my  term  of  office. 

I  come  to  you  now  with  the  most  difficult  decision  of  your 
service  in  this  session. 

It  has  not  been  difficult,  however,  to  decide  that  something 
must  be  done  about  our  schools.  This  is  obvious  to  all. 

It  has  not  been  difficult  to  concede  that  if  we  want  to  do  the  job 
we  will  have  to  pay  for  it.  This  is  admitted  by  all. 

Having  concluded  we  must  take  decisive  steps  for  school  im- 
provement, and  having  concluded  we  must  have  more  money, 
the  difficult  decision  is  what  sources  ^vill  best  distribute  equitably 
the  costs  among  all  the  citizens  of  the  state. 

I  have  examined  many  sources  and  I  have  come  to  decisions 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

which  I  recommend  to  you  now  in  the  firm  belief  that  this  is  the 
way  to  move  North  Carolina  forward— the  way  to  swing  open  the 
doors  to  our  children. 

I  have  considered  every  possible  source  of  taxation,  and  I  will 
mention  some  of  these  sources  which  have  been  widely  discussed. 

I  looked  carefully  at  the  tax  on  whisky,  beer,  and  wine.  Beer 
and  wine  are  already  taxed  at  a  rate  which  appears  to  me  to  be  as 
high  as  reasonably  consistent  with  our  regulatory  responsibilities. 
I  have  studied  the  effect  of  a  recent  tax  increase  on  whisky  in 
Virginia,  which  drove  the  sale  "to  the  woods"  and  diminished 
the  total  receipts  from  this  source.  Therefore,  I  concluded  that  to 
make  the  tax  on  whisky  too  high  would  be  self-defeating  and 
therefore  ought  to  be  avoided.  I  am  convinced,  however,  that  to 
increase  this  tax  by  an  amount  of  20  per  cent  of  the  present  tax 
would  not  reach  the  point  of  diminishing  returns.  Such  an  in- 
crease from  10  per  cent  to  12  per  cent  would  bring  in  an  ad- 
ditional amount  of  |3  million  for  the  biennium,  and  therefore  I 
recommend  this  as  one  of  our  sources. 

I  have  looked  carefully  at  the  so-called  crown  tax  on  soft 
drinks.  It  is  argued  with  considerable  merit  that  there  is  no 
more  justification  for  a  special  tax  on  soft  drinks  than  on  an  ice 
cream  cone,  a  chocolate  soda,  a  Baby  Ruth  or  a  package  of  potato 
chips.  It  is  a  fact  that  one  cent  on  a  bottle  would  result  in  taxing 
soft  drinks  at  almost  double  the  rate  we  tax  whisky.  The  states 
which  have  adopted  this  source  have  discovered  that  sales  diminish 
and  a  large  percentage  of  bottlers  go  out  of  business.  Thus  the 
tax  defeats  itself.  Only  two  states  now  have  such  a  tax,  and  I 
am  advised  that  one  of  these  will  probably  repeal  the  tax  this 
year.  It  seems  fairer  to  me  to  tax  soft  drinks  at  the  rate  of  3  per 
cent  as  a  part  of  the  regular  sales  tax,  and  this  is  already  being 

A  great  many  people  have  said  to  me  that  we  should  tax  to- 
bacco products,  and  a  great  many  people  have  said  we  should  not. 
The  principal  reason  given  for  putting  a  tax  on  cigarettes  is  that 
people  who  smoke,  whether  rich  or  poor,  can  afford  to  pay  the 
tax.  Representatives  from  over  half  of  the  counties  have  advised 
me  that  they  do  not  believe  it  wise  to  put  a  special  tax  on  tobacco. 
Many  of  them  report  that  they  pledged  against  such  a  special  tax 
during  their  campaigns  for  election.  Many  people  will  be  sur- 
prised to  find  such  a  widespread  sentiment  against  this  special 
tax,  and  frankly  I  do  not  fully  understand  the  sentiment.  The 
most  logical  explanation  I  have  heard  is  that  North  Carolina  is 
the  leading  tobacco  producer  and  the  leading  manufacturer,  and 
our  leaders  of  the  industry  have  the  burden  of  fighting  such 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


taxes  in  other  states,  where,  in  many  instances,  they  have  been 
levied  in  unfair  amounts.  Consequently,  I  do  not  now  recommend 
a  special  tax,  but  recommend  that  tobacco  products  be  taxed  at 
the  rate  of  3  per  cent  along  with  other  similar  commodities,  as  is 
now  the  case. 

I  have  considered  a  state  tax  on  real  estate  and  other  property. 
Most  states  put  the  greatest  burden  of  school  support  on  real 
estate  taxes.  We  departed  from  that  concept  some  years  ago,  de- 
ciding to  leave  this  source  to  the  limited  use  of  county  and  city 
governments.  Real  estate  is  more  static,  and  in  time  of  economic 
depression  has  little  or  no  earning  capacity,  so  taxation  of  this 
source  has  in  times  past  resulted  in  hardships  and  loss  of  farms 
and  other  property  by  foreclosure.  More  than  a  quarter  of  a 
century  ago  ^ve  made  the  basic  decision  to  tax  money,  rather 
than  property,  and  I  oppose  any  change  in  this  long-accepted 

We  decided  then  to  obtain  our  chief  support  for  schools  and 
state  functions  from  money  earned  and  money  spent.  Thus,  the 
sales  tax,  the  income  tax,  and  the  gasoline  tax  have  been  the 
basic  support  of  state  operations. 

The  income  tax  has  been  a  steady,  expanding  source  of  revenue 
for  the  state  and  has  distributed  the  burden  to  those  best  able 
to  pay  as  measured  by  income.  This  is  a  fair  and  equitable  tax, 
but  already  the  state  is  receiving  substantial  revenue  from  the 
income  tax,  and  the  federal  government  is  taxing  this  source  al- 
most to  the  breaking  point.  There  is  no  real  hope  of  relief  from 
federal  taxation  until  the  cold  ^var  is  won,  and  an  increase  by  the 
state  would,  it  must  be  admitted  by  all,  be  too  burdensome.  I 
believe  those  best  able  to  pay  should  carry  the  heaviest  burden  of 
taxation,  but  even  a  casual  glance  at  income  tax  rates  will  con- 
vince you  that  this  is  already  the  case.  Therefore,  I  recommend 
that  we  do  not  change  our  rate  of  income  tax. 

I  have  considered  two  possibilities  with  the  sales  tax:  an  in- 
crease in  the  rate  to  31/^  per  cent  or  4  per  cent,  or  a  removal  of 

The  sales  tax  is  fair  in  distributing  the  costs  of  the  state  services 
to  all  who  share  in  these  benefits.  When  balanced  ^vith  the  present 
income  tax  schedules,  it  is  about  as  fair  a  method  as  possible 
for  distributing  the  costs  because  the  more  a  man  spends,  the 
more  he  pays  in  sales  tax. 

The  chief  difficulty  with  the  present  sales  tax  is  that  because  of 
so  many  assorted  exemptions,  it  is  extremely  difficult  to  admin- 
ister. It  is  difficult  for  the  small  merchant  to  know  what  he  has 
collected,  what  he  should  collect,  and  what  he  should  pay  in  to  the 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

state.  It  is  impossible  for  the  ordinary  consumer  to  know  what 
is  taxed  and  what  is  not. 

Our  statistics  and  study  show  that:  (1)  increasing  the  tax  to  4 
per  cent  on  shoes  and  clothing  and  other  items  would  reach  ap- 
proximately the  same  people,  in  the  same  amounts,  as  a  tax  across 
the  board,  on  all  items,  without  exemption;  and  (2)  we  now  col- 
lect the  lowest  sales  tax  per  capita  of  all  the  thirty-four  states 
having  a  sales  tax,  probably  because  of  our  many  exemptions 
which  make  administration  and  collection  difficult. 

Therefore,  it  is  my  recommendation  that  you  remove  all  ex- 
emptions from  the  sales  tax. 

I  will  submit  a  proposed  bill  which  will  place  the  tax  at  3 
per  cent  across  the  board,  except  it  will  place  only  1  per  cent  on 
the  farm  and  industrial  group  of  items  and  equipment  used  in 
production,  and  only  2  per  cent  on  motor  vehicles  with  the  pres- 
ent top  limitations.  It  will  not  tax  those  items  such  as  products 
of  the  farm  sold  for  further  processing  and  subsequent  taxation, 
and  gasoline  already  taxed  by  another  method. 

I  am  well  aware  of  the  hardships  of  paying  tax  on  necessary 
items  by  those  whose  income  is  so  low  that  every  penny  counts. 
But  I  am  also  aware  of  the  greater  hardship  placed  upon  the 
children  of  these  same  people  by  inadequate  school  opportunities, 
and  I  have  been  able  to  devise  no  way  that  the  poorest  can  be 
exempt  from  a  general  sales  tax.  Welfare  payments  and  the  dis- 
tribution of  free  food  answer  this  complaint  raised  in  behalf  of 
the  poorest  among  us,  and  the  poor  who  do  not  receive  these 
payments,  I  predict,  will  be  willing  to  do  their  share  in  order  that 
we  might  have  a  strong  tax  structure  which  will  support  the 
schools  which  will  give  their  children  a  better  chance  in  life.  A 
patchwork  tax  structure,  with  special  taxes  on  special  items,  will 
not  give  us  the  kind  of  tax  structure  we  must  have  if  our  schools 
are  to  grow  as  our  population  grows. 

I  know  that  this  will  place  extra  burdens  on  many  merchants. 
However,  I  have  no  doubt  about  their  general  response.  They 
are  responsible  and  civic-minded.  I  think  that  the  merchants  of 
this  state  have  never  been  given  adequate  praise  for  their  par- 
ticipation in  the  support  of  the  needs  of  the  people  of  North 
Carolina.  Through  their  efforts  to  make  the  sales  tax  effective 
beginning  in  1933,  they  literally  saved  the  public  schools.  Now 
again,  they  are  called  on  to  do  their  part  in  making  our  school 
system  better.  I  express  my  thanks  for  what  they  have  already  done 
for  the  state  and  deep  appreciation  for  what  they  are  yet  to  do. 

If  you  will  authorize  these  taxes  we  will  be  able  to  take  a 
giant  stride  forward  in  lifting  up  the  chances  of  our  boys  and 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


We  will  be  able  to  adopt  the  "B"  Budget  requests  of  the  State 
Board  of  Education,  a  group  of  conscientious,  dedicated  and  pru- 
dent business,  professional,  and  civic  leaders  who  are  devoted  to 
the  cause  of  education  and  the  state  of  North  Carolina. 

There  is  no  better  informed  group  than  your  State  Board  of 
Education.  I  have  studied  all  their  requests.  They  have  carefully 
balanced  all  of  the  most  urgent  needs,  and  we  must  have  the 
program  they  have  laid  before  us.  I  recommend  it  to  you  without 
reservation.  It  will  be  explained  in  detail  at  hearings  before  the 
Joint  Appropriations  Committee,  by  the  Board  of  Education  and 
Department  of  Public  Instruction  representatives. 

The  recommended  changes  in  the  tax  structure  will  bring  in 
an  estimated  $83  million  during  the  next  biennium. 

Meeting  the  budget  requests  of  the  Board  of  Education  will 
require  $70  million.  This  will  leave  a  balance  of  |13  million. 

All  of  us  have  been  able  to  take  great  pride  in  our  university 
and  colleges.  We  can  demonstrate  that  they  have  contributed 
much  beyond  their  cost  to  the  life  and  growth  and  happiness  of 
our  slate. 

I  would  not  have  us  slow  their  progress  as  the  price  of  accelerat- 
ing our  efforts  for  secondary  education.  Rather,  I  know  we  must 
continue  to  improve  our  colleges  if  we  are  to  continue  to  prosper 
and  grow.  The  budget  I  presented  earlier  provides  for  substan- 
tial improvements. 

Each  president  is  presenting  to  you  requests  above  the  Ad- 
visory Budget  Commission  recommendations,  but  less  than  the 
original  "B"  Budget  requests.  I  believe  that  we  can  adjust  these 
figures  to  about  |3  million  and  continue  to  have  a  vital,  moving 
program  of  higher  education. 

There  will  be  some  other  urgent  needs,  and  I  recommend  that 
you  consider  adding  to  the  proposed  appropriations  as  already 
submitted  the  following  increases:  mental  hospitals,  $500,000; 
welfare,  including  a  wider  distribution  of  surplus  food,  $2  mil- 
lion; other  agencies  and  institutions,  plus  a  reasonable  margin 
for  a  reserve,  $3.5  million. 

Through  the  Budget  Bureau,  I  will  consider  carefully  with 
you  the  line  items  involved  in  these  increases. 

This  will  leave  a  balance  of  $4  million.  I  will  later  have  a  de- 
tailed report  for  you  on  the  status  of  the  finances  of  the  State 
Highway  Department,  but  I  can  tell  you  now  that  because  of 
matching  federal  funds  there  is  virtually  nothing  left  for  secon- 
dary road  construction.  This  ties  in  with  the  proper  consideration 
of  school  needs,  because  an  urgent  requirement  is  road  improve- 
ment if  we  are  to  be  able  to  move  the  school  buses.  One  superin- 
tendent in  an  adjoining  county  reported  more  than  forty  school 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

buses  stuck  in  one  week.  I  recommend  that  this  sum  of  $4  million 
be  applied  in  partial  support  of  the  prison  budget,  that  an  equal 
amount  be  released  to  the  Highway  Fund  for  use  in  urgently 
needed  secondary  road  construction. 

I  want  to  remind  the  professional  school  people  what  I  have 
said  in  many  ways  and  on  many  occasions.  I  am  asking  the 
General  Assembly  to  ask  the  people  to  provide  more  adequate 
financial  support  for  the  schools,  but  I  am  going  to  be  even  more 
demanding  of  the  school  people  for  improved  performance  up  and 
down  the  line.  If  the  General  Assembly  and  the  people  provide 
increased  appropriations,  then  it  is  up  to  us  to  do  our  part  in 
improving  our  performance  in  every  other  respect.  I  propose  to 
work  in  every  field  of  school  activity  to  improve  the  level  and 
standard  of  performance.  We  will  continue  our  curriculum  study 
and  improvement,  our  search  for  methods  of  rewarding  merit  and 
superior  performance,  our  efforts  to  achieve  all  of  those  things  we 
can  do  without  additional  money.  In  other  words,  I  am  saying 
that  we  realize  that  money  is  only  a  part  of  what  we  need  to 
achieve  the  quality  we  seek,  and  we  are  pledging  to  the  people  to 
complete  the  job  in  every  respect. 

I  realize  the  task  of  the  public  servant  is  never  easy  and  fre- 
quently extremely  difficult.  I  know,  however,  that  you  are  here 
because  of  an  abiding  desire  to  serve  the  cause  of  democracy,  and 
I  know  that  your  presence  here  involves  a  personal  financial 
sacrifice  in  every  instance. 

You  Tvill  receive  some  good  advice,  some  bad  advice,  some  fair 
and  some  unfair  pressure.  I  know  that  you  realize  this  is  part  of 
the  price  of  public  service,  and  that  you  will  take  it  all,  good  and 
bad,  without  complaint. 

Over  t^vo  years  ago  at  Durham  I  outlined  my  hope  that  the 
people  would  become  so  interested  in  education  that  they  would 
demand  better  schools  and  would  be  willing  to  support  this  ef- 
fort. I  said  then  that  I  wanted  some  way  to  get  the  people  in- 
volved, concerned,  excited,  and  ready  to  go  to  work  to  achieve 
quality  education. 

The  quality  we  seek  cannot  be  delivered  by  the  General  As- 
sembly, although  only  you  can  start  the  march.  Quality  is  com- 
plex, difficult,  constant  in  required  attention;  and  it  will  demand 
the  best  in  effort  by  school  boards,  the  state  agencies,  the  super- 
intendents, the  principals,  the  teachers,  the  parents,  the  students, 
and  indeed  all  of  the  citizens  of  the  state.  And  this  is  no  single- 
shot  affair.  It  will  require  attention  year  after  year  after  year.  It  is, 
as  Admiral  Rickover  points  out,  "an  essential  civic  duty  for 
every  intelligent  and  educated  person,  for  every  person  with  deep 
love  of  his  country  and  her  children,  to  participate  in  the  public 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


debate  on  education.  .  .  .  there  is  no  valid  reason  why  the  United 
States  cannot  have  the  best  school  system  in  the  world." 

I  would  like  to  see  every  citizen  understand  the  need  and  the 
problem,  caught  up  and  taking  part,  willing  not  only  to  supply 
the  money  but  anxious  to  supply  the  continuing  interest  without 
which  our  expenditures  will  have  been  in  vain. 

I  think  I  know  how  we  can  obtain  this  interest  and  continuing 

I  recommend  that  you  enact  the  tax  revision  I  have  suggested, 
that  the  new  schedule  become  effective  July  1,  1961,  for  the  com- 
ing biennium,  and  that  the  proposition  be  submitted  to  a  vote  of 
the  people  next  fall  to  determine  whether  this  tax  and  level  of 
support  will  be  continued  after  July  1,  1963. 

As  we  start  this  mighty  crusade,  the  first  and  fundamental  de- 
cision should  be  supported  by  all  of  the  people.  We  should  give 
notice  that  every  person  is  involved.  We  should  demonstrate 
that  we  are  united,  and  that  we  will  continue  our  dedication  un- 
til we  lead  the  nation  in  school  opportunities  for  our  children. 

In  this  way  you  are  not  "passing  the  buck."  We  are  simply 
asking  all  the  people  to  join  with  us. 

I  have  faith  in  the  vision  of  our  people.  If  you  will  do  this,  I 
will  join  with  you  this  fall  in  carrying  our  crusade  to  every  county 
in  this  state. 

In  this  way  the  people  will  understand  what  we  are  doing,  will 
participate  in  our  decisions,  and  we  in  North  Carolina  will  be 
ready  to  move. 

In  reaching  the  decisions  I  have  outlined  today,  I  have  been 
guided  in  my  deliberations  by  my  trust  in  people  and  my  faith  in 
the  Divine  Power  without  whose  help  no  human  endeavor  can 
succeed.  As  I  turn  these  decisions  over  to  you,  I  leave  with  you 
the  refrain  that  has  in  these  past  weeks  occupied  my  mind.  It 
comes  from  a  well-known  hymn: 

Grant  us  wisdom, 
Grant  us  courage, 
For  the  facing  of  this  hour. 

The  hour  is  at  hand  when  North  Carolina  can  begin  its  bold 
march  forward.  We  begin  this  march  in  these  halls  by  reaching 
out  and  grasping  the  hands  of  our  priceless  possession,  our  chil- 
dren and  our  grandchildren. 

The  hand  we  grasp  today  is  the  strong  handclasp  to  the  future, 
the  hand  of  a  leader  in  the  world's  struggles. 

I  thank  you  for  your  attention  to  the  future  of  North  Carolina. 


February  1,  1963 

[Governor  Sanford  was  the  first  governor  to  address  the  General  Assembly 
in  the  new  Legislative  Building.  Rather  than  read  his  message,  he  distrib- 
uted copies  to  the  legislators  for  their  reference  as  he  "talked"  with  them 
for  thirty  minutes  about  the  comprehensive  and  creative  programs  for  the 
new  biennium.  This  "State  of  the  State"  message  was  carried  on  state-wide 
television  and  radio.] 

Mr.  President,  Mr.  Speaker,  and  Members  of  the  General  As- 
sembly of  North  Carolina: 

This  occasion  is  a  historic  one  for  the  reason  that  this  is  the 
first  session  to  meet  in  the  beautiful  new  Legislative  Building. 
This, building  will  long  be  the  pride  of  North  Carolina,  a  symbol 
recalling  our  sturdy  history  and  our  important  future. 

Further,  this  is  an  important  occasion  for  me  because  I  come 
to  meet  you  as  a  group  for  the  first  time. 

I  look  forward  to  our  joint  venture  in  the  cause  of  North 
Carolina  progress.  You  follow  the  most  constructive  General  As- 
sembly in  the  history  of  our  state;  and  I  am  glad  to  see  that  so 
many  of  the  men  and  women  of  vision  and  courage  who  set  this 
high  mark  last  time  are  back  here  today  to  begin  another  session. 

The  accomplishments  of  the  1961  General  Assembly  were 
marked  by  an  optimistic  awareness  that  North  Carolina  had 
reached  the  point  in  history  when  we  could  do  many  more  things 
toward  providing  better  chances  in  life  for  all  of  our  people. 

On  their  record  you  have  the  opportunity  to  build  an  even 
greater  record  of  service  and  dedication. 

You  will  hear  some  whisperings  abroad  saying  that  we  have 
done  enough,  have  moved  well  and  far  and  rapidly,  and  so  it  is 
time  now  to  slow  down,  rest,  and  catch  our  breath. 

These  whispers  come  from  the  fearful  and  timid  who  have 
always  opposed  the  accomplishments  from  which  they  now  would 
rest.  This  cannot  be  and  is  not  the  spirit  of  North  Carolina.  We 
are  moving  Tvisely  and  firmly.  Much  remains  to  be  done,  to  pro- 
vide better  educational  opportunities  for  the  competition  our 
children  will  surely  face,  to  encourage  broader  economic  de- 
velopment so  everybody  will  have  a  better  chance  to  make  a 
better  living.  Now  is  the  time  to  move  forward.  Now  is  no  time 
to  loaf  along. 

I  do  not  intend  to  present  the  "Governor's  Program."  I  intend 
to  say  to  you  that  there  is  much  to  be  done,  that  the  opportuni- 
ties are  here  as  never  before,  and  that  I  pledge  to  work  with  you 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


to  achieve  the  good  things  in  life  which  are  ours  for  the  reaching. 

You  know,  as  well  as  I,  that  the  last  two  years  have  seen  many 
gains,  much  progress.  The  next  two  can  see  even  more. 

You  know,  as  well  as  I,  that  the  last  decade  has  brought  more 
advances  than  any  in  our  history.  The  next  decade  can  double 
these  advances. 

In  almost  all  fields,  in  almost  all  sections,  in  almost  all  pro- 
grams, the  heartbeat  of  North  Carolina  is  healthy,  and  is  getting 
stronger  all  the  time. 


We  are  not  neglecting  any  of  the  other  broad  concerns  of  our 
people  when  we  conclude  that  science  will  have  more  influence 
than  ever  before  in  the  future  of  our  state. 

Science  in  its  broadest  meaning  of  interrelated  disciplines  is 
the  secret  of  future  development  as  it  unfolds  the  secrets  of  space 
and  man  and  earth. 

Our  responsibility  cannot  be  fulfilled  by  a  legislative  act  or  a 
simple  appropriation,  or  the  best  of  intentions. 

It  starts  with  the  first  grade.  It  involves  all  business.  It  radiates 
from  graduate  schools.  It  finds  strength  in  faculties,  in  the  Re- 
search Triangle,  in  the  attitudes  of  people,  in  industry,  in  agricul- 
ture, in  government. 

We  already  have  the  Governor's  Scientific  Advisory  Committee, 
made  up  of  leading  scholars.  With  their  guidance,  adding  to  them 
groups  of  leaders  in  every  field,  plotting  the  course,  we  are  at- 
tempting to  enter  the  age  of  science  with  wisdom  and  under- 


In  agriculture,  Commissioner  L.  Y.  Ballentine^^  continues  to 
furnish  the  drive  needed  for  consumer  protection  and  the  vision 
required  for  agricultural  development. 

Technology  in  producing,  processing,  and  packaging  products 
has  considerably  increased  the  variety  and  volume  and  the  need 
for  vigilance  in  carrying  out  the  department's  responsibilities 
for  protecting  the  health  and  pocketbook  of  consumers. 

There  is  not  a  man,  woman,  or  child  in  North  Carolina  who 
does  not  derive  benefit  from  the  service  and  regulatory  programs 

^Lynton  Yates  Ballentine  (1899-1964),  dairy  farmer  from  Varina  and  Raleigh, 
active  in  agrarian  and  civic  groups  such  as  the  Agriculture  Foundation  of  North 
Carolina  State  College,  Raleigh  Kiwanis  Club,  and  the  Grange;  politically  active  as 
state  senator,  1937-1943,  Lieutenant  Governor  and  Chairman  of  Board  of  Education, 
1945-1949,  State  Commissioner  of  Agriculture  from  1948  until  his  death  in  1964. 
Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  59;  Governor  Sanford's  statement  issued  July  19,  1964. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

of  one  or  more  of  the  department's  sixteen  divisions. 

Of  the  new  programs  authorized  by  the  last  session  of  the 
General  Assembly  and  initiated  by  the  department  during  this 
biennium,  none  has  been  of  more  vital  importance  to  every 
citizen  of  the  state  than  the  compulsory  meat  and  poultry  inspec- 
tion, assuring  wholesome  and  healthful  food. 

Another  important  new  addition  to  the  Department  of  Agri- 
culture during  the  past  biennium  was  state  purchase  of  the 
Farmers  Market  at  Raleigh.  Purchased  under  a  self-liquidating 
agreement  and  operated  on  its  own  revenues  at  no  cost  to  the  tax- 
payer, this  facility  is  making  a  major  contribution  not  only  to 
North  Carolina  agriculture,  but  also  to  North  Carolina  consumers 
through  the  increased  quantity  and  enhanced  quality  of  fresh 
produce  made  available  to  them  the  year  round. 

Working  in  partnership  with  the  Department  of  Agriculture  is 
the  School  of  Agriculture,  which  Dean  H.  Brooks  James-^  has 
made  even  more  effective  in  public  service. 

The  Agricultural  Opportunities  Program  provides  a  blueprint 
for  all  agencies,  organizations,  and  groups  to  assist  in  increasing 
farm  income;  providing  adequate  markets  and  facilities,  including 
processing;  and  improving  family  and  community  living  through 

A  Department  of  Food  Science  and  Processing  has  been  created 
at  State  College;  and  the  development  of  the  food  processing  in- 
dustrv  is  an  important  part  of  the  Conservation  and  Development 
program  and  is  a  major  part  of  all  related  state  agencies  as  we 
embark  on  a  planned  goal  to  make  North  Carolina  the  food  sup- 
plier for  the  nation.  Food  processing  is  now  one  of  our  major 

The  Agricultural  Extension  Service's  "1.6  in  '66"  Program 
was  developed  from  100  countv  programs.  We  called  on  the  Ex- 
tension Advisory  Boards  in  each  countv  to  work  with  the  exten- 
sion staff,  and  thus  more  than  1,500  farmers  directly  developed 
this  approach  to  ne^v  income,  and  thousands  more  contributed 
to  it  indirectlv. 

Extension  home  economics  agents,  the  4-H  Club  program,  the 
FFA,  the  community  and  area  development  activities  indicate 
that  farm  life  and  economy  are  on  the  move. 

Research  in  the  departments  of  the  School  of  Agriculture  and 
the  North  Carolina  A.gricultural  Experiment  Station  will  reduce 

*  Herman  Brooks  James  (1912-  )  ,  educator,  author;  Dean  of  the  School  of 
Agriculture  at  North  Carolina  State  University  since  1960.  Albert  Nelson  Marquis 
and  Others  (eds.j  ,  Who's  Who  in  America:  A  Dictionary  of  Notable  Living  Men 
and  Wo?7ien  (Chicago:  A.  N.  Marquis  Company.  1898— [annually])  ,  XXXIII,  1012. 
hereinafter  cited  as  Who's  Who  in  America. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


the  cost  of  production  and  improve  the  product  through  the  elim- 
ination of  the  many  hazards  of  plant  and  animal  diseases,  insects, 
weeds,  and  weather. 

The  levels  of  living  will  be  limited  only  by  the  imagination 
of  the  researchers.  Much  is  going  on  to  make  farming  more  val- 
uable to  everybody  in  the  state. 


Still  another  food  resource  of  great  importance  is  our  commer- 
cial fishing  industry.  We  are  seeking  greater  use  through  food 

Our  Conservation  and  Development  Department  director  re- 
cently toured  the  coastal  area  to  discuss  the  problems  of  commer- 
cial fishermen.  Rigid  and  frozen  conservation  practices  would  im- 
pose hardships,  and  inadequate  conservation  measures  would  be 
disastrous  for  the  future.  We  are  continually  striving  for  that 
program  that  will  insure  wise  use  of  this  resource;  and  our 
Commercial  Fisheries  Division  considers  itself  the  advocate  and 
protector  of  the  person  who  draws  his  living  from  the  commercial 


Any  time  we  speak  of  our  resources  in  North  Carolina,  we  can- 
not overlook  the  fact  that  North  Carolina  is  a  natural  vacation 
state.  The  variety  of  our  attractions,  from  mountains  to  coast, 
are  unequaled.  Last  year  more  than  25  million  travelers  visited 
our  state.  In  1961  some  75,450  people  were  employed  in  18,600 
travel-serving  industries  which  had  a  gross  income  of  $888  mil- 
lion. As  our  third  largest  dollar-producing  industry,  we  must 
continue  to  give  our  increased  support  to  this  enterprise. 


Good  roads  help  the  tourist  business,  and  also  business,  agri- 
culture, and  industry  profit  from  roads. 

The  most  significant  road-building  achievement  in  the  past  two 
years  has  been  in  the  over-all  improvement  of  secondary  roads  in  ^ 
North  Carolina.  A  total  of  $15  million  was  spent  in  1961,  most 
of  it  after  July  of  that  year;  and  in  1962,  $36  million  was  ex- 
pended, representing  the  largest  expenditure  since  the  Scott  bond 
issue.  In  1962  over  1,100  miles  of  secondary  roads  were  stabilized 
and  900  miles  paved. 

I  would  point  out  to  you  that  these  funds  for  secondary  roads 
were  squeezed  out  by  a  better  budget  arrangement  and  careful 
management.  Adequate  appropriations  are  not  available  to  build 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

as  rapidly  as  we  should.  We  will  continue  to  do  all  that  we  can 
to  improve  as  much  secondary  mileage  as  possible  with  existing 

The  primary  and  the  interstate  systems  were  not  neglected. 

North  Carolina  is  one  of  the  leaders  in  the  nation  in  terms  of 
the  amount  of  interstate  system  open  to  traffic. 

In  1962  a  total  of  2,569  miles  of  highway  work  was  let  to  con- 
tract at  a  total  value  of  over  $66  million  dollars,  representing  the 
largest  single  year's  work  in  the  highway  history  of  North  Caro- 

There  are  many  other  reasons  for  being  proud  of  your  Highway 
Commission  and  Highway  Department  under  the  direction  of 
Chairman  Merrill  Evans^^  and  Director  W.  F.  Babcock.^^  Traffic 
engineering  for  safety  is  being  expanded  to  save  lives.  New  re- 
search has  been  set  up  to  save  us  money  and  make  our  operations 
more  effective.  Plans  are  being  made  for  advance  right-of-way 
acquisition  which  will  prevent  blockage  of  future  highway  proj- 
ects. Our  Advance  Planning  Unit  is  considered  one  of  the  finest 
in  the  nation. 

Finally  the  basic  problem  is  money.  Ten  per  cent  of  all  state 
highway  mileage  in  America  is  in  the  North  Carolina  system, 
and  we  support  it  on  3  per  cent  of  the  highway  taxes  collected. 
With  all  of  the  money  directed  toward  highways  and  no  longer 
supporting  the  prisons  and  other  such  agencies,  the  best  possible 
analysis  of  our  highway  system  indicates  that  we  are  still  falling 
approximately  $25  million  a  year  behind  in  our  construction 
program;  and  this  means  primary,  urban,  and  secondary  roads. 

I  am  convinced  that  an  improved  highway  system  promotes 
the  economy  in  such  a  way  that  it  pays  for  itself,  and  that  the 
investments  we  make  in  better  roads  will  be  returned. 

You  will  also  receive  legislation  dealing  with  roadside  bill- 
boards, and  these  certainly  need  proper  control. 

industrial  development 

The  past  two  years  have  been  eventful  ones  for  the  continued 
economic  growth  of  North  Carolina.  This  growth  has  been  high- 
lighted especially  by  our  industrial  expansion. 

Growth  of  our  industrial  labor  force  and  gains  to  the  payrolls 
of  our  wage  earners  have  also  been  significant  for  1961-1962. 

2*  Merrill  Evans  (1904-  ),  farm  supply  and  life  insurance  dealer  from  Ahoskie, 
former  county  commissioner  and  member  of  the  General  Assembly,  Chairman  of 
State  Highway  Commission,  1961.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  464. 

^Willard  Farrington  Babcock  (1917-  ),  engineering  professor  and  consultant 
from  Raleigh,  author  of  professional  publications.  Director  of  Highways  since 
1959.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  480. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


Gross  gains  to  our  working  force  in  industry  have  been  over  60,000 
persons  and  wage  gains  have  been  some  $200  million. 

Secretary  of  State  Thad  Eure^^  has  authorized  more  new  cor- 
porations during  the  past  two  years  than  at  any  other  similar 
period  in  the  history  of  the  state.  During  1961  and  1962,  6,133 
new  domestic  corporations  were  organized.  Seven  hundred  ninety- 
six  corporations  from  other  states  were  domesticated  to  do  busi- 
ness in  North  Carolina. 

In  1961  our  per  capita  income  scored  a  5  per  cent  gain  over 
the  average  for  1960.  Comparable  figures  for  1962  are  not  yet 
available,  but  it  is  believed  there  will  be  some  gain  over  1961. 
Hargrove  Bowles^^  and  Robert  Stallings^^  have  provided  vivid 
and  vigorous  leadership. 

The  full  weight  of  our  industrial  education  program  is  now 
beginning  to  be  felt  in  our  promotion  efforts.  Our  Department 
of  Conservation  and  Development  states,  ^vithout  reservation, 
that  the  industrial  education  program,  and  in  fact  the  state's 
total  new  efforts  tow^ard  improving  education,  represent  one  of 
the  most  effective  promotional  tools  ever  provided. 

The  developers  over  the  state  are  anxious  to  learn  what  new  and 
effective  things  this  legislature  will  do  to  assist  the  program.  They 
and  we  know  that  some  of  our  closest  competitors  are  girding 
themselves  to  do  serious  battle  with  us  on  every  worthwhile 
project  contemplated  for  the  Southeast. 

We  must  not  follow  in  the  steps  of  some  states  in  the  nation 
that  make  unrealistic  concessions  to  industry.  We  cannot,  how- 
ever, because  ^ve  are  leading,  afford  to  become  staid  and  self- 
satisfied.  We  stri\'e  constantly  to  improve  our  attractiveness  to 
reputable  business.  Those  factors  which  hinder  our  economic 
growth  in  competition  with  other  areas  must  be  corrected  or  we 
will  miss  some  of  the  progress  which  would  naturally  come  our 

I  especially  solicit  your  thinking  and  advice  on  how  we  might 
keep  this  progress  moving  for  the  benefit  of  all  of  our  people. 


Since  the  General  Assembly  was  last  here  much  progress  has 

*'Thad  Eure  (1899-  ),  lawyer  from  Winton,  former  mayor  of  Winton  and 
representative  from  Hertford  County,  Secretary  of  State  of  North  Carolina  since 
1936.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  448-449. 

'"Hargrove  Bowles,  Jr.  (1919-  )  ,  insurance  executive  and  industrial  developer 
from  Greensboro;  appointed  Director  of  Conservation  and  Development  by  Gov- 
ernor Sanford  in  January,  1961.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1961,  413. 

^  Robert  L.  Stallings  (1912-  )  ,  businessman,  former  mayor  of  New  Bern;  ap- 
pointed Director  of  Conservation  and  Development,  August,  1962,  by  Governor  San- 
ford. North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  462-463. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

been  made  in  our  schools.  State  Superintendent  Charles  F.  Car- 
roll and  State  Board  Chairman  Dallas  Herring^^  are  leading 
the  way. 

The  most  dramatic  change  has  been  the  beginning  of  a  new  life 
in  education  across  the  state,  in  large  counties  and  little  ones. 
Teachers  are  working  harder,  stretching  for  new  ideas,  doing  a 
better  job  day  by  day,  exhibiting  a  high  morale  and  a  higher  sense 
of  duty  and  dedication. 

More  smart  and  dedicated  young  people  than  ever  before  are 
choosing  teaching  as  a  career.  More  new  teachers,  graduating 
from  our  colleges,  are  staying  in  North  Carolina  to  teach. 

More  consolidation,  more  improvement  in  courses  of  study, 
fewer  dropouts,  more  dedication  from  principals,  greater  interest 
by  parents,  are  positive  signs  of  progress.  Along  with  the  em- 
phasis by  our  state,  there  has  been  great  new  help  from  the  coun- 
ties and  districts,  where  ultimate  responsibility  lies.  I  am  pleased 
to  see  so  much  local  interest  and  work,  for  without  this  we  can- 
not make  much  progress.  We  must  urge  even  greater  local  sup- 

Students,  the  key  and  the  purpose  of  all  your  efforts,  are  show- 
ing that  they  realize  studying  is  important,  that  learning  is  going 
to  mean  so  much  in  their  lives.  They  are  serious  but,  with  the 
full  enthusiasm  of  youth,  are  giving  a  new  dimension  to  our 
schools.  Student  leadership  is  meaning  more  than  ever.  Your  ef- 
forts and  faith  are  being  well  rewarded  by  students  who  have 
come  to  full  understanding  that  there  is  no  place  tomorrow  for 
the  uneducated  brain  or  the  untrained  skill. 

School  administrators  are  seeking  new  ways,  better  methods, 
fresh  ideas,  to  make  the  most  of  the  human  resources  of  the  state. 

When  we  first  decided  to  accelerate  our  school  efforts,  I  pointed 
out  that  there  is  no  magic  button,  there  is  no  easy  way,  that  our 
sustained  efforts  for  about  ten  years  would  be  required  to  reach 
the  top,  and  then  full  steam  would  be  necessary  to  keep  us  there. 

All  over  this  nation.  North  Carolina  is  recognized  as  a  foremost 
leader  in  new  effort  for  better  schools.  Other  states  are  looking, 
asking,  following,  and  maybe  getting  ahead  of  us. 

This  is  no  time  to  get  smug.  When  I  asked  the  last  General 
Assembly  for  new  money,  I  said  I  would  be  just  as  demanding 

^  Charles  Fisher  Carroll  (1900-  )  ,  educator  and  civic  leader  from  Williams- 
ton;  member  of  Southern  Regional  Education  Board,  North  Carolina  Recreation 
Commission,  and  North  Carolina  Symphony  Society;  Superintendent  of  Public 
Instruction  of  North  Carolina  since  1952.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  452-453. 

^"William  Dallas  Herring  (1916-  ),  manufacturer;  educational,  religious  and 
political  leader;  former  mayor  of  Rose  Hill;  Chairman  of  North  Carolina  Board 
of  Education  since  1957.  Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  593-594. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


of  teachers  and  school  people.  I  have  tried  to  do  this  and  will 
continue.  There  is  plenty  of  room  for  improvement  in  teachers, 
school  principals,  school  systems,  superintendents,  board  mem- 
bers, and  governors.  We  know  it,  and  we  will  try  to  find  that 

There  is  also  need  for  continued  legislative  support,  and  the 
budget  requests  of  the  State  Board  of  Education  are  realistic  and 

We  are  moving,  moving  in  the  right  direction.  If  we  keep  up 
this  rate  of  effort  and  improvement  and  support  through  this 
session,  and  the  next  two,  the  General  Assembly  arriving  at  this 
statehouse  in  February  of  1969  should  find  that  North  Carolina 
has  a  school  system  equal  to  the  best  in  the  nation. 


In  the  age  when  excellence  is  in  demand,  we  have  a  rapidly 
expanding  public  school  program  to  seek  out  and  challenge  un- 
usual talent.  Last  year,  2,065  students  were  involved,  and  this 
year  5,206  are  taking  part,  and  next  year,  it  will  reach  far  more. 

In  addition,  we  have  established  a  summer  school  for  talented 
high  school  juniors  and  seniors  to  be  held  at  Salem  College,  to 
give  incentive  and  recognition  to  excellence  throughout  the 
state.  This  project,  the  first  of  its  kind,  has  national  significance. 
It  will  be  supported  for  three  years  by  a  grant  from  the  Carnegie 
Foundation  and  Winston-Salem  individuals,  companies,  and 


We  have  never  given  proper  attention  to  children  with  limited 
ability.  I  appointed  a  special  commission  last  year  to  outline 
a  state  program  in  this  field.  I  will  later  ask  you  to  make  this 
a  permanent  commission,  and  will  present  to  you  the  very 
thoughtful  suggestions  the  program  presented. 


We  expect  to  utilize  television  in  education  to  the  best 
possible  extent.  Last  year  I  set  up  a  special  study  committee  and 
already  we  are  actively  seeking  complete  coverage  for  all  parts 
of  the  state.  This  approach  holds  great  promise  for  the  improve- 
ment of  quality  in  instruction. 


As  a  state,  we  are  concerned  with  employment,  and  the  Em- 
ployment Security  Commission's  role  is  almost  wholly  concerned 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

with  activities  designed  to  promote  fuller  use  of  the  state's  man- 
power resources. 

North  Carolina's  rate  of  insured  unemployment  during  the 
biennium  remained  consistently  below  the  national  average. 

A  low  average  industrial  wage  has  disturbed  us  until  we  analyze 
it,  and  we  find  the  reasons  are  more  good  than  bad.  We  now  have 
40,000  people  in  needlework  averaging  $1.32  per  hour,  which 
pulls  down  our  total  average.  A  few  years  ago,  however,  we  did 
not  have  these  jobs  now  held  largely  by  displaced  farm  people, 
and  it  must  be  admitted  that  $1.32  is  far  better  than  unemploy- 
ment. We  will,  however,  continue  to  do  everything  possible  to 
improve  the  chances  our  people  have  to  earn  a  better  living. 

The  total  wage  payments  to  insured  workers  rose  between  the 
first  half  of  1960  and  first  half  of  1962  by  more  than  13  per  cent, 
meaning  that  the  1962  payroll  for  these  workers  will  be  $3.8  bil- 
lion as  compared  with  1960  earnings  of  less  than  $3.3  billion. 

We  paid  out  $82  million  in  insurance  to  unemployed,  which 
did  much  to  relieve  the  distress  of  those  experiencing  unemploy- 
ment and  served  as  a  cushion  to  bolster  the  North  Carolina  pro- 

Our  employment  security  trust  fund  increased  by  $7  million, 
and  all  indications  are  that  North  Carolina's  program  remains 
one  of  the  most  solvent  in  the  nation. 

There  are  certain  minor  amendments  and  adjustments  to  be 
made,  including  increasing  the  benefits  in  certain  cases. 

As  a  state,  we  have  a  responsibility  of  helping  find  jobs.  The 
Chairman  of  the  Employment  Security  Commission,  Colonel 
Henry  E.  Kendall,^^  has  taken  the  lead  in  this.  We  take  it  as  our 
mission  to  reduce  substantially  unemployment,  and  we  are  work- 
ing in  that  direction. 


Frank  Crane,^^  Commissioner  of  Labor,  has  brought  exceptional 
skill  to  his  assignment. 

Labor-management  relations  continued  on  their  traditional 
even  keel,  with  relatively  few  strikes  and  low  totals  of  lost 
man-hours.  North  Carolina's  record  of  industrial  peace  and  pro- 
ductivity is  one  of  the  best  in  the  nation. 

Henry  E.  Kendall  (1905-  ),  engineer,  civic  leader,  World  War  II  veteran 
from  Raleigh;  appointed  Chairman  of  Employment  Security  Commission,  July,  1946, 
and  since  reappointed  by  Governors  Scott,  Umstead,  Hodges,  and  Sanford.  North 
Carolina  Manual,  1963,  463-464. 

32  Frank  Crane  (1907-  ) ,  public  servant  from  Raleigh;  former  safety  director 
of  the  North  Carolina  Industrial  Commission  and  administrative  assistant  of  the 
North  Carolina  Employment  Service;  State  Commissioner  of  Labor  since  1954. 
North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  455. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


We  have  just  come  through  a  year  of  record  growth. 

The  state  has  received  national  publicity  and  recognition  for 
its  achievement  in  industrial  safety. 

The  North  Carolina  Minimum  Wage  Law  is  well  accepted  now, 
and  it  appears  appropriate  to  increase  the  75-cent  minimum  set 
by  the  1959  statute  to  a  figure  more  in  keeping  with  present-day 
economic  realities.  I  hope  you  will  consider  this  favorably,  and 
I  hope  it  might  be  raised  to  $1.00. 

This  would  substantially  help  the  earnings  of  many  thousands 
of  our  fellow  citizens  and  would  boost  the  entire  economy. 

workmen's  compensation 

Chairman  J.  W.  Bean^^  of  the  Industrial  Commission  and  his 
associates  are  administering  the  Workmen's  Compensation  Law 
with  great  efficiency  and  with  fairness  to  all. 

The  percentage  of  injuries  has  been  decreasing,  but  the  em- 
ployment in  industrial  plants  has  been  increasing  and  thus  the 
caseload  is  growing. 

It  is  likely  that  the  coverage  and  maximum  amounts  provided 
in  the  statutes  are  no  longer  adequate,  and  I  would  hope  you 
would  give  some  consideration  to  adjusting  these  provisions. 

senate  redistricting 

There  are  some  other  specific  things  we  need  to  do  during 
this  session. 

The  Constitution  requires  that  the  Senate  be  redistricted.  It 
is  just  that  simple,  and  we  need  to  get  on  with  the  job. 

I  hope  also  you  will  consider  a  constitutional  amendment  which 
will  make  this  automatic  in  the  future,  as  we  provided  in  the  case 
of  House  reapportionment  in  the  last  session  and  elections. 

insurance  laws 

North  Carolina  is  known  nationally  as  a  state  of  honest  and 
fair  insurance  law  administration,  with  the  chief  passion  being 
the  complete  protection  of  the  public.  We  need  some  tightening 
up  here  and  there  and  we  can  count  on  Commissioner  Edwin  S. 
Lanier^^  to  present  sound  proposals  to  us. 

"J.  W.  Bean  (1893-  ),  educator;  railroad  official  from  Raleigh;  public  official 
in  various  capacities  under  Governors  Hodges,  Scott,  Cherry,  Broughton,  and  Hoey; 
Chairman  of  North  Carolina  Industrial  Commission  since  1954.  North  Carolina 
Manual,  1963,  465. 

Edwin  Sidney  Lanier  (1901-  ),  public  official  from  Raleigh;  former  mayor 
of  Chapel  Hill,  county  commissioner,  state  senator,  and  North  Carolina  Personnel 
Director;  appointed  Commissioner  of  Insurance,  1962.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963, 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 


Our  elections  are  honest  but  in  some  cases  the  absentee  ballot 
provisions  have  been  abused.  Chairman  William  Joslin^^  has 
proposed  sound  changes  for  your  consideration. 


School  boards  and  school  committees  are  a  key  to  success  of 
our  hopes  in  achieving  a  new  quality  in  our  schools.  We  must 
attempt  to  devise  several  methods  of  selection  which  will  diminish 
partisan  attitudes,  and  I  am  thinking  about  nonpartisan  rather 
than  bipartisan  attitudes.  We  need  to  attract  the  best  possible 
citizens  to  these  jobs. 


The  Governor's  Committee  on  Agricultural  Migrants  approved 
and  sponsored  a  bill  in  the  1961  General  Assembly  which  author- 
ized minimum  sanitation  standards  in  labor  camps.  This  bill 
failed  to  pass.  It  was  decided  to  prepare  such  minimum  stand- 
ards, which  would  be  followed  on  a  co-operative  basis  with  the 
Employment  Security  Commission,  the  local  health  departments, 
and  local  growers.  These  standards  were  approved  by  the  Gov- 
ernor's committee  and  released  to  the  press  December,  1961.  We 
are  doing  many  other  things  on  a  voluntary  basis. 

Many  growers  co-operated  in  1962,  and  202  permits  were 
issued  by  the  local  health  departments  in  contrast  to  147  issued 
during  1961. 

A  number  of  new  camps  were  constructed  and  physical  im- 
provements were  made  but  many  continued  to  operate  without 
adequate  sanitation  protection. 

We  should  consider  legislation  for  minimum  protection  of 
migrant  workers. 


Most  public  health  programs  are  necessarily  of  an  ongoing 
nature  to  undergird  continually  the  total  health  of  the  citizens 
of  North  Carolina,  and  Dr.  J.  W.  R.  Norton,3«  State  Health 

"^William  Joslin  (1920-  ),  attorney  from  Raleigh;  former  law  clerk  to 
United  States  Supreme  Court  Justice  Hugo  Black,  member  of  General  Statutes 
Commission,  associate  city  attorney;  Chairman  of  State  Board  of  Elections  since 
1962.  Governor  Sanford's  news  release  of  July  31,  1962. 

'•'John  William  Roy  Norton  (1898-  ),  physician  from  Raleigh,  State  Health 
Director  since  1948,  member  of  North  Carolina  Conference  of  Social  Service,  con- 
sultant to  Surgeon  General's  Committee  on  Mental  Health;  author  of  professional 
articles.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  476-479. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


Officer,  and  many  associates  are  to  be  commended  for  their  dili- 

Our  state  has  maintained  its  outstanding  record  in  the  control 
of  communicable  disease.  This  is  especially  true  in  poliomyelitis 
in  which  the  1959  total  of  277  paralytic  cases  with  twenty  deaths 
was  cut  down  to  nine  cases  in  1961  with  one  death  and  to  eleven 
cases  in  1962  with  no  deaths. 

Remarkable  progress  can  be  seen  in  the  control  of  diphtheria 
and  typhoid  fever. 

Progress  in  the  control  of  whooping  cough  is  also  encouraging. 

Influenza,  however,  is  still  largely  uncontrolled  with  epidem- 
ics occurring  every  two  to  three  years. 

The  board  constantly  monitors  for  radiation  fallout  and  is 
prepared  for  wide-scale  operation  in  an  emergency. 

Aid  to  counties  is  a  pressing  need  at  the  present  time  in  order 
to  enable  local  health  departments  to  add  sufficient  staff  to  cope 
with  immediate  public  health  problems. 

We  will  have  presented  for  our  consideration  legislation 
authorizing  the  State  Board  of  Health  to  intensify  its  study  of 
the  air  pollution  problem  in  the  state  and  to  encourage  adoption 
of  measures  to  abate  these  hazards.  , 

the  sanatorium  system 

Tuberculosis  is  treated  in  four  sanatoriums:  McCain,  Black 
Mountain,  Wilson,  and  the  Gravely  Sanatorium  at  Chapel  Hill. 

The  system  is  extremely  well  administered  under  Dr.  Henry 
Stuart  Willis,  Superintendent  and  Medical  Director,^^  and  Ben  H. 
Clark,  Administrator.^^  Costs  of  operation  compare  most  favor- 

Treatment  has  improved  remarkably.  The  average  stay  in  1950 
was  sixteen  months;  now  it  is  less  than  seven  months. 

There  is  a  slight  increase  in  admissions  with  a  drug-resistant 
bacilli  which  could  create  serious  future  problems.  There  is  also 
a  shift  in  the  age  of  the  patients  with  the  largest  group  now 
being  elderly  people,  and  this  also  could  create  some  future 
problems.  Both  of  these  situations  could  cause  increased  costs 
in  the  next  biennium  which  we  cannot  now  anticipate. 

To  determine  just  where  we  stand,  I  appointed  an  Advisory 

2^  Henry  Stuart  Willis  (1891-  ),  physician  from  Chapel  Hill;  Superintendent 
and  Medical  Director  of  North  Carolina  Sanatorium  System  since  1947;  Clinical 
Professor  of  Medicine  at  the  University  of  North  Carolina  since  1959.  Powell, 
North  Carolina  Lives,  1318. 

^  Ben  H.  Clark,  Administrator  of  North  Carolina  Sanatorium  System  from  Chapel 
Hill;  member  of  Governor's  Committee  on  Tuberculosis.  Governor  Sanford's  news 
release  of  November  10,  1961. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Committee  on  Tuberculosis  and  the  members  have  just  made 
a  report.  This  indicates  there  is  still  much  work  to  be  done  in 
public  health  and  other  areas  and  we  are  taking  the  recom- 
mended steps. 


The  use  of  atomic  energy  will  have  growing  meaning  for  the 
people  of  this  state,  and  its  regulation,  development,  and  con- 
trol are  supervised  and  co-ordinated  by  a  group  of  businessmen, 
educators,  and  public  employees  constituting  the  North  Caro- 
lina Atomic  Energy  Advisory  Committee. 

We  have  six  subcommittees— Agriculture,  Medicine  and  Public 
Health,  Education  and  Research,  Power,  Industry  and  Labor,  and 
Radiation  Standards— all  concerning  themselves  with  vital  prob- 

A  number  of  state  institutions  and  agencies  are  involved  with 
the  problems  and  opportunities  of  atomic  energy,  and  industrial 
development  will  be  assisted  by  our  clear  understanding  of  the 

The  committee  has  recommended  for  our  consideration  cer- 
tain legislative  action,  which  I  believe  would  be  of  benefit  to 
us,  especially  relating  to  regulation,  licensing,  and  supervision. 


Space  projects  have  not  naturally  sought  North  Carolina  be- 
cause we  were  not  located  to  provide  a  launching  site  and  did 
not  have  the  basic  aircraft  industry,  but  there  will  be  many 
things  we  can  contribute  to  the  exploration  of  space  secrets,  and 
many  benefits  we  can  derive  from  this  contribution.  Right  now 
we  are  working  on  a  program  which  will  do  just  this. 

The  development  of  stronger  departments  in  engineering  and 
the  physical  sciences  is  a  major  effort,  and  these  and  related  fields 
must  receive  our  complete  support  as  we  chart  our  course  into 
a  century  of  technology  and  change. 

We  are  going  to  continue  to  drive  to  develop  the  educational 
contributions  to  the  atomic  and  space  age,  drawing  together  the 
brains  and  resources  of  industry,  business,  education,  and  govern- 
ment to  plan  our  place  in  this  fantastic  future. 


The  regulation  of  utilities  is  under  the  chairmanship  of  Harry 
T.  Westcott,^^  who  is  doing  a  conscientious  and  able  job,  along 

2»  Harry  Tracy  Westcott  (1906-  ),  marketing  specialist,  North  Carolina  De- 
partment of  Agriculture;  appointed  by  Governor  Scott  as  member  of  Utilities 
Commission,  1950;  accepted  chairmanship,  1958.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963, 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


with  his  colleagues. 

At  his  suggestion,  I  recommended  that  a  thorough  study  be 
made  to  bring  our  utilities  laws  up  to  date  and  this  has  now 
been  done. 

I  hasten  to  point  out  to  you  and  for  the  record  the  facts  we 
point  out  almost  daily  to  industrial  prospects.  Statistics  disclose 
that  our  electric  rates,  with  the  exception  of  several  relatively 
small  areas,  are  well  below  the  national  average;  residential  rates 
are  10  per  cent  lower,  and  commercial  and  industrial  rates  are 
25  per  cent  to  30  per  cent  lower.  North  Carolina  rates  are  lower 
than  those  in  our  neighboring  states.  In  the  past  two  years  the 
generating  capacity  has  been  increased  from  3,624,983  kilowatts 
to  4,435,833  kilowatts,  and  this  is  dramatic  proof  of  economic 

The  number  of  telephones  in  service  in  North  Carolina  is 
increasing  at  the  rate  of  approximately  65,000  per  year.  Held 
orders  have  decreased  from  37,000  in  1954  to  less  than  3,000  at 

The  present  commission  operating  under  the  present  laws  has 
done  an  outstanding  job,  and  this  fact  is  so  recognized  at  the 
national  level. 

Give  them  clearer  laws  and  they  will  do  an  even  better  job. 

We  need  a  full-time  legal  advocate  for  the  public. 

We  need  a  full-time  expert  representing  the  public. 

There  is  a  need  to  define  the  lines  between  the  private  com- 
panies and  the  co-operatives.  We  need  to  change  the  method  of 
increasing  rates  under  bond  prior  to  any  hearing. 

There  is  need  to  have  a  workable  and  understandable  rate- 
making  law,  protecting  the  public  and  fair  to  the  companies. 

The  General  Statutes  Commission  will  present  a  report  and 
recommendations  to  you,  and  in  addition  you  will  have  available 
the  study  made  by  Mr.  Edward  Hipp"^^  and  the  recommendations 
of  our  own  Utilities  Commission. 


The  North  Carolina  Rural  Electrification  Authority,  under 
the  chairmanship  of  Gwyn  B.  Price,^^  has  successfully  promoted 
an  expansion  program  which  now  has  98  per  cent  coverage  in 

Edward  B.  Hipp,  lawyer,  public  official  from  Raleigh;  served  as  attorney  to 
Utilities  Commission  since  1963.  Information  supplied  by  Utilities  Commission 

*^  Gwyn  B.  Price  (1900-  )  ,  farmer  from  Warrensville;  member  of  Farmers 
Cooperative  Council  of  North  Carolina;  Director,  Farmers  Cooperative  Exchange; 
leader  in  State  Grange;  Chairman,  North  Carolina  Rural  Electrification  Authority 
smce  1941.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  496. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

dependable  electric  service  and  dependable  telephone  service  for 
50  per  cent  of  our  rural  people,  reaching  212,000  consumer 

The  growing  problem  of  duplication  of  service  must  be  solved 
with  fairness  to  all,  especially  the  rate  payer,  and  this  will  be  one 
of  our  jobs  during  this  session. 


The  North  Carolina  mental  care  system  is  not  only  in  the 
mainstream  of  America;  John  Umstead*^  has  put  it  in  the  first 
flotilla,  and  the  professional  leadership  of  Dr.  Eugene  Hargrove*^ 
will  keep  us  setting  an  example  for  the  rest  of  the  nation. 

To  a  great  extent  our  potential  rests  with  the  mental  health 
of  our  people.  We  have  risen  above  the  old  concept  of  custodial 
care.  Our  philosophy  now,  rising  from  the  public  attitude  and 
spirit  and  promoted  by  professional  knowledge,  is  treatment  and 

While  yearly  admissions  have  risen  extraordinarily,  the  aver- 
age daily  population  of  the  hospital  has  almost  leveled  off.  For 
the  first  time,  this  halts  a  rise  in  resident  population  which  has 
been  going  on  since  the  establishment  of  the  hospitals.  This  has 
been  accomplished,  of  course,  only  by  the  discharge  rate  keeping 
pace  with  admissions  which  means  a  much  more  active  treatment 
program  within  our  hospitals. 

We  are  requesting  support  for  additional  research. 

The  guideline  for  the  future  in  North  Carolina  is  the  develop- 
ment of  an  integrated,  comprehensive  patient-family-community 
oriented  system  of  care  for  major  and  minor  mental  disturbances, 
including  mental  retardation. 

You  will  also  be  asked  to  consider  the  establishment  of  a  men- 
tal health  department  which  will  expand  the  scope  of  services. 

North  Carolina  is  in  a  position  to  play  a  leading  role  in  a 
national  trend  toward  the  maximum  realization  of  human  re- 
sources through  research,  training,  and  service  in  the  mental 
health  field. 


The  North  Carolina  Symphony,  under  the  leadership  of  our 

John  Wesley  Umstead,  Jr.  (1889-  )  ,  Democratic  leader  from  Orange  County; 
insurance  agent  active  in  various  affairs  of  the  state:  University  Board  of  Trustees, 
Hospitals  Board  of  Control,  Grange,  Masonic  Order,  legislator,  1931,  1939,  1941- 
1961.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1961,  562-563. 

«  Eugene  Alexander  Hargrove  (1918-  )  ,  physician,  specializing  in  psychiatry, 
from  Raleigh;  member  of  American  Medical  Association;  Clinical  Professor  of 
Psychiatry  at  the  University  of  North  Carolina;  author  of  many  professional 
articles.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  492-493. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


imaginative  pioneer,  Dr.  Benjamin  Swalin/^  adds  to  the  enrich- 
ment of  the  education  of  our  children  across  the  state,  as  it  pres- 
ently begins  its  eighteenth  annual  tour.  We  must  assure  the 
permanent  establishment  of  the  symphony. 


The  outdoor  dramas,  a  North  Carolina  creation,  give  us  a  first 
ranking  position  and  add  to  the  appeal  to  tourists  and  the  en- 
joyment of  our  citizens. 


The  North  Carolina  Museum  of  Art  continues  to  amaze  visi- 
tors, influence  industrial  prospects,  enrich  the  lives  of  our  young 
people,  and  reflect  credit  on  our  state. 

Dr.  Justus  Bier,  Director,^'^  internationally  recognized,  has  car- 
ried on  his  work  with  great  skill  and  imagination.  The  exhibi- 
tion on  Tilmann  Riemenschneider  last  fall,  supported  by  the 
governments  of  France,  the  Netherlands,  and  West  Germany, 
was  a  tremendous  success  with  our  people,  and  widely  reported 
in  popular  as  well  as  in  art  periodicals.  Life  magazine,  for  exam- 
ple, devoted  eight  full-color  pages  to  the  North  Carolina  exhibi- 
tion and  carried  one  of  the  exhibition  sculptures  on  the  cover 
of  its  Latin  American  edition. 

During  the  year  the  Kress  Foundation  turned  over  to  the  state 
the  title  to  the  seventy-two  works  of  art  valued  at  $2.5  million. 
The  total  value  of  our  collection  is  about  $7.5  million. 


We  continue  to  be  disturbed  by  the  national  increase  in  traflic 
accidents.  One  of  our  positive  accomplishments  has  been  the 
establishment  of  the  privately-endowed  North  Carolina  Traflic 
Safety  Council,  which  is  digging  hard  for  solutions. 

I  have  already  outlined  publicly  a  program  which  I  think  will 
save  some  lives.  All  of  our  experience  in  this  and  other  states 
indicates  drastic  action  is  necessary  if  you  really  want  to  reduce 
injuries  and  fatalities.  I  will  send  you  a  special  message  relating 
to  this  problem. 

Benjamin  Franklin  Swalin  (1901-  ),  violinist,  Associate  Professor  of  Music 
at  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  1935-1949;  Director  of  North  Carolina  Sym- 
phony Orchestra  since  1949.  Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  1195. 

*^  Justus  Bier  (1899-  ),  art  professional  from  Germany;  member  of  Inter- 
national Art  Critics  Association;  Fulbright  Fellow,  University  of  Wurzburg;  art 
editor  and  critic;  Director,  North  Carolina  Museum  of  Art  since  1961.  North 
Carolina  Manual,  1963,  489-490. 


Papers  of  Terry  San  ford 


The  people  voted  for  the  amendments  to  improve  the  admin- 
istration of  justice. 

Appropriate  research  material  for  legislation  is  being  prepared 
by  a  committee  of  representatives  of  the  General  Assembly,  the 
Bar  Association,  the  Judicial  Council,  and  the  public.  This  will 
be  presented  to  your  proper  committees  for  guidance  in  deter- 
mining what  actions  might  be  taken  this  year.  I  think  the  public 
expects  us  to  start  implementation. 

In  addition,  the  Judicial  Council  will  make  meritorious  rec- 
ommendations for  the  general  improvement  of  the  courts  and 
court  procedure. 


Personnel  Administration  has  made  continuing  progress  in  the 
past  two  years,  and  is  now  under  the  direction  of  Walter  E. 
Fuller,^^  an  able  civil  servant.  In  this  area,  continued  progress 
and  accomplishments  are  of  utmost  importance,  not  only  to  rec- 
ognize fairly  the  many  capable  and  conscientious  employees  of 
the  state,  but  also  to  meet  the  future  needs  for  competent  man- 
agement and  leadership.  The  dynamic  nature  of  state  government 
makes  it  imperative  that  we  maintain  an  employment  atmosphere 
attractive  to  the  highest  caliber  of  well-trained  and  qualified 
career  employees;  more  emphasis  will  be  needed  on  the  develop- 
ment and  training  of  our  personnel. 

A  longevity  pay  plan,  as  provided  by  the  Enabling  Act  passed 
by  the  last  legislature,  has  iDeen  adopted  by  the  State  Personnel 
Council,  and  I  have  recommended  that  the  State  Personnel  Coun- 
cil study  the  feasibility  of  increasing  these  payments. 

Contrary  to  the  belief  of  many,  there  are  a  good  number  of 
state  employees  who  do  not  enjoy  the  commonly  referred  to 
standard  work  week  of  forty  hours.  Significant  improvements 
have  been  made;  for  example,  in  our  mental  institutions  some 
900  employees  have  had  their  working  hours  reduced  since  July 
7,  1961.  On  January  I,  1962,  the  hours  of  custodial  employees  of 
the  Prison  Department  were  reduced  from  sixty  to  forty-eight 
hours.  Five  years  ago  these  employees  worked  seventy-two  hours 
per  week.  The  objective  is  to  get  and  keep  better  guards,  and 
you  can  see  the  quality  of  the  work  reflected  in  the  reduction  in 

*"  Walter  Erwin  Fuller  (1912-  ),  agriculturist,  farm  and  civic  leader  from 
Louisburg;  former  Assistant  Director,  Department  of  Conservation  and  Develop- 
ment; State  Personnel  Director,  1962-1963;  Director  of  Department  of  Water 
Resources,  1964.  Governor  Sanford's  news  release  of  December  10,  1963. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


The  1961  Appropriation  Act  included  a  salary  adjustment 
fund  for  each  of  the  two  years.  During  the  past  two  years,  the 
State  Personnel  Council  has  authorized  salary  range  revisions 
for  some  200  classes  of  positions  which  included  approximately 
8,000  employees. 

Although  this  is  not  in  the  budget,  we  need  a  continuation  of 
a  salary  adjustment  fund  to  be  provided  in  the  1963-1965  budget. 
You  will  receive  requests  for  across-the-board  salary  increases 
which  are  not  set  forth  in  the  budget.  You  will  receive  requests 
for  higher  salaries  for  professional  personnel.  I  recommend  that 
the  joint  appropriations  committee  study  these  three  problems 
so  that  we  might  reach  fair  and  equitable  decisions. 


I  am  pleased  to  report  much  success  in  the  co-operation  be- 
tween state  government  and  the  100  counties. 

The  state  and  the  counties  are  partners  in  the  financing  of 
public  schools,  in  the  financing  of  community  colleges,  in  the 
support  of  industrial  education  centers,  in  the  administration 
and  financing  of  public  welfare  and  public  health,  in  library 
operation,  hospital  construction,  and  agriculture  extension.  We 
work  with  them  in  the  development  of  plans  for  roads  and  water 
resources  and  many  other  programs. 

Last  year  I  was  privileged  to  attend  their  national  meeting 
and  observed  that  most  other  states  look  to  North  Carolina  as  a 
model  of  co-operation  which  they  hope  to  achieve. 

We  have  sought  the  advice  and  suggestions  of  county  officials 
in  all  things  relating  to  joint  responsibilities,  and  they  have  been 
most  co-operative  and  helpful. 

We  shall  continue  to  seek  their  assistance,  and  shall  continue 
to  furnish  advice  available  to  us  and  to  assist  them  in  every  pos- 
sible way  in  the  discharge  of  their  responsibilities. 

We  cannot  hope  to  make  progress  unless  county  officials  are 
willing  to  do  their  share,  to  accept  their  responsibilities,  and  to 
lead  out  in  education  and  other  programs  vital  to  the  future  of 
our  people. 


Thirty  years  ago  only  25  per  cent  of  our  citizens  lived  in  town. 
Now  it  is  40  per  cent.  In  the  perspective  of  history,  it  will  be  but 
an  instant  before  a  majority  of  North  Carolinians  are  city  resi- 

As  people  crowd  together,  their  problems  multiply  geomet- 
rically, and  they  need  help. 

There  are  three  ways  in  which  the  state  can  assist:   (1)  with 


Papers  of  Terry  San  ford 

money;  (2)  with  enabling  legislation;  and  (3)  with  planning 
and  advisory  services.  I  propose  action  in  all  three  categories. 

There  is  a  way  in  which  the  state  can  give  financial  aid  and 
save  itself  money.  I  have  instructed  the  Highway  Department 
to  set  up  a  revolving  fund  for  the  advance  acquisition  of  high- 
way rights-of-way.  Where  future  thoroughfares  are  engineered, 
the  state  can  use  its  money  to  purchase  and  hold  rights-of-way, 
protection  of  open  spaces,  tightening  of  Powell  Bill  procedures, 
and  other  changes  which  should  help  the  towns  and  cities. 

Finally,  we  can  give  all  the  cities  a  point  of  contact  in  state 
government  where  they  can  receive  planning  advice,  economic 
development  assistance,  and  find  an  advocate  with  federal  agen- 


In  striving  for  the  economic  and  educational  growth  of  our 
people,  I  know  that  we  must  always  be  aware  that  rapid  growth 
brings  not  only  benefits  but  also  problems. 

To  cope  with  these  problems  of  development  in  a  sound  and 
orderly  manner,  sound  planning  principles  must  be  employed. 
Our  larger  cities  are  meeting  the  problem  by  employing  profes- 
sional planning  staffs.  Our  smaller  communities,  however,  often 
lack  the  financial  resources  to  do  this  even  though  the  problems 
confronting  them  are  not  less  acute  than  those  of  the  larger 

In  recognition  of  this  problem,  the  General  Assembly  of  1957 
authorized  the  creation  of  a  Division  of  Community  Planning 
within  the  structure  of  the  Department  of  Conservation  and  De- 
velopment. Since  its  activation,  the  division  has  concentrated 
its  efforts  in  the  smaller  municipalities  and  counties  having 
populations  of  less  than  50,000  persons.  After  the  first  full  year's 
operation,  in  late  1958,  the  division  was  serving  only  four  mu- 
nicipalities. Now,  some  four  years  later,  sixty-seven  municipali- 
ties and  eleven  counties  are  being  served,  and  additional  com- 
munities are  being  added  to  the  list  as  rapidly  as  assistance  can 
be  provided. 

We  can  avoid  the  crowded  cities,  the  slums,  the  breeders  of 
crime  and  disorder,  by  making  planning  a  part  of  our  growth. 


The  North  Carolina  Recreation  Commission  under  the  lead- 
ership of  Ralph  J.  Andrews,*"^  its  imaginative  director,  primarily 

Ralph  James  Andrews  (1906-  ),  park  executive  from  Raleigh;  leader  in 
various  professional  activities,  including  the  American  Recreation  Society,  Ameri- 
can Red  Cross,  and  North  Carolina  Travel  Council;  since  1950,  State  Director  of 
Recreation.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  485. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


is  in  the  business  of  furnishing  advice  and  stimulus  to  public, 
private,  and  commercial  recreation  interests  throughout  the 
whole  state. 

North  Carolina  of  the  future  will  need  vast  recreational  facil- 
ities. People  will  be  living  in  more  crowded  conditions— predic- 
tions have  been  made  that  we  will  have  one  vast  city  ranging 
from  the  Research  Triangle  to  Charlotte— leisure  time  is  a  cer- 
tainty, and  more  millions  will  be  traveling  to  "Variety  Vacation- 
land"  for  recreation. 

Only  a  few  years  ago,  we  were  giving  little  or  no  attention  to 
the  development  of  recreation;  now  it  is  suddenly  important. 
We  have  asked  the  North  Carolina  Recreation  Commission  to 
draw  together  all  agencies  directly  or  indirectly  concerned  with 
recreation,  and  to  plan  now  for  the  1980's. 


We  are  doing  much  with  our  natural  resources  and,  of  equal 
importance,  are  practicing  conservation  measures  that  will  en- 
hance their  value  for  future  generations. 

Management  practices  and  fire-control  programs  of  our  forest 
land  make  us  a  leader  in  these  programs  in  the  Southeast.  The 
assistance  being  rendered  to  woodland  owners  by  our  State  For- 
est Service  continues  to  be  of  considerable  value  to  local  economy 
and  our  forest  tree  seedling  program  is  helping  to  insure  an 
abundant  growth  of  trees  for  the  future.  Some  43  million  seed- 
lings will  be  sold  this  year,  and  increased  interest  in  the  program 
indicates  even  greater  distribution  for  the  coming  years. 

The  serious  loss  of  woodlands  from  forest  fires  has  been  re- 
duced through  modern  fire-fighting  techniques  and  equipment. 
During  the  past  two  years  the  average  size  of  our  forest  fires  has 
been  reduced  drastically  and  the  percentage  of  protected  acreage 
actually  burned  has  been  brought  to  a  new  low  figure. 


We  must  not  ignore  the  preservation  and  protection  for  the 
benefit  of  our  people  those  things  of  our  natural  and  native  sur- 
roundings that  are  so  much  a  part  of  the  beauty  and  history  of 
our  state.  Over  the  past  two  years  state  parks  were  visited  by 
more  than  3.25  million  people,  an  all-time  high  attendance  fig- 
ure. As  our  state  continues  to  grow  economically  and  industrially, 
the  demand  for  park  facilities  will  increase  rapidly.  During  the 
past  two  years  two  new  areas  have  been  added  to  bring  to  thir- 
teen our  total  of  state  parks. 

We  also  have  been  expanding  greatly  the  facilities  at  Kerr 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Reservoir  under  the  Kerr  Reservoir  Development  Commission. 

The  North  Carolina  National  Park,  Parkway  and  Forest  De- 
velopment Commission  concerns  itself  with  the  development  of 
the  Great  Smoky  Mountains  National  Park,  the  Blue  Ridge 
Parkway,  and  the  North  Carolina  National  Forests.  This  spring 
we  have  called  a  conference  on  outdoor  recreation  in  the  Appa- 
lachians which  should  be  of  great  help  in  the  development  of 
western  North  Carolina. 

The  Hatteras  National  Seashore  Park  Commission  is  concerned 
with  the  development  and  promotion  of  the  greatest  seashore 
park  in  the  country. 

We  need  to  plan  today  for  adequate  parks  for  the  future. 


The  Wildlife  Resources  Commission  is  supported  from  hunt- 
ing and  fishing  license  fees  and  certain  federal  funds. 

Headed  by  Clyde  P.  Patton,  Executive  Director,^^  we  have  a 
program  of  intensive  fish  and  game  management  building  for  the 
present  use  and  protecting  for  the  future  use. 


Water  resources  development  in  North  Carolina  has  gained 
momentum  rapidly  during  the  current  biennium  under  the  di- 
rection of  Harry  E.  Brown.^^ 

Steps  aimed  at  full  development  of  major  river  basins  for 
purposes  of  water  supply,  water  quality  improvement,  flood  con- 
trol, navigation,  irrigation,  and  recreation  are  moving  steadily 

The  completion  of  the  W.  Kerr  Scott  Reservoir  on  the  Yadkin 
River  will  provide  for  future  industrial  development,  for  flood 
control,  and  many  advantages  including  the  growing  demand 
for  recreation  facilities. 

Similar  possibilities  are  included  in  the  100-year  plan  for  the 
comprehensive  development  of  the  Cape  Fear  Basin  which  is 
now  under  consideration  by  Congress. 

Similar  studies  for  the  Neuse  will  be  ready  in  1963,  and  for 
the  Upper  French  Broad  in  1965.  Surveys  for  the  Catawba,  New, 
and  French  Broad  river  basins  are  in  progress.  Similar  studies 

Clyde  Pharr  Patton  (1913-  )  ,  biologist,  author,  civic  leader  from  Raleigh; 
Director,  North  Carolina  Wildlife  Resources  Commission  since  1948.  North  Carolina 
Manual,  1963,  498. 

Harry  Emerson  Brown  (1898-  )  ,  industrial  engineer  and  World  Wars  I  and 
II  veteran  from  Raleigh;  former  administrator  of  Department  of  Conservation  and 
Development;  Director  of  Department  of  Water  Resources,  1961-1964.  North  Caro- 
lina Manual,  1963,  486-487;  Governor  Sanford's  news  release  of  December  10,  1963. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


for  the  Yadkin,  Broad,  and  Tar  river  basins  have  been  authorized. 

Waterway  development  is  moving  forward  at  the  fastest  rate 
in  the  state's  history. 

Studies  of  the  coastline  are  in  progress.  Hurricane  protection 
plans  for  Carolina  Beach,  Fort  Fisher,  Wrightsville,  and  Fort 
Macon  are  authorized  by  Congress.  Plans  for  protection  against 
storm  flooding  for  areas  of  Craven  and  Pamlico  counties  are  near 

The  state  is  a  partner  with  New  Hanover  County,  the  town  of 
Wrightsville  Beach,  and  the  federal  government  in  the  Saline 
Water  Conversion  Research  and  Development  Test  Station. 

North  Carolina's  state-wide  antipollution  program  has  made 
great  progress;  all  basins  studies  have  been  completed;  thirteen 
basins  have  been  classified  (90  per  cent  of  the  state's  area) ,  leav- 
ing only  three  which  will  be  completed  by  the  end  of  this  session. 
Chairman  Vivian  Whitfield     deserves  commendation. 

The  eroding  shoreline  is  particularly  acute.  The  Water  Re- 
sources Department  and  a  special  committee  headed  by  Wood- 
row  Price^^  are  making  extensive  studies,  and  will  have  recom- 
mendations to  make  to  you. 

There  will  be  other  modest  requests,  but  I  hope  you  will  see 
the  importance,  the  new  momentum,  and  will  work  to  keep  us 
moving  rapidly  to  conserve  and  develop  this  great  and  valuable 
natural  resource. 

STATE  ports 

The  State  Ports  Authority  is  adding  new  life  to  the  economy 
of  North  Carolina  in  a  way  that  will  bring  benefits  for  many 
years.  No  longer  are  we  required  to  look  to  the  north  and  the 
south  for  exports  and  imports,  having  some  of  our  profits  rub 
off  as  we  of  necessity  relied  on  the  ports  of  Norfolk  and  Charles- 

During  the  last  biennium,  we  have  completed  a  new  ware- 
house and  equipment  garage  at  Morehead  City  and  have  acquired 
the  former  shipyard  at  Wilmington  under  a  lease-purchase  option. 

We  have  also  built  at  Wilmington  a  new  T-head  pier  for  the 
purpose  of  handling  bulk  liquid  cargos,  and  have  seen  new  com- 
panies come  in  to  use  this  and  other  port  facilities. 

^  James  Vivian  Whitfield  (1894-  ),  farm  leader  from  Burgaw;  former  mem- 
ber of  United  States  Foreign  Service;  legislator,  1945-1953;  Chairman,  State  Stream 
Sanitation  Committee  and  member  of  Advisory  Committee  on  Forestry.  North 
Carolina  Manual,  1953,  445;  Governor  Sanford's  news  release  of  February  21,  1962. 

J^Woodrow  Price,  managing  editor  of  the  News  and  Observer  from  Raleigh; 
Chairman  of  North  Carolina  Outer  Banks  Seashore  Commission.  Governor  San- 
ford's news  release  of  August  31,  1962. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Ports  business  has  increased. 

We  need  additional  berths  and  warehouses  if  we  are  to  stay 
in  the  competition. 

Our  sister  states  are  moving  rapidly.  Port  development  is  an 
important  segment  of  our  total  economic  development,  as  impor- 
tant as  roads  and  airports.  Our  ports  are  fast  approaching  self- 
support,  but  we  need  now  to  make  the  wise  investments  which 
will  keep  our  economy  moving. 


This  is  the  three  hundred  seventy-sixth  year  since  the  birth  of 
Virginia  Dare  and  the  three  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  Caro- 
lina Charter  by  King  Charles  II,  and  we  are  going  to  have  many 
things  remind  us  of  a  full  and  proud  heritage. 

We  should  not  let  this  tercentenary  pass  without  building  a 
hall  of  history.  We  are  the  only  state  between  Pennsylvania  and 
the  Gulf  Coast  without  a  proper  place  to  display  and  preserve 
our  history,  and  our  documents  are  in  constant  jeopardy  in  their 
present  temporary  storage. 


A  strong  State  Library,  supporting  local  libraries,  is  a  part  of 
a  wise  program  of  education,  and  indeed  the  extent  of  libraries 
is  a  measure  of  the  civilization  of  a  people. 

One  example  of  the  work  is  the  State  Library  Processing  Cen- 
ter which  orders,  catalogs,  processes,  and  delivers  ready  for  use 
books  selected  by  participating  libraries  in  sixty-four  counties. 
Consultant  services,  extension  services,  and  the  State  Aid  to  Pub- 
lic Libraries  Fund  are^examples  of  other  assistance  to  local  com- 
munities and  the  very  fine  services  directed  by  Mrs.  Elizabeth 
H.  Hughey.52 

We  do  not  really  have  a  library  in  the  physical  sense.  We  need 
this  badly  if  we  are  to  develop  our  facility  properly,  and  it  is 
believed  that  it  should  be  built  in  conjunction  with  our  hall  of 


You  are  the  first  General  Assembly  in  at  least  two  decades  to 
be  free  from  the  responsibility  of  providing  funds  for  a  growing 
prison  population.  Your  Prison  Department  is  the  only  one  in 
the  nation  with  a  decreasing  population,  and  we  expect  a  reduc- 

°2  Elizabeth  House  Hughey  (1916-  ),  State  Librarian  from  Raleigh;  member 
of  American  Library  Association,  Adult  Education  Association  of  America,  and 
North  Carolina  Family  Life  Council.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  494-495. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


tion  of  more  than  1,200  inmates  from  what  the  figure  would 
have  been  if  the  average  inmate  population  had  continued  to 
grow  as  it  did  from  1945  through  1961. 

I  am  sure  we  are  pleased  when  the  cost  of  crime  is  reduced  and 
the  tax-dollar  is  saved.  The  savings  in  human  resources,  gainful 
employment,  and  the  reduction  in  heartbreak  and  mental  an- 
guish are  the  most  significant  gains  from  stopping  the  growth 
of  the  prison  population. 

Close  co-operation  between  the  Prison  Department  and  free 
community  agencies  and  citizens  in  aiding  alcoholics  has  helped 
to  remove  many  from  the  list  of  repeated  offenders. 

The  rapid  growth  and  remarkable  success  of  the  Work  Release 
Program  has  attracted  national  and  international  attention.  This 
program  has  not  only  helped  to  reduce  the  prison  population  by 
its  effectiveness  as  a  rehabilitation  measure,  but  has  also  shifted 
the  cost  of  supporting  more  than  1,250  work  release  prisoners 
and  their  dependents  from  the  state  to  the  prisoners  themselves. 

Another  especially  noteworthy  aspect  of  the  Work  Release 
Program  is  the  fact  that  court,  probation,  prison,  parole,  welfare, 
and  employment  officials  and  personnel  all  have  important  func- 
tions in  its  development  and  operation.  Credit  for  and  pride  in 
the  success  of  this  program  is,  therefore,  widely  shared. 

We  need  to  have  the  Work  Release  Law  modified  so  that  its 
proven  value  as  a  pre-parole  program  can  be  extended  to  prison- 
ers serving  sentences  longer  than  five  years. 

We  need  to  expand  and  extend  the  programs  and  measures 
conducted  co-operatively  by  the  Prison  Department  and  the  Hos- 
pitals Board  of  Control  to  determine  what  can  and  should  be 
done  for  prisoners  who  are  mentally  ill  or  inebriates. 

We  need  to  make  a  comprehensive  study  of  possible  alterna- 
tives for  treating  the  alcoholic  offender. 

We  need  to  encourage  and  facilitate  co-ordination  of  the  pro- 
grams of  all  agencies  concerned  with  crime  prevention  and  con- 
trol, and  in  this  regard  I  commend  to  you  the  recommendations 
of  the  Commission  on  Reorganization  of  State  Government. 

With  rare  exceptions  it  is  far  better  to  place  a  person  on  parole 
than  to  give  an  outright  discharge  from  prison.  Parole  proce- 
dure provides  some  supervision  and  some  help  in  readjustment 
and  makes  return  to  prison  less  likely.  Of  the  7,000  paroled,  only 
1.4  per  cent  committed  while  on  parole  what  would  be  termed 
really  serious  offenses. 

We  need  additional  parole  officers  to  do  the  job  in  the  proper 
manner,  giving  personal  attention  which  will  lessen  the  chances 
of  return  to  prison.  Reformation  of  the  prisoner  is  the  most 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

important  work  of  the  Board  of  Paroles,  and  it  is  obvious  that 
Chairman  Johnson  Matthews^^  has  made  the  policy  work. 

The  financial  side  is  no  small  matter.  In  the  last  two  years 
alone  over  $6  million  has  been  saved  by  placing  men  on  parole 
who  otherwise  would  have  been  an  expense  to  the  prison  system, 
and  over  $700,000  has  been  saved  in  welfare  payments  to  the 
families  of  these  men.  In  addition,  in  the  same  period  the  men 
on  parole  have  earned  almost  $8  million  on  which  they  paid 
taxes  to  help  support  the  men  they  left  in  prison,  to  say  nothing 
of  adding  to  the  support  of  schools  for  their  children. 

Probation  also  has  been  of  significant  value  because  it  gives 
careful  supervision  to  the  person  in  trouble  before  he  suffers  the 
many  bad  effects  of  being  in  the  prison  system,  associating  with 
people  who  may  cause  additional  trouble.  The  probation  system, 
under  the  able  leadership  of  Charles  Cohoon,^*  is  being  used 
more  and  more  by  the  judges;  if  we  are  to  make  this  work,  to 
redeem  lives,  to  save  money  for  the  state,  we  need  additional 
probation  supervisors. 

We  can  supervise  a  man  on  probation  or  parole  for  a  year  at 
the  cost  of  keeping  him  in  prison  for  one  month,  and  records 
show  this  person  will  earn  his  own  money,  pay  taxes,  and  is  less 
likely  to  get  into  trouble  again. 

These  agencies— Probation,  Prison,  Parole— will  continue  to 
move  forward  in  the  twofold  task  of  protecting  the  public  and 
rehabilitating  offenders.  We  expect  to  reduce  further  the  cost  of 
crime  by  closer  guidance,  expanding  rehabilitation  programs  for 
youthful  offenders,  alcoholics,  and  inmates  needing  medical  and 
psychiatric  treatment,  by  group  counseling,  pre-release  prepara- 
tion, academic  and  vocational  education,  and  the  expansion  of 
the  Work  Release  Program. 


North  Carolina  is  known  across  the  nation  for  its  progressive 
public  welfare  program,  a  program  which  has  placed  great  em- 
phasis on  a  wide  variety  of  services  that  help  people  to  help  them- 

Despite  this  range  of  services,  public  welfare  in  North  Carolina 
has  been  marked  by  economy  of  administration. 

Johnson  Matthews  (1899-  ),  lawyer.  World  War  I  veteran  from  Durham; 
state  legislator,  1927;  Chairman,  North  Carolina  Board  of  Paroles  under  Governors 
Hodges  and  Sanford;  helped  set  up  state's  Work  Release  Act;  retired  September, 
1963.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  467;  News  and  Observer  (Raleigh)  ,  March  16, 
1960,  hereinafter  cited  as  News  and  Observer. 

"William  Charles  Cohoon  (1917-  ),  from  Columbia;  jobber  of  petroleum 
products;  former  county  commissioner;  legislator,  1959  and  1961;  Director  of  State 
Probation  Commission.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  482. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


The  1961  General  Assembly  strengthened  the  public  welfare 
program  in  a  number  of  ways  through  both  legislation  and  appro- 
priations. These  measures  have  all  been  implemented  during 
the  biennium  to  the  end  that  grants  are  slightly  higher  for  needy 
people  and  services  are  on  a  sounder  basis. 

Good  as  the  record  is,  we  are  not  doing  enough  in  the  public 
welfare  area.  We  must  see  to  it  that  every  child  deprived  of  the 
support  and  care  of  his  parents  has  his  basic  needs  for  food, 
clothing,  and  shelter  met  at  such  a  level  that  he  can  in  turn  take 
full  advantage  of  educational  opportunity  and  become  a  well- 
adjusted,  self-supporting  adult. 

We  will  have  some  good  recommendations  coming  from  the 
special  commission  set  up  by  the  last  General  Assembly  and 
under  the  chairmanship  of  former  Senator  Dallas  Alford.^^ 

We  also  need  to  turn  our  attention  to  the  necessarily  high  cost 
of  medical  care  for  the  medically  indigent  and  also  for  older 
people  no  longer  able  to  work,  not  medically  indigent,  but  with 
limited  funds,  who  have  worked  hard  all  of  their  lives,  who  have 
not  been  able  to  save  much  from  limited  earnings,  and  who  face 
having  all  of  their  life's  savings  wiped  out  by  extended  illness. 
I  do  not  believe  this  is  socialized  medicine,  and  I  do  not  believe 
it  leads  toward  socialized  medicine,  and  I  do  not  think  we  can 
continue  to  ignore  the  needs  of  these  people  in  the  face  of  in- 
creasing medical  care  costs.  We  have  a  special  committee  working 
on  the  implementation  of  Kerr-Mills  legislation  and  will  have  this 
available  for  your  consideration. 


We  have  the  State  School  for  the  Blind  and  Deaf  at  Raleigh 
with  Egbert  N.  Peeler^^  as  superintendent;  and  in  Morganton 
the  largest  school  for  the  deaf  in  the  nation,  under  the  direction 
of  Ben  Hoffmeyer.^^ 

We  also  are  in  the  process  of  building  an  additional  school  for 
the  deaf  at  Wilson  under  authorization  of  the  last  session  of  the 
General  Assembly.  You  are  being  asked  to  implement  this  new 
school,  which  is  much  needed  to  provide  training  for  children 
who  live  in  the  eastern  half  of  the  state. 

Dallas  L.  Alford,  Jr.,  realtor,  former  county  commissioner  and  state  senator 
from  Rocky  Mount;  member,  Governor's  Commission  to  Study  Public  Welfare. 
North  Carolina  Manual,  1961,  469;  Goveror  Sanford's  news  release  of  December  15, 

"  Egbert  Noll  Peeler,  educator,  school  superintendent  from  Raleigh;  Superinten- 
dent of  State  School  for  the  Blind  and  Deaf.  Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  960. 

"Ben  Earl  Hoffmeyer  (1914-  ),  religious  and  educational  leader  from  Mor- 
ganton; Superintendent  of  State  School  for  the  Deaf  at  Morganton  since  1955. 
Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  608. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Also,  we  need  to  remember  as  we  improve  the  public  schools 
that  this  specialized  training  is  also  a  part  of  public  education, 
and  should  not  be  overlooked.  These  children  need  too  the  ad- 
vantages of  the  increased  appropriations  which  attract  and  hold 
the  best  possible  teachers. 


The  North  Carolina  State  Commission  for  the  Blind,  with 
H.  A.  Wood^^  as  its  able  secretary,  charged  with  all  services  for 
the  blind  except  the  schools,  has  the  support  of  volunteers  to  a 
degree  unequaled  in  any  other  state  in  the  nation. 

In  rehabilitation  North  Carolina  has  led  the  nation  for  the 
past  fifteen  years  in  the  number  of  blind  persons  rehabilitated 
into  employment. 

Home  industries,  medical  services,  prevention  of  blindness, 
restoration  of  vision  are  a  part  of  this  remarkable  state  service. 

We  will  ask  you  to  strengthen  these  services. 


North  Carolina  has  ahvays  made  a  heavy  contribution  in  man- 
power to  our  nation's  armed  forces.  As  evidence  of  this,  we  have 
a  veteran  population  of  some  436,000  persons.  There  are  over 
96,000  veterans  and  dependents  in  North  Carolina  now  receiving 
some  form  of  disability  or  death  benefits,  and  it  is  significant  to 
note  that  we  have  about  2,000  Tar  Heels  who  were  disabled  in 
the  so-called  "peacetime"  actions  around  the  globe  since  Korea. 
These  men,  together  with  their  dependents— widows,  orphans, 
and  aging  parents  who  lost  sons— comprise  about  45  per  cent  of 
our  population.  Last  year  alone,  federal  expenditures  for  veter- 
ans in  North  Carolina  exceeded  $143  million. 

For  the  most  part,  assistance  in  obtaining  and  continuing  to 
receive  these  benefits  must  come  from  outside  the  federal  gov- 
ernment. These  benefits  are  not  automatic;  entitlement  must  be 
proved.  Such  assistance  is  provided  all  over  North  Carolina 
through  the  work  of  the  North  Carolina  Veterans  Commission, 
headed  by  Collin  McKinne.^^ 


Recurrent  international  crises  and  the  grave  dangers  that  face 
our  nation  in  this  nuclear  age  leave  little  room  for  doubt  that 

^  Henry  Alton  Wood  (1904-  ),  leader  in  service  to  the  blind;  member  of 
American  Association  for  the  Blind;  United  States  delegate,  World  Council  for 
Welfare  of  the  Blind  in  Rome;  North  Carolina  Executive  Secretary  of  Commission 
for  the  Blind.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  490. 

°^  Collin  McKinne  (1921-  )  ,  industrial  engineer  and  civic  leader  from  Louis- 
burg;  former  civil  defense  leader;  World  War  II  veteran;  appointed  Director, 
North  Carolina  Veterans  Commission,  1957.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  486. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


realistic  civil  defense  is  essential  to  our  continued  well-being 
and  security  as  a  free  people.  It  is  considered  vital  to  our  national 
diplomacy  and  generally  accepted  as  part  of  our  American  de- 
fense. As  such,  it  is  vital  to  us  as  a  state  and  as  individual  citizens. 

North  Carolina  civil  defense,  established  with  a  small  co- 
ordinating agency  operating  under  the  Governor,  directed  by 
General  Edward  F.  Griffin,^^  has  made  outstanding  progress  dur- 
ing the  biennium. 

Emergency  services  are  established  with  responsibilities  as- 
signed to  twenty-seven  state  agencies  and  organizations.  Training 
has  been  conducted  by  many  of  the  services  at  state,  area,  and 
local  levels. 

Every  county  and  275  cities  and  towns  in  North  Carolina  have 
named  local  civil  defense  directors.  Eighty-three  counties  have 
emergency  plans  written  and  approved,  and  159  cities  and  towns 
are  covered  by  published  plans.  These  plans,  prepared  under 
supervision  of  the  state  agency,  meet  Department  of  Defense 
criteria  and  enable  the  local  agency  to  qualify  for  matching  fed- 
eral funds  and  government  surplus  property. 

Nobody  knows  whether  all  these  defense  measures  will  ever 
have  to  be  used,  but  as  long  as  there  is  any  possibility  that  they 
will  be  required  to  preserve  our  state  and  its  people,  the  effort 
to  establish  and  maintain  a  state  of  operational  readiness  is  fully 


The  North  Carolina  National  Guard  is  a  volunteer  organiza- 
tion composed  of  citizen-soldiers  who  devote  part  of  their  time 
to  training  to  be  ready  for  any  state  or  national  emergency  re- 
quiring the  services  of  disciplined  and  armed  forces. 

In  the  event  of  enemy  attack,  the  National  Guard  has  standing 
orders  to  mobilize  immediately  as  a  part  of  our  civil  defense  plan 
and  will  serve  in  the  state  pending  its  call  to  federal  duty. 

The  organization  consists  of  units  of  the  Army  and  Air  Na- 
tional Guard  located  in  102  cities  and  towns  across  the  state.  The 
Adjutant  General,  Claude  T.  Bowers,^^  is  an  able  and  experi- 
enced veteran  and  administrator. 

Financial  support  is  provided  jointly  by  the  state  and  federal 

~  Edward  Foster  Griffin  (1900-  )  ,  lawyer  from  Louisburg,  former  state  senator; 
Director  of  North  Carolina  Civil  Defense  since  1954;  former  president  of  National 
Association  of  State  Civil  Defense  Directors;  civil  defense  consultant  to  NATO 
Council  Meeting,  1960.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  461-462. 

«^  Claude  Thomas  Bowers  (1899-  ),  civic  leader  from  Warrenton;  distributor 
of  petroleum  products;  veteran  of  World  Wars  I  and  II;  Adjutant  General  of  the 
State  National  Guard  since  1960.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  458-459 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

governments,  with  the  bulk  coming  from  national  defense  funds. 

The  field  training  periods  conducted  during  1961  and  1962 
indicate  that  all  units  were  in  the  best  state  of  training  and  read- 
iness ever  achieved. 

Notable  in  the  achievements  of  the  Army  National  Guard  is 
the  development  and  implementation  of  a  Physical  Fitness  Pro- 
gram for  all  members  of  the  Guard,  developed  with  the  assistance 
of  the  North  Carolina  Recreation  Commission  and  physical 
education  personnel  of  North  Carolina  State  College.  The  chief 
of  the  National  Guard  Bureau  was  so  impressed  that  he  request- 
ed us  to  demonstrate  the  program  to  National  Guard  personnel 
of  all  the  states.  This  was  done  at  conferences  held  in  Raleigh 
and  Salt  Lake  City.  As  a  result,  the  program  has  been  adopted  by 
the  majority  of  the  states  and  North  Carolina  has  received  much 
favorable  comment  and  praise  across  the  nation. 

The  National  Guard  is  now  in  the  process  of  reorganization 
under  the  "ROAD"  concept,  along  with  regular  army  divisions. 
This  is  being  done  in  a  manner  which  will  best  serve  the  nation- 
al defense  interests,  which  is  our  primary  goal  in  the  North 
Carolina  National  Guard. 

We  should  consider  legislation  authorizing  the  establishment 
of  a  North  Carolina  State  Guard  on  a  cadre  basis.  A  cadre  thus 
established,  with  a  few  volunteers  in  each  community  where  Na- 
tional Guard  units  are  now  located,  would  provide  for  a  rapid 
organization  of  a  State  Guard  as  a  replacement  for  the  National 
Guard  in  the  event  of  mobilization  for  national  service. 


We  can  all  be  proud  of  the  accomplishments  of  the  North 
Carolina  Medical  Care  Commission  and  William  F.  Henderson,^^ 
the  Executive  Secretary. 

During  the  past  two  years  the  commission  has  approved  twenty- 
nine  community  health  facility  projects  involving  a  total  cost  of 
|34  million. 

Under  this  program.  North  Carolina  is  leading  the  nation  in 
the  number  of  medical  projects  constructed. 

With  the  state  loan  program,  we  have  attracted  sixty  new  stu- 
dents to  medical  careers  in  the  mental  hospitals  and  in  the  state's 
rural  communities. 

Our  programs  for  the  future  concentrate  on  providing  ade- 
quate personnel  to  staff  our  medical  programs,  and  we  are  giving 

«2  William  Freeman  Henderson  (1913-  ),  former  teacher,  social  service  and 
hospital  administrator  from  Raleigh;  professional  leader  currently  serving  as 
Director  of  the  Medical  Care  Commission.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  481. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


attention  to  attracting  more  people  to  health  careers. 

We  are  giving  more  attention  to  the  development  of  long-term 
care  programs  to  lessen  the  strain  on  acute  general  hospital  beds, 
and  to  provide  less  costly  services  for  the  chronically  infirm. 

During  this  session,  we  will  need  to  consider  budget  requests 
to  encourage  local  facilities  for  the  chronically  ill,  to  aid  in  build- 
ing mental  health  clinics,  and  to  continue  the  student  loan  pro- 


The  guidance,  training,  and  correction  of  juveniles  who  vio- 
late the  law  are  responsibilities  of  the  state. 

North  Carolina  now  enjoys  the  reputation  of  having  one  of 
the  best  correction  and  training  programs  in  the  nation.  This  is 
carried  out  by  the  Board  of  Correction  and  Training  under  the 
dedicated  direction  of  Blaine  M.  Madison.^^ 

Six  schools  across  the  state  plus  the  new  Juvenile  Evaluation 
Center  authorized  by  the  last  session  of  the  General  Assembly 
constitute  our  institutions,  and  their  success  and  competence  are 
measured  by  the  fact  that  90  per  cent  of  the  children  trained 
never  again  become  involved  with  violations  of  the  law. 

The  Juvenile  Evaluation  Center,  providing  services  for  the 
children  from  the  six  schools  with  acute  emotional  and  behavior 
problems,  treats  those  psychologically  disabled,  emotionally  dis- 
turbed, and  physically  handicapped. 

This  center  is  a  significant  forward  movement  toward  our  goal 
of  providing  therapy  for  children  so  they  can  solve  their  prob- 
lems and  return  to  their  own  communities  as  compatible  and 
productive  citizens. 

It  is  not  enough  to  rely  on  the  correctional  institution.  Juve- 
nile delinquency  springs  from  many  causes,  and  to  the  extent 
we  can  work  on  these  causes  we  can  reduce  institutional  treat- 

We  have  established  the  Governor's  Committee  on  Juvenile 
Delinquency  and  Youth  Crime,  bringing  together  all  of  the  vari- 
ous public  and  private  agencies  that  can  have  an  influence  for 
the  good  of  young  people.  This  has  met  with  enthusiastic  re- 
sponse, and  only  last  week  this  program  was  pointed  out  as  a 
model  for  the  other  forty-nine  states. 


Recently  I  had  a  chance  to  outline  the  position  of  education 

^  Blaine  Mark  Madison,  educational  and  welfare  leader  from  Raleigh;  author  of 
many  professional  articles;  appointed  Commissioner  of  State  Board  of  Correction 
and  Training,  1956.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  491. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

beyond  the  high  school  when  I  spoke  at  the  Methodist  College 
in  Fayetteville.  This  report,  position,  and  projection  was  based 
on  the  study  of  Irving  Carlyle's^*  Commission  on  Education  Be- 
yond the  High  School,  which  in  itself  is  a  landmark  in  higher 
education  in  the  state  and  nation. 

The  Board  of  Higher  Education  is  doing  an  excellent  job  and 
we  are  fortunate  to  have  Dr.  William  C.  Archie^^  as  Director. 
The  report  of  the  board  will  soon  be  available  and  distributed 
to  each  of  you,  so  I  will  not  attempt  to  review  its  accomplish- 
ments in  this  message. 

North  Carolina  has  been  able  to  attract  able  men  and  women 
to  lead  our  institutions  of  higher  education.  President  William 
C.  Friday,^^  the  chancellors,  the  college  presidents  all  are  giving 
outstanding  leadership. 

I  hope  you  would  consider  four  main  objectives  in  higher 
education,  and  if  you  do,  I  think  historians  will  look  back  to 
your  session  as  the  year  North  Carolina  started  getting  ready 
for  the  space  age.  Certainly,  countless  generations  of  boys  and 
girls  will  have  their  lives  and  opportunities  made  better  by  your 

The  first  objective  is  a  better  definition  of  the  university, 
drawing  closer  together  the  three  campuses,  strengthening  the 
position  of  each,  providing  for  the  expansion  to  Charlotte  and 
other  communities  as  they  can  justify  professional  and  graduate 
training,  giving  us  one,  great,  strong  university. 

The  second  objective  is  to  provide  for  greater  co-operation 
with  the  private  colleges,  assuring  that  the  influence  of  this  great 
resource  is  not  diminished.  I  have  asked  a  special  committee  to 
work  on  this  and  I  will  keep  you  informed. 

The  third  objective  is  to  enrich  the  program  at  all  of  our 
state  colleges,  to  prepare  for  the  expansion  which  is  sure  to  come, 
and  to  authorize  four-year  colleges  at  Wilmington,  Charlotte, 
and  Asheville. 

The  fourth  objective  is  to  establish  under  the  Board  of  Edu- 

Irving  Edward  Carlyle  (1896-  ),  lawyer,  civic  and  political  leader  from 
Winston-Salem;  former  president  of  North  Carolina  Bar  Association;  member, 
North  Carolina  Board  of  Public  Welfare;  World  War  I  veteran;  former  state 
legislator.  Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  215. 

William  Council  Archie  (1908-  )  ,  college  professor  and  administrator; 
author  of  language  and  literature  articles;  Director  of  North  Carolina  Board  of 
Higher  Education,  1961-1965.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  479;  Governor  San- 
ford's  news  release  of  February  22,  1961. 

William  Clyde  Friday  (1920-  )  ,  lawyer,  civic  leader  from  Chapel  Hill; 
President  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina  since  1956;  elected  Chairman  of 
American  Council  on  Education,  1964.  Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  463-464; 
Governor  Sanford's  statement  of  October  2,  1964. 

'2  -2 

3  2 

0  0  3  =  3 

a.  .9  O  ^  iS 


b  3 

'  o  C  c  o 
c  c  3  t; 

o  a.s  o 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


cation,  in  conjunction  with  our  industrial  education  centers,  a 
system  of  comprehensive  community  colleges. 

In  your  deliberations,  you  have  a  chance  to  set  the  philosophy 
which  will  turn  our  history,  as  your  action  gives  to  every  boy  and 
girl  a  finer  chance  to  get  ready  for  the  competition  of  the  space 


Edwin  Gill,^^  State  Treasurer,  an  outstanding  public  servant, 
shows  why  North  Carolina  is  recognized  as  the  state  "where  good 
government  is  a  habit." 

He  reports,  "Sound  fiscal  policy  has  characterized  North  Caro- 
lina over  a  period  of  more  than  sixty  years.  Credit,  of  course,  for 
this  splendid  record  belongs  to  all  of  the  fiscal  agencies  of  the 
State,  as  well  as  to  the  General  Assembly  itself.  The  fact  that 
our  bonds  are  rated  AAA,  the  highest  rating  given  any  State 
bonds,  reflects  the  fact  that  North  Carolina  has  managed  her 
debt  well,  preserved  a  balanced  budget,  and  carried  on  the  gen- 
eral affairs  of  State  in  a  businesslike  manner." 

The  State  Auditor,  Henry  Bridges,^^  able  guardian  of  public 
funds,  reports  sound  fiscal  management  in  state  government. 


I  have  surveyed  the  various  activities  of  our  state  government. 
Each  time  I  do  this  I  come  to  see  again  that  our  government  is 
the  people's  massive,  orderly  effort  to  achieve  together  what  no 
one  of  us  can  so  well  achieve  alone. 

During  these  two  years  we  have  been  guided  by  the  concept 
that  the  purpose  of  government  is  to  serve  the  people,  to  assist 
in  progress,  to  lead  in  education  and  economic  development,  to 
do  it  economically,  efficiently,  honestly,  and  always  guided  by 
the  best  interests  of  our  progressive  people. 

Progress  has  been  made— enough  to  show  us  that  much  more 
progress  is  possible. 

The  progress  has  been  made  with  the  lowest  number  of  public 
employees  and  the  lowest  per  capita  tax  rate  consistent  with  the 
hopes  and  expectations  of  our  citizens— fourth  from  the  bottom 
in  employees,  next  to  the  bottom  in  per  capita  tax  expenditures. 

«^  Edwin  Maurice  Gill  (1899-  ),  lawyer  and  public  official  from  Raleigh; 
veteran  in  state  government,  having  held  such  positions  as  representative  in  the 
General  Assembly,  gubernatorial  private  secretary,  Commissioner  of  Paroles,  and 
Commissioner  of  Revenue;  State  Treasurer  since  1953.  North  Carolina  Manual, 
1963,  450-451. 

Henry  Lee  Bridges  (1907-  )  ,  lawyer  and  civic  leader  from  Raleigh;  World 
War  II  veteran;  deputy  clerk  in  Guilford  County  Superior  Court;  State  Auditor 
smce  1947.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  449-450. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

The  greatest  thing  in  North  Carolina  is  the  faith  and  spirit 
of  our  people.  It  is  that  faith  and  spirit  represented  in  this  legis- 
lature, which  you  exemplify  as  leaders  of  our  people. 

Now  is  the  time  to  move  forward.  You  and  I  have  this  joint 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


February  8,  1963 

[In  a  televised  message  on  the  budget,  Governor  Sanford  incorporated 
fewer  figures  and  statistics  than  had  been  included  in  most  budget  addresses 
and  chose  to  concentrate  on  the  "whys"  and  "wherefores."  He  analyzed  the 
proposed  budgets  for  operating  expenses,  expanded  services,  and  capital 
improvements  in  the  perspective  of  future  North  Carolina  growth;  he  also 
suggested  the  possibility  of  tax  relief.] 

I  am  happy  to  have  the  responsibility,  imposed  upon  me  by 
the  Executive  Budget  Act,  to  come  before  the  General  Assembly 
to  recommend  the  budget  for  the  1963-1965  biennium. 

About  this  same  time  one  year  ago,  the  first  memorandum  was 
sent  out  asking  all  state  agencies  to  submit  their  budget  requests 
for  study  by  the  staff  of  the  Budget  Division,  the  Advisory  Bud- 
get Commission,  and  the  Governor.  This  was  the  beginning  of  a 
process  that  has  consumed  the  time  and  thought  of  many  people 
over  the  twelve-month  period  which  followed. 

I  would  like  to  thank,  on  behalf  of  the  state,  the  men  of  the 
Advisory  Budget  Commission.  As  you  know,  four  of  the  six 
members  serve  in  their  capacity  as  chairmen  of  the  House  and 
Senate  Finance  and  Appropriations  Committees.  These  members 
are  Representative  Thomas  H.  Woodard,^^  who  also  served  as 
chairman;  Senator  James  G.  Stikeleather,  Jr.:^^  Senator  Thomas 
J.  White;^^  and  Representative  J.  Shelton  Wicker.'^^  addition 
to  these  members,  Senator  Ralph  H.  Scott  and  Mr.  David  S. 
Coltrane^^  and  later  Mr.  E.  D.  Gaskins^^  served  in  the  two  ap- 

®^  Thomas  Hadley  Woodard  (1901-1966),  president  of  insurance  company,  bank 
vice-president  and  civic  leader  from  Wilson;  representative  in  the  General  As- 
sembly, 1957-1963.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  620. 

James  Gudger  Stikeleather,  Jr.  (1911-  ),  general  insurance  and  real  estate 
dealer  from  Asheville;  served  in  legislature,  1955-1963.  North  Carolina  Manual, 
1963,  546-547. 

^  Thomas  Jackson  White  (1903-  )  ,  lawyer,  public  servant  from  Kinston; 
served  in  legislature,  1953-1957  as  representative,  and  1961-1963  as  state  senator. 
North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  549-550. 

"J.  Shelton  Wicker  (1917-  )  ,  wholesale  gas  and  oil  jobber,  civic  leader  from 
Sanford;  representative  in  the  General  Assembly,  1953-1963.  North  Carolina  Man- 
ual, 1963,  617-618. 

Ralph  H.  Scott  (1903-  ) ,  president  of  Melville  Dairy,  civic  leader  from 
Haw  River;  state  senator  in  General  Assembly,  1951-1955,  1961-1963.  North  Caro- 
lina Manual,  1963,  543-544. 

David  Stanton  Coltrane  (1893-  ),  farmer,  public  official  from  Raleigh; 
former  Assistant  Commissioner  of  Agriculture  and  Commissioner  of  Agriculture; 
Director  of  North  Carolina  Department  of  Administration;  Chairman  of  the  North 
Carolina  Good  Neighbor  Council.  Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  273;  Capus  M. 
Waynick,  John  C.  Brooks,  and  Elsie  W.  Pitts  (eds.)  ,  North  Carolina  and  the  Negro 
(Raleigh:  North  Carolina  Mayors'  Cooperating  Committee,  1964),  257. 
^^E.  D.  Gaskins   (1912-       ),  President  of  American  Bank  and  Trust  Company 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

pointed  positions.  I  commend  these  men  for  their  devotion  and 
their  service  to  North  Carolina. 

The  first  major  objective  in  constructing  the  budget  was  to 
determine  what  would  be  required  in  order  to  continue  all  neces- 
sary state  services  and  programs  at  the  existing  level.  This,  as  you 
know,  we  have  come  to  call  the  "A"  Budget.  While  the  decisions 
are  limited  to  determining  exactly  how  much  will  be  required 
to  continue  these  services  at  the  existing  level,  still  much  nego- 
tiation and  study  are  necessary. 

The  "B"  Budget  provides  for  new  programs,  or  for  improve- 
ments or  additions  to  existing  programs.  Of  course,  the  "B" 
Budget  is  limited  by  the  amount  of  money  available,  and  I  can 
assure  you  that  there  are  many  more  needs  than  there  is  money 
to  meet  those  needs.  Public  hearings  were  held,  and  the  Advisory 
Budget  Commission  deliberated  over  a  period  of  more  than  three 
months  before  the  final  decisions  were  made. 

The  Capital  Improvements  Budget  is  the  third  category  of 
recommendations  making  up  the  total  budget.  These  are  the 
requests  for  additional  dormitories,  additional  hospital  space, 
and  other  capital  construction.  The  Advisory  Budget  Commis- 
sion went  out  across  the  state  for  three  and  one-half  weeks,  trav- 
eling more  than  1,800  miles,  in  order  to  have  firsthand  knowledge 
of  our  various  institutions. 

The  Capital  Improvements  Budget,  like  the  "B"  Budget,  is 
limited  by  the  resources  available,  and  the  pressures  of  both  these 
areas  of  need  had  to  be  judged  in  making  the  final  recommenda- 

I  am  now  submitting  to  you  four  documents:  Volume  I  of  the 
Budget,  which  contains  the  "A"  Budget;  Volume  II,  which  con- 
tains the  "B"  Budget  and  certain  summary  statements;  Volume 
III,  which  contains  the  Capital  Improvements  Budget;  and  Vol- 
ume IV,  a  digest  of  all  three  of  these  budgets  with  a  number  of 
graphs  and  other  illustrations. 

At  the  front  of  Volume  I  you  will  find  the  Budget  Report, 
which  is  a  very  concise  and  yet  thorough  summary  of  the  total 
budget.  I  am  not  going  to  use  the  Budget  Message  as  a  mere  re- 
statement of  the  Budget  Report.  Rather  than  make  that  duplica- 
tion, I  am  sure  you  would  benefit  more  by  studying  that  report 
at  your  convenience  and  at  length. 

in  Monroe;  former  member  of  State  Banking  Commission;  member  of  Board  of 
Conservation  and  Development  before  becoming  member  of  the  Advisory  Budget 
Commission  in  1962.  Governor  Sanford's  statements  of  Tuly  23,  1962,  and  Tulv  16, 
1963.  ^  ^ 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


I  will  use  this  occasion  to  discuss  and  emphasize  the  major 
decisions  contained  in  the  budget. 

the  general  fund 

Of  the  three  major  operating  funds,  the  General  Fund  is  the 
largest  (74  per  cent  of  tax-supported  funds).  It  finances  almost 
all  programs  other  than  Highway  (including  Motor  Vehicles) 
and  part  of  Agriculture. 

The  General  Fund  derives  its  revenue  mainly  from  the  income 
tax  (40  per  cent) ,  sales  tax  (36  per  cent),  and  certain  franchise 
and  excise  taxes.  There  are  also  various  agency  receipts  and  some 
federal  matching  funds. 

I  am  most  happy  to  report  to  you  that  North  Carolina  is  in  an 
excellent  financial  condition.  In  1961  our  per  capita  income  rose 
by  5  per  cent,  while  the  average  percentage  increase  for  the 
nation  was  only  2  per  cent.  We  have  had  rapid  growth  both  on 
the  farms  and  in  industry.  Never  has  there  been  greater  confi- 
dence in  the  economy  of  North  Carolina. 

I  am  happy  to  report  we  can  continue  to  make  sound  progress 
without  thinking  about  new  taxes,  and  in  fact  I  intend  to  recom- 
mend some  tax  relief. 

This  economic  growth  has  produced  additional  revenue  for 
the  state,  mainly  in  the  personal  income  tax  area.  Other  revenues 
have  increased  significantly,  though  not  so  dramatically  as  per- 
sonal income.  While  our  1961  revenue  estimates  were  optimistic, 
they  did  not  attempt  to  foresee  this  unusual  prosperity.  As  a  re- 
sult, additional  collections  of  revenue  are  now  estimated  to  total 
$77  million  at  the  end  of  this  biennium. 

When  savings  from  appropriated  funds  are  added,  we  will  have 
an  opening  balance  (also  called  surplus)  for  the  coming  biennium 
of  1 104  million.  This  balance  is  healthy,  a  sign  of  economic 
progress  and  economy  in  government,  but  it  doesn't  mean  we 
will  have  all  the  money  we  need.  This  compares  with  $74  million 
surplus  which  we  had  when  the  last  session  of  the  General  As- 
sembly made  up  the  last  budget.  In  other  words,  we  needed  a 
surplus  of  at  least  $74  million  this  time  just  to  be  even  with  the 

The  official  General  Fund  revenue  estimates  for  the  coming 
biennium  total  $840,825  million.  When  you  add  the  $104  million 
to  these  estimates,  we  will  have  total  General  Fund  resources  of 
$944,825  million  with  which  to  finance  General  Fund  programs. 

Against  these  resources  we  had  first  to  determine  the  amount 
required  for  the  General  Fund  "A"  Budget.  This  is  $814  mil- 
lion, to  keep  programs  going  at  the  existing  levels  of  service. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

The  1961  General  Assembly  appropriated  $779  million  for 
these  same  programs  in  the  present  biennium.  Thus  you  see  we 
expect  and  estimate  normal  growth  of  our  existing  programs  to 
be  about  4i/^  per  cent.  Normal  growth  means  that  for  about 
every  twenty-seven  new  students  we  need  one  more  teacher  and 
additional  supplies.  It  means  that  as  the  population  increases 
we  must  anticipate  that  more  people  will  need  hospital  and  other 
such  services. 

Therefore,  to  keep  programs  operating  as  they  now  operate 
we  need  "A"  Budget  expenditures  from  the  General  Fund  of 
$814  million,  a  41/^  per  cent  increase.  Subtract  this  from  the 
money  available  and  we  have  left  |131  million. 

We  turn  now  to  Capital  Improvements.  We  found  that  we 
need  to  finance  many  construction  projects.  In  effect,  we  were 
faced  with  the  needs  of  four  years.  The  Advisory  Budget  Com- 
mission decided  that  critical  needs  for  improvement  projects 
will  require  $117  million  and  that  certainly  we  should  do  no 
less  than  this. 

In  facing  these  critical  needs  we  followed  a  very  sound  and 
conservative  approach  in  the  financing  of  this  program  by  recom- 
mending $47  million  in  direct  appropriations  to  capital  construc- 

This  means  that  we  shall  not  have  to  ask  the  people  for  addi- 
tional bonded  indebtedness  in  the  next  two  years. 

The  other  funds  needed  for  this  construction  program  can  be 
secured  from  self-liquidating  funds,  other  receipts,  and  a  legis- 
lative bond  issue.  Such  a  legislative  bond  issue  would  be  only 
two-thirds  of  the  amount  by  which  the  state  debt  was  reduced 
this  biennium. 

In  considering  the  "B"  Budget  requests,  major  decisions  were 
made  in  several  areas.  I  will  discuss,  first  of  all,  education. 

The  last  General  Assembly  moved  our  public  school  program 
forward  swiftly,  and  our  state  led  the  country  in  the  rate  of  im- 
provement. That  took  real  political  courage  because  they  backed 
up  their  beliefs  with  the  necessary  money.  The  advance  was  a 
major  one.  The  school  tax  has  turned  out  to  be  one  of  the  best 
investments  we  have  ever  made  for  our  boys  and  girls.  It  cannot 
be  repealed  unless  we  want  to  repeal  school  improvements.  We 

I  firmly  believe,  and  there  are  thousands  across  this  state  who 
believe  with  me,  that  the  surest  way  in  which  we  can  give  our 
people  a  better  life  is  to  prepare  our  children  to  compete  effec- 
tively in  the  age  in  which  they  live.  We  will  make  every  effort 
to  give  our  adults  a  better  opportunity  through  better  training 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


and  more  job  opportunities,  but  the  fact  remains  that  our  sound- 
est investment  is  in  our  boys  and  girls.  They  still  have  the  time 
to  learn;  their  lives  are  not  yet  shaped  to  the  patterns  which 
restrict  so  many  of  us  who  are  older.  In  them  lies  the  hope  of 
North  Carolina. 

We  are  recommending,  therefore,  that  this  state  invest  during 
the  coming  year  an  additional  $51  million  in  our  children.  This 
program  will  provide  a  teacher  allotment  formula  which  will 
provide  the  student  more  attention  in  the  classroom;  five  days 
sick  leave  for  teachers,  the  first  and  only  sick  leave  teachers  have 
had;  aid  for  purchase  of  high  school  textbooks,  $4.00  per  pupil; 
salary  increases  for  teachers  of  3  per  cent  in  the  first  year,  and 
2  per  cent  in  the  second  year  of  the  biennium,  which  is  not 
much,  but  priorities  were  given  to  other  things  by  education 
leaders,  including  teachers  themselves;  additional  equipment  for 
our  industrial  education  centers;  other  improvements  in  our 
school  bus  program,  clerical  help,  and  other  functions. 

In  higher  education  we  have  many  needs.  One  of  the  most 
pressing  is  the  strengthening  of  our  faculties  to  a  point  at  which 
they  can  effectively  match  other  institutions  of  similar  status  and 
character  throughout  the  United  States.  We  recommend  that 
this  can  be  done  at  a  cost  of  $7  million. 

As  was  pointed  out  by  the  Governor's  Commission  on  Educa- 
tion Beyond  the  High  School,  we  need  to  convert  three  of  our 
community  colleges  into  four-year  institutions.  To  convert  insti- 
tutions at  Charlotte,  Wilmington,  and  Asheville  will  cost  $2 

Also,  as  the  commission's  report  said,  we  need  a  system  of  two- 
year  comprehensive  community  colleges  to  offer  both  college  and 
technical-vocational  training.  These  community  colleges  are  to 
be  developed  as  part  of  a  large  program,  and  should  have  local 
support  and  interest.  To  begin  the  development  of  this  impor- 
tant system,  the  Board  of  Education  needs  $1  million. 

We  turn  now  to  the  area  of  correction.  A  significant  change 
is  being  recommended  by  sizable  increases  in  probation  and 
paroles  programs,  and  a  corresponding  leveling  off  of  prison  ex- 
penditures. Substantial  savings  to  the  state  should  be  realized 
in  that  it  costs  approximately  twelve  times  as  much  to  keep  a 
man  in  prison  as  it  does  to  supervise  him  on  probation.  There 
are  also  the  indirect  savings  to  the  Welfare  Department  by  keep- 
ing the  man  on  the  job  as  a  wage  earner. 

Further,  the  educational  and  rehabilitation  services  of  the 
Prison  Department  have  recommended  increases.  With  these 
improved  services,  and  the  improvements  recommended  in  the 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

paroles  and  probations  programs,  we  hope  to  continue  North 
Carolina's  enviable  record  of  a  decreasing  prison  population 
while  the  nation's  prison  population  as  a  whole  is  increasing. 

For  mental  institutions,  we  are  recommending  appropriations 
of  $52  million,  an  increase  of  $9  million.  This  provides  for  the 
increase  in  the  number  of  mentally  retarded  children  coming 
under  the  care  of  our  institutions  under  the  "A"  Budget  concept, 
and  for  a  significant  improvement  in  the  "B"  Budget  in  the  level 
of  medical  care  and  treatment  service  in  all  of  our  mental  insti- 

Following  approval  by  the  voters  for  the  constitutional  amend- 
ment authorizing  salary  increases  for  the  members  of  the  Council 
of  State,  we  have  recommended  that  the  salaries  of  these  elected 
officials  be  set  at  $18,000.  These  loyal  public  servants  have  long 
been  neglected,  and  I  am  happy  to  endorse  wholeheartedly  re- 
muneration for  their  services  which  will  be  in  keeping  with  the 
responsibilities  they  bear. 

The  "A"  Budget  also  provides  $9  million  for  our  long-estab- 
lished automatic  and  merit  increment  programs  for  state  em- 

agriculture  fund 

We  are  recommending  an  increase  of  about  $3  million  for 
continued  growth  and  for  a  number  of  programs  essential  to 
help  improve  our  farm  economy.  I  will  mention  four:  first,  our 
meat  and  poultry  inspection  program;  second,  the  Cooperative 
Agriculture  Extension  Service;  third,  the  food  and  drug  control 
program;  and  fourth,  the  programs  of  marketing  fruit  and  vege- 


The  third  major  fund  is  the  Highway  Fund. 

While  it  is  still  very  strong,  this  fund  has  not  experienced  the 
exceptional  growth  of  our  General  Fund  revenue. 

Highway  Fund  revenues  are  derived  almost  entirely  from  the 
gasoline  tax  and  motor  vehicles  license  fees,  supplemented  by 
federal  aid  construction  funds. 

Since  much  the  greater  part  of  the  Highway  Fund  budget  is 
dedicated  to  highway  construction  and  maintenance,  this  fund 
cannot  be  considered  in  the  same  way  as  the  General  Fund.  As 
soon  as  a  project  is  begun,  the  funds  for  completing  that  project 
are  encumbered,  and  there  are  balances,  of  both  state  and  federal 
money,  which  are  carried  forward  each  year  for  completion  of 
these  projects.  These  factors  prohibit  a  one-sentence  analysis. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


Let  me  generalize,  however,  by  saying  that  there  are  sufficient 
revenues  in  the  Highway  Fund  to  continue  both  the  Highway 
and  the  Motor  Vehicles  departments  at  generally  the  same  level 
at  which  they  now  operate. 

This  is  no  mean  accomplishment,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  dur- 
ing this  biennium  we  have  had  the  largest  secondary  road  build- 
ing program  since  the  Scott  farm-to-market  roads. 

Sufficient  money  is  recommended  to  match  all  federal  aid 
construction  funds  apportioned  for  North  Carolina.  As  you  know, 
our  interstate  and  primary  highway  system  is  being  developed 
as  rapidly  as  possible,  and  this  program  will  be  continued. 

It  would  be  misleading,  however,  for  me  to  indicate  that  we 
are  building  all  the  roads  we  should.  There  simply  isn't  enough 
money  and  we  have  limited  our  recommendations  to  money 
which  is  now  available  in  existing  funds. 

The  major  change  in  this  area  is  the  recommendation  to 
eliminate  Highway  Fund  diversions  in  the  form  of  gasoline 
inspection  fees  not  related  to  the  administration  of  that  program, 
and  the  cost  of  prison  labor  not  actually  used  by  the  Highway 
Department.  By  ending  these  diversions,  $12  million  is  made 
available  for  secondary  road  construction,  or  an  increase  of  29 
per  cent  over  that  which  would  have  otherwise  been  available. 

Also  of  special  significance  is  the  addition  of  twenty-five  high- 
way patrolmen  for  the  strengthening  of  our  traffic  safety  program. 
We  may  need  more.  This  support,  added  to  our  increased 
attention  to  traffic  safety  engineering  in  highway  construction 
and  improvements,  should  help  save  lives  and  property  of  our 
people  on  the  highways. 

This,  then,  is  our  recommended  budget  for  1963-1965.  It  is  a 
substantial  budget,  in  that  it  totals  $1.8  billion  when  federal 
and  all  other  funds  are  added.  However,  it  should  be  viewed 
in  a  proper  perspective. 

It  must  be  remembered  that  in  North  Carolina  there  are  no 
county  roads,  no  county  prisons,  and  that  basic  school  support 
is  provided  by  the  state.  This  state-wide  philosophy  has  made  it 
possible  for  us  to  get  more  from  our  tax  dollar  than  any  other 
state  in  the  union.  We  move  forward  with  our  7-cent  gasoline 
tax  while  other  states  demand  the  same  7  cents,  or  even  8  cents, 
in  state  taxes,  and  then  depend  on  the  counties  to  provide  sub- 
stantial road  building  and  maintenance  with  revenues  from  local 
property  taxes. 

We  must  remember  that  when  we  compare  North  Carolina 
to  all  the  other  states,  with  all  of  these  factors  in  mind,  we  rank 
forty-ninth  in  the  nation  in  the  amount  which  is  spent  per  person 


Papers  of  Terry  San  ford 

for  governmental  services. 

When  we  compare  the  number  of  government  employees  in 
the  same  light,  we  rank  forty-sixth  in  the  nation. 

When  we  compare  the  amount  of  debt  each  citizen  must  bear 
because  of  these  same  services,  North  Carolina  ranks  forty-sixth. 

Even  with  these  comparisons  in  mind,  however,  we  know  that 
our  state  has  moved  to  the  forefront  in  many  areas.  Today,  as 
in  years  past,  we  are  sensitive  to  the  needs  of  our  people  in 
schools,  roads,  hospitals,  industry,  agriculture,  and  all  the  facets 
of  this  modern  world.  Yet  these  services,  at  a  very  high  standard, 
are  within  our  means. 

The  growing  needs  of  a  growing  people  demand  a  forward- 
looking  budget,  a  budget  that  matches  the  spirit  of  aggressive 
progress  of  North  Carolina. 

Progress  with  fiscal  integrity  is  the  tradition  of  North  Carolina, 
and  this  tradition  has  been  our  guiding  light  in  preparing  and 
presenting  the  budget  for  1963-1965. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


April  2,  1963 

[Because  traffic  safety  was  the  subject  of  much  talk  and  little  action, 
Governor  Sanford  made  a  third  personal  appearance  before  the  1963  Gen- 
eral Assembly  to  urge  strong  legislation  in  the  field.  The  delivery  of  this 
message  dramatized  the  need  and  the  legislators  backed  the  Governor  by 
enacting  many  of  the  provisions  he  recommended.  Despite  the  new  legis- 
lation, traffic  accidents  and  deaths  continued  to  increase,  resulting  in  what 
Sanford  called  his  "greatest  disappointment  as  Governor."] 

Mr.  President,  Mr.  Speaker,  Members  of  the  North  Carolina 
General  Assembly: 

I  thank  you  for  the  advantage  of  appearing  before  you,  rather 
than  dispatching  a  written  message,  because  this  subject  requires 
all  the  prominence  we  can  gain  for  it.  You  and  I  need  the 
attention  and  concern  of  the  public,  because  in  the  normal  course 
of  things  you  are  not  going  to  win  any  popularity  contests  work- 
ing with  the  problems  of  highway  safety. 

The  ones  who  are  pinched  by  traffic  laws  often  complain,  and 
often  bitterly,  and  the  ones  whose  lives  are  saved  never  know  it. 

Project  Impact,  an  experiment  in  six  counties,  saved  at  least 
nineteen  lives.  Those  nineteen  people  should  be  up  here  lobbying 
for  an  extension  of  that  experiment  to  all  of  the  state,  but  they 
are  not,  for  it  is  obvious  that  they  cannot  be  identified  because  no 
one  knows  where  misfortune  might  have  struck  had  it  not  been 
for  this  official  safety  action. 

But  they  are  alive,  and  many  others  avoided  painful  or  dis- 
abling injuries,  and  many  hundreds  of  others  can  be  saved  in  the 
future  if  the  public  will  understand  and  support  our  efforts. 

The  problem  is  that  in  1962,  in  just  one  calendar  year,  1,320 
people  lost  their  lives,  37,000  persons  were  injured,  and  $200 
million  were  lost  on  the  highways  of  North  Carolina,  just  one 
of  fifty  states.  Think  of  that:  1,320  dead;  37,000  injured;  $200 
million  lost.  Just  one  year,  just  one  state. 

Automobile  wrecks  are  the  sixth  leading  cause  of  death  in  the 
United  States. 

Automobile  wrecks  are  the  number-one  cause  of  death  among 
young  people  from  five  to  twenty-five. 
This  is  an  epidemic.  You  are  the  doctors. 

Your  immediate  reaction  to  this  staggering  description  of 
destruction  might  be  one  of  hopelessness.  We  are  tempted  to 
wring  our  hands  in  despair,  or  to  reach  out  for  one  simple,  single 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

We  cannot  afford  to  do  eitfier.  We  know  from  our  own  North 
Carolina  experiences  that  ^ve  can  whittle  away  at  the  destruction 
by  the  systematic  action  exerted  by  public  officials. 

In  1935  we  had  1,095  people  killed,  and  in  1962  we  had  jumped 
up  225  beyond  this  figure.  This  is  much  better  than  it  seems. 
In  1935  we  had  only  a  half  million  vehicles  traveling  only  4 
billion  miles.  The  death  rate  was  twenty-six  for  every  100  million 
miles  of  travel.  In  1962,  with  2  million  cars,  the  rate  of  death 
was  6.2  per  100  million  miles.  So  you  can  see  that  we  have  been 
making  progress,  for  if  the  1935  rate  had  not  been  reduced,  we 
would  have  lost  more  than  5,000  North  Carolinians  in  1962. 

Last  year,  for  the  first  time  since  1941,  the  number  of  Americans 
killed  in  automobile  accidents  climbed  back  up  to  more  than 
41,000.  This  shows  that  for  a  period  of  twenty  years  we  were 
successful  in  holding  the  line.  But  1962  showed  us  that  we  are 
unable  to  hold  the  line  any  longer  with  the  present  resources. 

Many  areas  in  the  country  have  been  able  to  achieve  dramatic 
reductions  in  traffic  accidents  through  the  use  of  what  is  known 
as  "the  managed  approach."  This  is  the  approach  which  has  been 
re-emphasized  in  North  Carolina  in  the  last  several  months.  First, 
to  define  a  total  program  and  to  mobilize  public  participation,  we 
organized  the  North  Carolina  Traffic  Safety  Council,  consisting 
of  leading  citizens,  employing  a  professional  staff,  paid  for  from 
private  nontax  funds.  Then  we  called  together  all  state  officials 
with  traffic  saftey  responsibilities,  and  constituted  them  the  Gov- 
ernor's Coordinating  Committee  for  Traffic  Safety  (representa- 
tives of  the  General  Assembly,  Health,  Education,  Justice,  Motor 
Vehicles,  Insurance,  Highways,  Institute  of  Government,  and 
Safety  Council). 

I  want  to  assure  you  that  no  one  feels  that  the  traffic  accident 
problem  will  be  solved  by  the  simple  passing  of  laws.  This  is  a 
job  for  everybody,  and  the  most  important  responsibility  falls 
to  the  understanding  citizen  who  is  willing  to  support  the  neces- 
sary official  action.  These  two  organizations  concern  themselves 
with  a  number  of  avenues  through  which  official  and  unofficial 
action  must  be  exerted,  including  accident  records,  laws  and 
ordinances,  engineering,  education,  police  traffic  supervision, 
motor  vehicle  administration,  traffic  courts,  public  information, 
and  organized  citizen  support.  We  are  working  on  all  of  these. 
Today  we  look  to  our  legislative  part  in  the  total  effort.  I  am 
suggesting  nine  points  for  your  consideration.  The  Coordinating 
Committee,  using  studies  of  accident  records  as  a  foundation,  has 
agreed  on  two  things:  (1)  the  most  important  causes  of  accidents 
and  (2)  the  means  to  control  or  eliminate  these  causes. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


Therefore,  the  suggestions  I  am  about  to  make  are  neither  the 
result  of  one  man's  investigation  nor  are  they  any  so-called 
pet  projects  of  individual  state  agencies.  Rather  they  are  the 
result  of  agreement  by  public  officials  in  every  place  of  accident 
preventive  work,  and  are  related  directly  to  the  accidents  now 
occurring  on  highways  in  our  own  state  of  North  Carolina. 


We  need  to  provide  for  the  continuing  co-ordination  of  official 
traffic  safety  effort,  and  North  Carolina's  official  agencies  with 
traffic  safety  responsibilities  should  be  bound  together  by  statutory 
authority.  This  has  worked  well,  but  the  united  effort  should 
not  be  dependent  on  the  mere  invitation  of  the  Chief  Executive, 
but  should  be  given  the  status  of  being  a  creation  of  the  General 
Assembly.  This  would  require  no  money.  The  role  of  such  a 
Coordinating  Committee  on  Traffic  Safety,  similar  to  the  one 
already  existing  by  invitation  of  the  Governor,  would  be  to 
examine  continually  the  accident  problems  of  North  Carolina, 
to  determine  the  needs  of  the  represented  agencies  in  dealing  with 
these  problems,  to  determine  the  priorities  to  be  given  these 
needs,  and  to  provide  for  continuing  co-ordination  of  the  state's 
accident  preventive  efforts.  In  this  way  we  would  have  a  single 
group  charged  with  the  leadership  in  reducing  highway  wrecks. 
This  committee  should  include  in  its  membership  representatives 
of  the  General  Assembly,  perhaps  the  chairman  of  each  committee 
on  highway  safety,  thus  obtaining  spokesmen  for  the  legislative 


Implementation  of  the  court  improvement  amendments  will 
contribute  much  to  traffic  accident  prevention,  and  I  hope  you 
will  do  all  that  you  can  to  assure  the  orderly  adoption  of  a 
uniform  court  system  in  the  state.  I  realize  that  we  cannot  move 
too  hastily  in  arranging  these  complex  provisions  which  must  be 
designed  to  serve  for  perhaps  a  hundred  years,  but  I  do  hope  you 
will  at  least  adopt  the  recommendations  of  the  North  Carolina 
Bar  Association. 


In  accordance  with  legislation  recommended  by  your  Com- 
mission on  Interstate  Cooperation,  I  urge  the  adoption  of  inter- 
state compacts  dealing  with  drivers  licenses  and  motor  vehicle 
safety  equipment.  These  two  compacts  will  help  protect  our 
citizens  from  unsafe  drivers  who  accumulate  records  of  accidents 
and  violations  in  a  number  of  states  and  will  help  assure  the 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

prompt  adoption  of  uniform  standards  for  new  motor  vehicle 
safety  equipment. 


The  point  system  has  worked  well,  but  there  are  certain  loop- 
holes which  should  be  closed.  The  systems  should  reflect  the 
factual  realities  of  a  driver's  conduct  as  decided  by  a  court,  and 
not  courtroom  technicalities  which  allow  evasion  of  the  point 


We  know  additional  patrolmen  will  reduce  accidents.  Elimi- 
nation of  paper  work  with  insurance  reports,  if  you  see  fit  to  enact 
this,  will  free  many,  but  we  probably  could  make  out  a  case  for 
needing  several  hundred  more  patrolmen.  We  cannot  afford  this 
many,  but  we  should  add  as  many  as  possible  during  the  next 


Experts  call  the  seat  belt  the  most  important  safety  device  that 
can  be  added  to  a  motor  vehicle.  One  thing  we  know  positively 
is  that  seat  belts  save  lives,  and  that  their  use  reduces  greatly 
the  chance  of  getting  killed  if  you  are  involved  in  an  accident. 
We  are  not  suggesting  that  we  require  them  on  all  cars  but  we  do 
recommend  them  for  all  cars.  We  are  asking  simply  that  they 
be  required  on  new  cars  in  the  future,  just  as  safety  glass  is 
required.  I  hope  you  will  pass  the  bill  now  pending. 


I  don't  believe  in  blaming  teen-agers  for  all  of  our  problems. 
There  is  too  much  of  that.  Neither  do  I  believe  in  putting  them 
in  any  dangerous  situation  without  adequate  training  and  advice, 
and  that  is  exactly  what  we  have  been  doing. 

Our  accident  records  show  that  drivers  under  the  age  of  twenty 
have  more  than  twice  their  share  of  accidents  occurring  in  the 
driving  population.  This  is  pretty  good  evidence  we  have  been 
placing  them  in  a  dangerous  and  deadly  situation  without  proper 

I  believe  most  parents  and  most  young  people  believe  we  can 
attack  this  problem  without  penalizing  young  people. 

Perhaps  our  best  approach  would  be  to  require  driver  education 
in  the  school  system  or  in  the  Motor  Vehicles  Department  driver- 
training  program,  for  all  new  drivers  under  the  age  of  eighteen. 
We  could  waive  or  relax  their  requirement  in  the  few  places 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


where  such  training  is  not  available.  We  would  be  saving  young 
lives  if  we  also  added  a  requirement  for  the  issuance  of  a  pro- 
visional license  for  all  drivers  under  the  age  of  twenty.  We  should 
also  make  training  available  before  the  sixteenth  birthday. 

We  are  not  meeting  our  duty  as  parents  unless  we  do  provide 
some  safeguards,  and  ultimately  our  best  hope  for  a  lasting 
solution  of  the  traffic-accident  problem  is  driver  education. 


This  always  runs  into  opposition,  but  how  can  we  turn  away 
from  the  clear  proof  that  one-third  of  all  of  North  Carolina's 
fatal  accidents  involve  a  drinking  driver?  The  nondrinking  driver 
is  entitled  to  what  protection  we  can  give  him,  and  we  are  not 
giving  him  very  much. 

We  need  a  chemical  test  law  requiring  persons  accused  of 
driving  under  the  influence  to  take  a  scientific  test  to  determine 
how  much  they  have  been  drinking.  We  should  make  it  simple— 
perhaps  the  breath  test.  I  believe  this  would  be  a  strong  deterrent. 

First,  we  could  take  one  of  two  approaches.  We  could  require 
this  as  additional  proof  under  the  existing  laws  and  drivers' 
license  penalties. 

As  an  alternative,  we  could  make  it  simply  against  the  law  to 
be  a  drinking  driver  by  specifying  that  driving  with  a  specified 
percentage  content  of  alcohol  is  against  the  law,  coupled  with  a 
provision  that  the  commissioner  could  revoke  the  license  for  not 
more  than  one  year  in  place  of  the  present  mandatory  revocation 
for  one  full  year  as  the  penalty  for  driving  under  the  influence 
of  alcohol.  This  latter  course  would  be  preferable  because  it  would 
eliminate  the  doubtful  situation  of  attempting  to  define  "under 
the  influence"  and  would  give  the  commissioner  discretion  in 
individual  cases. 


I  am  opposed  to  the  mechanical  inspection  we  found  so  burden- 
some, but  I  am  far  more  opposed  to  neglecting  to  check  the 
safety  equipment  which  we  require  on  automobiles  for  the  pur- 
pose of  saving  lives.  I  think  a  periodic  check  of  the  five  or  six 
items  on  a  motor  vehicle  relating  to  our  safety— brakes,  horn, 
tires,  steering,  lights,  windshield  wipers— at  any  garage  or  service 
station  which  cares  to  qualify  for  approval,  would  reduce  sub- 
stantially our  deaths.  Not  only  would  a  safety-check  program 
require  safe  equipment,  but  it  would  create  an  increased  aware- 
ness of  safety  on  the  part  of  every  individual  driver.  Records  in 
other  states,  as  well  as  our  own  records,  demonstrate  a  safety  check 
would  reduce  materially  highway  accidents. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Those  are  the  items.  I  leave  the  details  to  you.  These  are  simple 
things,  and  yet  they  are  substantial  things.  These  do  not  increase 
the  encroachment  upon  individual  liberties.  Rather  they  enhance 
individual  liberty,  and  improve  the  chance  we  all  seek  to  lead  a 
healthy  and  productive  life. 

We  look  to  you  for  the  leadership  which  will  call  to  a  halt  the 
increasing  epidemic  of  traffic  deaths  and  injuries. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 



May  14,  1963 

[The  General  Assembly  made  several  junkets  throughout  the  state  during 
the  Sanford  administration.  Proponents  of  these  trips  maintained  that  the 
legislators  were  able  to  see  and  hear  firsthand  various  local  problems;  oppo- 
nents insisted  that  the  trips  were  so  tightly  scheduled  that  such  a  purpose 
could  not  be  fully  realized.  After  an  overnight  railroad  trip  from  Raleigh, 
the  legislators  went  to  Western  Carolina  College  where  they,  about  2,000 
college  students,  and  citizens  of  the  area  heard  the  Governor  urge  co-opera- 
tion between  the  sections  of  North  Carolina  rather  than  a  continuation  of 
a  feeling  of  sectionalism.] 

Mr.  President,  Mr.  Speaker,  members  of  the  General  Assembly, 
citizens  of  western  North  Carolina,  and  students  from  all  across 
North  Carolina  and,  indeed,  the  nation: 

This  is  a  day  when  Americans  were  scheduled  to  reach  upward 
toward  the  stars  and  I  think  it  was  very  appropriate  that  our 
legislative  branch  and  officials  of  North  Carolina  should  today 
come  up  to  this  "Land  of  the  Sky." 

There  was,  as  a  great  many  of  you  will  remember,  a  time  when 
it  took  all  day  and  most  of  the  night  to  get  from  Raleigh  here. 
In  those  days  you  had  to  point  your  T-Model  somewhere  in  the 
general  direction  of  the  West  and  go  through  South  Carolina 
and  Georgia  in  order  to  get  to  Cullowhee. 

There  was  a  time,  and  I  put  emphasis  on  there  was  a  time, 
when  this  area  was  closer  to  the  capitals  of  South  Carolina, 
Georgia,  and  Tennessee  than  to  Raleigh.  But  today  you  can  fly 
from  here  to  Raleigh  in  an  hour,  or  you  can  drive  it  in  six  hours 
and  not  violate  the  safety  program.  Or,  as  our  legislators  can  tell 
you,  you  can  take  a  nice  leisurely  overnight  train  trip,  doing  your 
work  and  getting  a  good  night's  rest  on  the  way  up  here. 

And  thanks  to  the  rapid  advances  in  communications,  you  can, 
in  a  matter  of  seconds,  communicate  from  here  to  Raleigh— as 
the  people  in  the  Budget  Bureau  and  the  Highway  Building 

Today  as  you  know.  Cooper  [Astronaut  Gordon  Cooper]  and 
the  officials  of  NASA  are  still  reaching  for  the  stars.  And  the 
General  Assembly  too  is  still  reaching  for  the  accomplishments 
which  will  help  develop  North  Carolina's  great  potential.  As  we 
reach,  I  think  it  is  well  to  remind  ourselves  that  the  problems 
and  the  opportunities  which  face  one  part  of  North  Carolina  are 
the  problems  and  the  opportunities  of  all  of  North  Carolina. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

I  hold  a  strong  conviction  that  the  problems  and  the  op- 
portunities which  face  the  tourist  industry  in  these  western 
counties  should  be  the  concern  of  eastern  and  Piedmont  counties. 

The  harvests  and  the  failures  of  the  cabbage  and  corn  crops  are 
of  considerable  importance  to  you  here,  of  course,  and  also  to  the 
textile  workers  of  Kannapolis  and  Concord,  Greensboro  and 

The  number  of  tourists  who  drive  the  Blue  Ridge  Parkway, 
across  the  roof  of  North  Carolina,  has  a  strong  correlation  to  the 
number  who  drive  down  the  new  History  Highway  on  the 
Atlantic  coast. 

The  food  processing  plants  up  here  have  given  farmers  and 
businessmen  of  eastern  North  Carolina  some  good  pointers. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  coin,  you  who  live  and  work  in  this 
area  are  adversely  affected  when  the  waves  of  the  ocean  erode  the 
Outer  Banks.  It  takes  a  little  longer  for  you  to  feel  those  waves, 
and  that  loss,  but  you  will  feel  them. 

When  the  looms  are  stopped  in  the  Piedmont  because  of  im- 
proper foreign  competition,  when  cancer  scares  threaten  the 
tobacco  plants  of  the  farms  of  Pitt  and  Lenoir  and  the  factories 
of  Forsyth  and  Durham  and  Rockingham,  the  economy  of  these 
western  counties  suffers.  And,  indeed,  as  we  look  now  to  your 
problems  and  your  opportunities,  I  am  convinced  absolutely  that 
the  problems  of  the  Appalachian  are  the  problems  of  the  state 
of  North  Carolina  and  we  take  them  seriously. 

In  short,  the  town  of  Jackson  down  east  and  the  county  of 
Jackson  up  here  rise  or  fall  together;  Nags  Head  and  Nantahala 
are  in  the  tourist  business  together;  the  distance  between  Manteo 
and  Murphy  is  an  ever  narrowing  one. 

I  would  say  to  the  citizens  of  this  section  that  your  represent- 
atives and  your  senators  are  well  aware  of  this  unity  of  purpose 
and  unity  of  opportunity.  I  could  call  their  names  one  by  one, 
and  say  that  they  understand  and  that  they  are  representing  all 
of  North  Carolina  and  that  their  work  and  their  contributions 
indicate  that  they  understand  that  all  of  North  Carolina  will 
stand  or  fall  as  we  stand  together. 

There  is  no  longer  any  place  for  sectionalism.  There  is  no 
longer  one  part  playing  the  state  off  against  the  other.  Indeed, 
if  we  are  going  to  reach  our  opportunities  as  we  can,  we  need  to 
do  it  working  together. 

These  members  of  the  General  Assembly— I  say  to  you  who 
live  here  and  to  you  students— are  people  who  are  dedicated  and 
who  are  working  diligently  every  day  and  almost  every  night  to 
develop  North  Carolina's  future,  to  give  everybody  a  better 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


opportunity  to  earn  a  better  living  and  to  have  a  better  life,  to 
give  young  people  a  chance  to  have  the  kind  of  education  which 
will  enable  them  to  compete  with  young  people  from  any  part 
of  the  nation  and  any  part  of  the  world.  These  are  the  people 
who  have  laid  those  plans,  these  are  the  people  who  are  fulfilling 
those  programs. 

These  are  the  men  who  are  accelerating  the  drive  for  new  and 
diversified  industry  to  improve  the  economy  of  our  state. 

These  are  the  men  who  are  considering  ways  to  improve  and 
enhance  the  third  largest  income-producing  industry  in  our 
state:  the  tourist  industry. 

These  are  the  men  who  made  possible  more  secondary  road 
funds  during  the  last  two  years  than  in  any  two  years  since 
Governor  Scott's  road  bond  program.  In  the  counties  that  com- 
pose the  group  we  usually  consider  western  North  Carolina,  you 
may  be  interested  in  knowing  that  more  than  $8  million  was 
spent  in  the  last  two  years  on  secondary  roads  alone.  Translated 
into  mileage,  that  means  245  miles  of  paving  and  535  miles  of 
improvement,  and  we  are  just  beginning  to  demonstrate  by 
stopping  diversion,  and  by  more  careful  economy  that  we  can 
continue  to  speed  up  road-building  progress.  We  are  going  to 
do  all  we  can  to  help  you  through  road  construction  to  open  up 
this  country  and  improve  the  economy. 

Most  important,  these  are  the  people  helping  in  education,  the 
ultimate  denominator  of  all  of  North  Carolina.  These  are  the 
men  who  lifted  high  in  1961,  and  who  are  lifting  still  higher  in 
1963,  the  educational  opportunities  of  all  the  boys  and  all  the 
girls  in  all  the  counties  of  North  Carolina. 

It  is  right  that  today's  joint  session  of  the  General  Assembly 
should  be  held  on  a  college  campus.  It  is  just  about  ninety-six 
hours  since  the  lawmakers  of  North  Carolina  endowed  every 
student  in  North  Carolina. 

The  members  of  the  1963  General  Assembly  made  that  per- 
manent endowment  through  adoption  of  the  broadest  based  and 
the  most  far-reaching  legislative  act  in  all  of  the  United  States. 

Benefits  of  this  measure,  which  was  adopted  with  overwhelming 
approval  on  Friday,  will  be  appreciated  by  many  generations  of 
North  Carolinans,  and  I  believe  the  historians  of  this  state  will 
place  the  accomplishments  of  this  General  Assembly  along  with 
the  provision  of  the  Revolutionary  Constitution  of  North  Caro- 
lina providing  for  the  University  of  North  Carolina  and  later 
the  establishment  of  colleges  like  Western  Carolina  and  Appala- 

This  act  is  but  part  of  North  Carolina's  twentieth  century 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

commitment  to  give  its  children  the  best  possible  opportunity  to 
get  ready  for  the  competition  o£  life. 

Other  measures  reaffirming  that  commitment  are  now  under 
careful  consideration  by  the  members  of  the  General  Assembly. 

The  representatives  and  senators  are  now  considering  a  sub- 
stantial increase  in  the  public  schools  and  our  continuing  drive 
to  make  our  schools  second  to  none. 

For  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  our  state,  the  entire  budget 
requested  by  the  State  Board  of  Education,  which  carefully 
screened  all  of  the  needs,  has  been  approved  by  the  administration 
and  the  Advisory  Budget  Commission.  The  chairman  of  the  Board 
of  Education  was  able  to  come  to  the  Committee  on  Appropria- 
tions and  say:  "We  have  nothing  new  to  request  because  for  the 
first  time  in  all  of  the  history  of  this  state,  education  has  been 
put  absolutely  in  the  first  place." 

There  are  increased  funds  in  the  budget  for  Western  Carolina 
and  for  the  other  senior  colleges. 

And  we  know  of  the  influence  of  this  college,  Appalachian,  and 
Asheville-Biltmore  on  western  North  Carolina;  and  we  look  to 
these  institutions  to  provide  the  leadership  to  continue  the  pro- 
gress to  make  North  Carolina  what  it  must  be. 

There  is  continued  support  in  the  budget  for  industrial  educa- 
tion centers,  which  are  meaning  so  much  to  so  many,  many  stu- 
dents who  for  various  reasons  are  not  going  on  to  college.  You 
also  will  find  appropriations  to  establish  a  strong  basis  for  in- 
dustrial education  at  the  high  school  level.  This  is  something 
about  which  we  have  concerned  ourselves.  Perhaps  in  paying 
attention  to  many  other  problems  in  the  past  we  have  not  given 
adequate  attention.  I  am  satisfied  that  this  General  Assembly  will 
write  a  new  record  and  a  new  start  for  broader  industrial  and 
vocational  opportunities  for  high  school  students. 

There  are  funds  for  the  mentally  gifted  children  challenging 
them  to  do  their  utmost  to  make  all  the  contributions  that  they 
can  make  to  this  state,  because  of  their  unusual  abilities.  And, 
incidentally,  this  program  got  its  start  right  here  on  the  campus 
of  Western  Carolina  College. 

There  are  steps  under  way  to  broaden  the  chances  in  life  for 
the  mentally  retarded  children.  This  legislature  is  going  to  show 
that  we  have  come  to  the  place  where  we  are  going  to  remember 
these  long  forgotten  children. 

These  are  but  a  few  items  of  North  Carolina's  number-one 
purpose  of  education. 

There  are  many  other  challenges  and  many  other  opportunities 
and  many  other  things  which  the  General  Assembly  will  do  to 
speed  the  progress  of  our  state. 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


There  is  the  proposed  space  center. 

There  is  the  important  matter  of  democratic  redistricting. 

There  is  the  vital  question  of  traffic  safety  legislation. 

There  is  the  need  for  improving  our  mental  health  and 
hospital  system. 

There  are  the  questions  of  parks,  community  planning,  forests, 
recreation,  wildlife,  and  water  resources— altogether  1,500  to  2,000 
questions  contained  in  bills  introduced  in  this  session  to  which 
attention  is  given  every  day  by  these  distinguished  legislative 

This  General  Assembly  is  working  for  you.  This  General 
Assembly  is  working  for  all  of  the  people  of  North  Carolina. 
And  I  am  satisfied  that  when  the  record  is  written,  that  this 
General  Assembly  will  stand  at  the  very  top  in  contributions 
made  to  all  of  the  people  of  North  Carolina. 

And  I  am  very  happy  to  have  been  associated  with  it. 

Thank  you  very  much. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 


October  14,  1963 

[The  North  Carolina  Senate  had  not  been  redistricted  since  1941  despite 
the  constitutional  requirement  that  such  be  done  after  every  federal  ten-year 
census.  By  1963  changing  regional  patterns  and  political  and  judicial  pres- 
sures joined  to  accentuate  the  need  for  redistricting  legislation;  the  result  was 
a  General  Assembly  which  struggled  with  the  problem  but  failed  to  find  a 
solution.  On  June  26  Governor  Sanford  said  that  a  special  session  would  be 
necessary  and  that  he  would  appoint  a  special  committee  to  study  the  prob- 
lem and  recommend  legislation.  In  speaking  to  the  legislators  meeting  in 
October,  Governor  Sanford  urged  the  passage  of  the  law  "with  dispatch,"  and 
the  members  of  the  two  houses  took  him  literally,  passing  the  redistricting 
bill  four  days  after  their  arrival  in  Raleigh.] 

As  you  return  to  a  special  session,  I  have  the  opportunity  to 
express  to  you  as  a  group  my  gratitude  for  your  help  to  me  and 
for  your  contributions  to  the  forward  progress  of  North  Carolina 
during  the  regular  1963  session.  There  has  seldom  been  a  session 
of  the  General  Assembly  which  provided  so  well  for  education, 
and  never  a  session  which  provided  so  well  for  higher  education, 
with  new  funds  for  faculties,  with  support  for  new  and  improved 
programs  in  an  age  of  increasing  complexities,  and  with  a  blue- 
print for  the  future  of  our  university  and  colleges  which  for- 
ever will  mark  an  upward  turning  point  in  the  history  of  North 

There  were  many  other  accomplishments,  for  those  in  need 
of  mental  health  treatment,  and  especially  a  comprehensive  pro- 
gram of  hope  for  our  long  forgotten  children,  the  retarded.  Be- 
cause of  your  work  and  devotion  there  is  a  new  vitality  about 
our  state,  and  many  generations  will  profit  from  your  good  works. 

We  did  not  do  everything  that  we  might  have  done,  but  it  is 
a  mighty  record  of  solid  achievement.  I  am  proud  of  your  record. 
I  hope  all  North  Carolinians  will  understand  these  accomplish- 

We  did  leave  undone  the  little  matter  of  redistricting  the  Sen- 

Things  became  so  harried  and  hurried  and  confused  in  the 
closing  weeks,  with  so  many  important  programs  and  policies 
being  developed,  that  we  just  could  not  adequately  wrap  up 
this  one  responsibility. 

I  well  understand,  and  I  believe  those  who  have  been  close 
to  the  scene  well  understand,  that  the  majority  has  always  in- 
tended to  meet  this  responsibility.  That  you  did  is  best  expressed 
by  your  resolution,  passed  in  the  waning  hours  of  the  regular 

Messages  to  the  General  Assembly 


session,  requesting  the  Governor  to  call  a  special  session  because 
the  General  Assembly,  in  your  phrase,  had  "been  unable  to  agree 
on  the  provisions  of  an  Act  to  redistrict  the  State  Senate,  as  re- 
quired by  the  Constitution  of  North  Carolina." 

I  have  complied  with  that  request,  and  I  have  welcomed  the 
chance  over  the  summer,  with  calmness  and  care,  to  work  with 
most  of  you  in  preparing  for  the  final  action  we  have  come  to 

The  constitutional  duty  of  the  governor  is  to  state  the  purpose 
of  this  special  session  and  to  recommend  the  action  which  he 
believes  should  be  taken. 

That  is  a  very  easy  duty.  I  will  report  to  you  what  you  already 
know,  and  recommend  an  action  which  I  am  sure  you  already 
are  prepared  to  take.  My  report  and  recommendation  are  best 
wrapped  up  in  the  words  of  your  resolution  which  I  have  already 
quoted,  "to  redistrict  the  State  Senate,  as  required  by  the  Con- 
stitution of  North  Carolina." 

You  and  I,  in  preparing  for  this  session,  have  indeed  been 
guided  by  the  constitutional  mandate  that  "each  Senate  District 
shall  contain,  as  near  as  may  be,  an  equal  number  of  inhabitants." 
During  these  several  months  I  have  met  both  formally  and  in- 
formally with  many  of  you.  We  have  discussed,  considered,  ad- 
justed, and  agreed  in  order  to  get  the  job  done. 

Our  plan,  the  consensus  bill  I  call  it  because  so  many  had  a 
hand  in  its  formulation,  cannot  be  completely  pleasing  to  every- 
one. It  is  the  result  of  conscientious  resolve  to  follow  the  Consti- 
tution regardless  of  all  other  considerations,  political,  personal, 
regional.  Some  of  you  doubtless  cannot  return  because  of  the 
new  plan,  but  this  has  not  caused  you  to  shirk  your  duty. 

The  districts  have  not  been  redrawn  for  more  than  twenty 
years,  and  this  same  period  has  seen  the  greatest  changes  in  our 
population.  These  facts  have  forced  us  to  present  a  bill  which 
makes  substantial  changes  in  our  senatorial  district  boundaries. 
The  result  has  been  that  almost  every  district  has  been  redrawn. 
In  spite  of  this  degree  of  adjustment  required,  our  legislators 
have  co-operated  in  the  true  spirit  of  North  Carolina,  and  we 
are  able  to  present  a  bill  which  has  the  majority  support  in  both 
houses  of  the  General  Assembly. 

I  do  not  know  whether  there  can  be  a  constitutional  amend- 
ment which  will  satisfy  the  necessary  three-fifths  majority.  A 
number  of  proposals  were  discussed  during  the  regular  session. 
In  the  course  of  working  out  the  redistricting  bill  submitted  to- 
day, a  questionnaire  was  sent  to  each  legislator.  From  this  it 
became  apparent  that  there  was  much  sentiment  for  constitu- 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

tional  change,  but  wide  variation  as  to  what  the  change  should 

I  think  some  constitutional  amendment  is  justified.  We  could 
use  some  guidelines  for  setting  up  districts  better  than  the  pres- 
ent terse,  "as  near  as  may  be"  equal  in  population.  Also,  I  think 
it  would  be  to  our  benefit  to  have  some  provision  for  "auto- 
matic" redistricting  in  the  future.  This  could  mean  a  commis- 
sion authorized  to  draw  the  lines,  to  present  it  to  the  General 
Assembly,  to  become  final  after  ninety  days,  for  example,  if  not 
amended  by  the  General  Assembly.  Or  we  could  provide  that  a 
commission  would  take  over  if  the  first  session  after  the  official 
census  failed  to  redistrict.  Both  of  these  proposals  would  leave 
the  duty  with  the  legislature  but  would  eliminate  many  head- 
aches for  future  legislators  and  governors. 

As  to  other  forms,  I  have  no  recommendations  at  this  time. 

Whatever  you  do  about  amending  the  Constitution,  we  can- 
not let  our  desire  to  improve  it  prevent  us  from  following  our 
clear  and  present  duty  under  the  present  Constitution. 

A  bill  to  do  this,  "to  redistrict  the  State  Senate,  as  required  by 
the  Constitution  of  North  Carolina,"  has  been  signed  by  a  ma- 
jority in  each  of  the  houses. 

I  trust  you  will  pass  it  into  law  with  dispatch. 



[During  his  term  of  office,  Governor  Sanford  made  369  speeches,  of  which 
more  or  less  complete  copies  were  preserved.  In  addition,  he  made  approxi- 
mately 425  others  from  rough  notes  or  extemporaneously.  Addresses  selected 
to  be  included  in  full  in  this  volume  were  chosen  because  of  their  impor- 
tance, their  relevance  to  the  over-all  Sanford  program,  and  the  diversity  of 
their  subject  matter.  Summaries  of  165  other  addresses  are  printed  in  this 
section;  the  remainder  are  listed  by  date,  title,  and  place  of  delivery  and 
may  be  found  on  pages  491-521.] 


University  of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill 

November  21,  1960 

[Prior  to  assuming  the  office  of  Governor,  Terry  Sanford  outlined  in  clear 
and  unmistakable  terms  his  belief  in  the  necessity  of  quality  education  for 
North  Carolina.  In  "A  Statement  of  Faith  and  Purpose  in  Education," 
Sanford  called  education  "the  foundation  of  economic  improvement,"  "the 
foundation  of  democracy,"  "the  foundation  of  the  needs  and  hopes  of  the 
nation,"  "survival,"  and  "life  and  growth  and  happiness."  In  this  address 
he  made  clear  his  intentions  of  putting  education  first  during  the  four-year 
term  of  his  administration  and  of  embarking  on  a  ten-year  plan  for  making 
the  dream  of  quality  education  become  a  reality  in  his  state.  Because  of  its 
significance,  the  address  is  included  here  despite  the  fact  that  it  was  delivered 
before  Sanford's  term  of  office  began.] 

On  many  occasions  and  in  many  ways  I  have  tried  to  empha- 
size during  the  past  weeks  and  months  my  conviction  that  North 
Carolina  is  facing  a  new  day.  All  around  us  I  see  the  evidence 
of  a  brightening  dawn  of  opportunity,  unmatched  in  its  poten- 
tial by  anything  in  our  past. 

A  new  day  brings  new  opportunities.  It  also  brings  new  re- 
sponsibilities. The  dawn  cries  to  a  people  to  awake.  Now  is  the 
time  to  get  up  and  go  to  work.  North  Carolina  faces  an  exciting 
future,  and  we  must  be  up  and  doing. 

North  Carolinians  have  always  understood  that  education  is 
the  means  by  which  our  state  must  reach  its  full  potential  growth 
in  both  economic  and  human  values.  At  the  turn  of  the  century, 
Walter  Hines  Page  made  the  following  statement  of  faith  and 
it's  good  today: 

I  believe  in  the  free  public  training  of  both  the  hands  and  the  mind  of 
every  child  born  of  woman. 

I  believe  that  by  the  right  training  of  men  we  add  to  the  wealth  of  the 
world.  All  wealth  is  the  creation  of  man,  and  he  creates  it  only  in  proportion 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

to  the  trained  uses  of  the  community;  and,  the  more  men  we  train,  the 
more  wealth  everyone  may  create. 

I  believe  in  the  perpetual  regeneration  of  society,  in  the  immortality  of 
democracy,  and  in  growth  everlasting.''® 

This  brave  and  penetrating  grasp  of  the  importance  of  educa- 
tion in  the  life  of  the  state  was  supported  in  the  political  arena 
by  Page's  able  contemporary,  Charles  Brantley  Aycock,  who  has 
come  to  be  known  as  "educational  governor."  In  terms  of  politi- 
cal action,  he  issued  this  clarion  call  that  we  know  still  today: 
"Equal!  That  is  the  word!  On  that  word  I  plant  myself  and  my 
party— the  equal  right  of  every  child  born  on  earth  to  burgeon 
out  all  that  there  is  within  him." 

The  people  of  North  Carolina  were  not  deaf  and  they  did  not 
turn  away.  Many  other  leaders  arose.  The  people  responded. 
North  Carolina  was  poor,  extremely  poor,  just  struggling  up  out 
of  the  period  of  Reconstruction;  but  gradually  schools  were 
built,  the  school  term  was  lengthened,  and  people  in  other  states 
began  to  be  aware  that  this  "valley  of  humiliation  between  two 
mountains  of  conceit"  was  taking  the  lead  among  all  the  other 
states  who  started  at  the  bottom  of  the  ladder  along  with  us 
after  the  period  of  Reconstruction  collapse. 

But  what  was  good  enough  for  yesterday  will  be  totally  inade- 
quate tomorrow.  Whatever  our  success,  it  is  not  enough  for  the 
rapidly  advancing  scientific,  changing  world  we  now  enter. 

We  are  justly  proud  of  North  Carolina's  position.  We  came 
up  the  hard  way.  We  have  come  a  long  route.  We  have  no 
apologies,  but  too  many  of  us  have  become  somewhat  self-satisfied 
and  complacent  about  our  reputation  as  "first  in  the  South,"  and 
too  many  have  thought  the  job  was  finished. 

The  job  is  not  finished.  What  we  have  really  done  is  to  create 
new  and  unlimited  opportunities. 

Dr.  Howard  Odum^^  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina 
showed  clearly  that  North  Carolina  did  not  need  to  stay  in  the 
group  of  states  called  the  "nation's  economic  problem  number 
one."  While  we  do  not  have  everything,  he  pointed  out,  we  do 
have  in  abundance  those  resources  that  really  matter— soil,  water, 
climate,  rainfall,  and  people— most  of  all  we  have  a  stock  of  sturdy 

^«  Walter  Hines  Page,  The  Rebuilding  of  Old  Commonwealths  (New  York:  Dou- 
bleday,  Page  and  Company,  1905),  102,  hereinafter  cited  as  Page,  Rebuilding  of 
Old  Commonwealths. 

"  Howard  Washington  Odum  (1884-1954) ,  author,  teacher,  sociologist;  Kenan 
Professor  of  Sociology  at  the  University  of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill,  1920- 
1954;  recipient  of  O.  Max  Gardner  award,  1953;  contributor  to  improved  race 
relations  in  the  South.  Stanley  J.  Kunitz,  Twentieth  Century  Authors:  A  Bio- 
graphical Dictionary  of  Modern  Literature  (New  York:  H.  W.  Wilson  Company 
[First  Supplement],  1955),  733. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


and  able  people.  We  only  need  to  develop  fully  this  human  re- 

I  am  not  satisfied  with  being  first  in  the  South.  I  want  the 
title  "first  in  the  country."  Why  shouldn't  North  Carolina  strive 
to  lead  the  nation? 

To  that  goal  I  dedicate  the  full  measure  of  my  devotion.  I 
believe  that  a  fearful,  hesitant  approach  to  the  future  will,  in- 
deed, cause  us  to  "lose  our  ventures."  I  believe,  like  Page,  in 
universal  education,  in  the  eternal  values  of  democracy,  and  in 
growth  everlasting.  I  pledge  myself  and  my  party,  like  Aycock, 
to  achieving  for  each  child  the  opportunity  "to  burgeon  out  all 
that  there  is  within  him,"  regardless  of  where  he  lives  or  who 
his  parents  are. 

Quality  education  is  no  mean  goal!  For  all  other  goals  we  seek 
for  North  Carolina  can  be  measured  by  the  quality,  the  scope, 
the  reach  of  our  educational  efforts. 

Education  is  the  foundation  of  economic  improvement.  I  am 
concerned,  vitally,  and  will  be  throughout  this  administration, 
with  industrial  development,  farm  income,  the  economic  growth, 
and  the  chance  of  all  to  make  a  better  living.  Because  I  am  con- 
cerned I  have  chosen  quality  education  as  the  rock  on  which  to 
build  the  house  of  my  administration. 

Education  is  the  foundation  of  democracy.  I  am  concerned 
with  defending  the  principles  of  freedom,  of  individual  liberties, 
of  free  enterprise,  of  equality  and  dignity  of  man,  and  therefore 
I  seek  the  fulfillment  of  these  principles  through  quality  educa- 
tion we  offer  our  boys  and  girls. 

Education  is  the  foundation  of  the  needs  and  hopes  of  the 
nation.  I  am  concerned  with  our  part  in  the  world,  and  I  am  con- 
cerned with  the  peace  of  the  world,  and  therefore  I  propose  that 
we  adequately  educate  the  scientists,  the  statesmen,  and  the  citi- 
zenry who  will  fully  understand  and  are  equipped  to  defend  and 
promote  the  ideals  of  our  dynamic  democracy  of  the  twentieth 

Education,  put  in  the  bleakest  terms,  is  survival.  Here  in  our 
own  small  part  of  the  free  world,  we  can  do  no  less  than  seek 
the  best  as  we  prepare  to  do  our  part  to  defend  America  and  the 
free  world. 

And  education,  put  in  its  brightest  terms,  is  life  and  growth, 
and  happiness.  We  are  not  here  merely  to  make  a  living.  We  are 
talking  about  the  fundamental  when  we  talk  about  education, 
and  our  goal  is  worthy  of  the  best  we  have  in  mind,  and  heart, 
and  spirit. 

As  Governor  of  North  Carolina,  I  will  work  for  a  program 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

which  provides  educational  opportunity,  appropriate  and  avail- 
able, second  to  none  in  quality,  for  all  the  children  of  our  state, 
and  I  will  work  to  obtain  adequate  support  for  that  program. 

The  program  is  up  to  the  State  Board  of  Education,  the  De- 
partment of  Public  Instruction,  the  local  school  boards,  the  su- 
perintendents, the  principals,  the  teachers,  and  the  parents. 

The  support  is  up  to  the  General  Assembly,  the  county  and 
city  officials,  or,  in  other  words,  put  in  its  broadest  sense,  to  the 
entire  citizenry  of  North  Carolina. 

I  know  we  have  an  excellent  blueprint  for  the  program,  and 
I  know  we  have  the  people  who  have  the  ability  to  put  it  into 
effect.  I  am  also  confident  that  the  people  of  North  Carolina,  be- 
lieving that  we  can  build  a  better  state  through  quality  educa- 
tion, will  provide  the  support  for  this  program. 

We  cannot  know  for  several  months  exactly  how  much  money 
we  will  have  available  in  the  budget  to  be  adopted  next  spring, 
although  I  do  know  that  happily  the  revenue  picture  is  extremely 
bright.  I  do  know  that  the  members  of  the  Advisory  Budget 
Commission  are  conscientious,  dedicated,  and  share  with  me  a 
faith  in  public  education. 

But  I  go  back  to  my  original  statement,  made  February  23  in 
Greensboro,  in  the  middle  of  a  political  campaign,  when  I  out- 
lined our  school  needs  and  our  state's  potential,  and  called  on 
the  women  of  the  state  to  lead  a  "crusade  for  education."  I  said 
then,  and  on  numerous  occasions  since  then,  that  I  value  chil- 
dren more  than  money,  and  my  position  remains  as  I  stated 

I  believe  the  people  are  eager  to  pay  for  quality  education.  They  know 
this  is  the  only  basis  for  improvement.  They  know  good  men  and  women 
leave  the  teaching  profession  every  month  because  they  have  to  support 
families.  They  know  that  a  disproportionately  high  percentage  of  college 
graduates,  educated  to  a  large  degree  by  public  expense,  leave  this  state  to 
teach  elsewhere  because  of  our  inadequate  salaries.  They  know  that  ultimate 
salaries  are  extremely  inadequate  for  career  people.  They  know  that  to 
attract  enough  of  the  right  quality  teachers  we  cannot  rely  upon  love  of 
teaching,  alone,  but  must  offer  salaries  commensurate  with  their  training  and 

I  said  then  and  I  repeat  now,  /  would  not  be  honest  if  I  did 
not  promise  that,  if  revenues  are  inadequate,  I  will  have  the 
courage  to  recommend  to  the  General  Assembly  and  the  people 
the  proper  sources. 

I  will  also  recommend  to  the  General  Assembly  where  we  can 
get  the  money.  That  was  my  campaign  promise,  and  it  is  my 
pledge  to  North  Carolina  tonight.  The  plan  is  worth  the  money. 
We  must  do  no  less.  This  is  the  way  everyone  can  share  in  build- 
ing a  better  state  through  quality  education. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries  95 

The  North  Carolina  plan  might  be  called  a  "four-star  pro- 
gram," and  I  will  outline  the  basic  elements  of  these  four  guiding 
stars,  by  pointing  out  that  we  seek  for  our  state  public  education 
which  is  (1)  appropriate,  (2)  available,  (3)  excellent,  and  (4) 

First,  the  educational  opportunities  must  be  appropriate. 

1.  This  means  we  seek  education  which  meets  state  and  na- 
tional needs,  along  with  and  as  a  part  of  the  needs  of  the 

It  recognizes  that  individual  talents  vary,  that  a  total  school 
program  must  fit  the  needs  of  each  child,  and  that  individuality 
must  not  be  crushed  in  a  common  mold.  To  achieve  this,  we 
need  an  adequate  counseling  and  guidance  service  for  our  stu- 

It  recognizes  that  all  students  need  a  basic  education  in  Eng- 
lish, mathematics,  the  humanities,  elementary  sciences,  the  social 
sciences,  if  we  are  to  develop  fully  for  intelligent  citizenship. 

It  recognizes  that  education  in  depth  in  these  basic  subjects, 
plus  other  disciplines  such  as  foreign  languages,  should  be  pro- 
vided for  those  students  with  greater  academic  abilities. 

It  recognizes  that  the  school  has  some  responsibility  for  a  pro- 
gram of  physical  education  and  health. 

It  recognizes  that  vocational  courses  should  be  provided,  in 
addition  to  the  basic  academic  courses,  for  those  who  will  seek 
employment  or  technical  training  after  graduation.  It  should 
provide  opportunities  for  education  in  the  practical  arts. 

It  recognizes  that  we  must  provide  special  challenges  for  the 
gifted  child. 

It  recognizes  that  training  must  be  provided  for  the  handi- 
capped child. 

It  means  our  human  resources,  whatever  they  are,  must  be 
developed  fully  up  and  down  the  line. 

2.  Having  outlined  the  objectives  for  educational  opportuni- 
ties which  will  be  appropriate,  how  can  we  go  about  achieving 
such  a  program?  Aware  that  much  has  been  done,  we  can  do 
more  in  the  following  ways: 

The  courses  of  study  to  make  and  keep  education  appropriate, 
in  line  with  the  principles  outlined,  will  be  left  to  local  school 
administrators  and  teachers  with  encouragement  and  assistance 
from  local  school  boards,  with  advice  and  leadership  from  the 
State  Board  of  Education  and  State  Department  of  Public  In- 
struction, and  guidance  from  the  Curriculum  Study.  The  Cur- 
riculum Study  is  the  most  important  single  effort  now  being 
made  to  improve  the  quality  of  the  schools,  and  we  will  urge  the 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

General  Assembly  to  increase  financial  support  of  the  study  for 
the  next  two  years. 

We  will  present  a  specific  program  to  the  General  Assembly 
to  achieve  an  advance  in  providing  teachers  and  training  for 
retarded  children. 

We  will  present  a  specific  recommendation  to  the  General 
Assembly  to  begin  a  program  of  special  school  opportunities 
for  gifted  children. 

Second,  while  making  education  appropriate  for  individual 
development  and  for  the  state  and  national  need,  we  must  be 
certain  that  this  kind  of  education  is  available  to  all  boys  and 
girls  of  North  Carolina,  no  matter  where  they  might  live. 

1.  This  means  that  we  must  continue  to  recognize  that, 
largely  because  of  widely  diverse  circumstances  in  county  wealth. 
North  Carolina,  unlike  many  states,  has  assumed  primary  finan- 
cial responsibility  for  the  operation  of  its  schools. 

I  reaffirm  that  we  will  not  shift  this  primary  responsibility 
back  to  the  counties,  and  we  will  not  sit  idly  by  awaiting  federal 
assumption  of  this  responsibility. 

2.  The  state  (Board  of  Education,  Department  of  Public  In- 
struction, General  Assembly,  Governor)  should  encourage  con- 
solidation wherever  and  however  possible.  Better  transportation 
and  Kerr  Scott's  roads  have  expanded  the  reach  of  every  school 
building  and  have  altered  our  thinking  of  the  proper  size  of  a 
school  community.  I  accept  Dr.  James  Bryant  Conant's  standard 
that  a  high  school  with  a  graduating  class  of  less  than  100  is  too 
small  to  be  either  appropriate  in  scope  or  adequate  in  quality. 
Community  pride  is  an  admirable  trait,  but  it  should  not  get  in 
the  way  of  quality  education  for  the  children  of  the  community. 
We  are  moving  in  the  right  direction  across  North  Carolina,  and 
local  school  boards  should  give  careful  attention  to  consolida- 
tion, where  possible,  to  achieve  quality  and  an  adequate  range 
of  courses  of  instruction. 

3.  This  means  we  must  make  educational  opportunity  avail- 
able for  those  students  who  are  so  handicapped  mentally  or 
physically  that  they  cannot  profitably  attend  a  regular  school. 
Much  is  now  being  done  in  institutional  care  and  in  special  day 
classes,  and  continued  expansion  of  this  training  will  be  made 
so  that  the  "forgotten  children"  will  be  reached  with  special 

4.  Transportation  of  students  must  be  safe  and  adequate. 
Local  school  boards  need  pay  special  attention  to  the  situation 
where  school  buses  serve  separate  elementary  and  high  schools, 
necessitating  long  delays  in  the  return  home  of  the  smaller  chil- 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


dren.  Part  of  the  answer  to  this  is  adequate  consolidation,  and 
part  of  the  answer  may  be  in  state  aid  for  the  financially-strapped 

5.  Availability  includes  the  question  of  adequate  school  build- 
ings. I  believe  that  this  should  remain  essentially  a  county  re- 
sponsibility, that  we  should  be  certain  that  we  get  the  most  for 
our  building  dollar  (the  buildings  should  be  standardized  to  a 
reasonable  degree  and  a  limit  should  be  placed  on  the  amount 
which  can  be  spent  per  square  foot) ,  and  that  the  state  will 
have  to  provide  some  matching  funds  for  the  next  immediate 
period  which  will  see  an  unusual  influx  of  students.  So  I  will 
propose  to  the  General  Assembly  a  state  school  bond  issue  for 
this  purpose. 

6.  If  appropriate  education  is  to  be  available  to  a  degree  that 
our  full  potential  of  human  resource  is  developed,  then  we  need 
to  expand  community  colleges  and  industrial  education  centers, 
and  I  shall  have  more  to  say  about  these  items  at  a  later  date. 
We  must  also  be  concerned  with  the  quality  of  higher  educa- 
tion, and  I  shall  discuss  this  in  detail  at  a  later  date.  I  want  it 
understood  clearly  that  I  am  in  no  way  discounting  the  respon- 
sibility for  doing  more— and  doing  more  now— for  higher  edu- 

Third,  the  educational  opportunities  must  be  excellent,  must 
be  of  the  highest  quality,  must  be  second  to  none. 

To  achieve  quality,  to  achieve  excellence,  will  require  the 
best  efforts  of  all  who  are  concerned  with  public  education. 

There  is  no  easy  road;  there  is  no  clearly-marked  road;  there 
is  no  sure  road;  but  I  do  have  some  landmarks  which  will  lead 
us  onward. 

1.  We  need  to  attract  able  people  to  the  teaching  profession 
and  keep  them  there  once  they  have  become  good  teachers.  We 
need  to  make  salaries  for  teachers  competitive.  Over  the  next 
ten  years  we  must  increase  salaries  until  we  can  draw  and  keep 
an  adequate  number  of  quality  teachers.  I  will  recommend  to 
the  General  Assembly  in  1961  substantial  salary  increases,  but 
this  is  only  the  first  step.  We  will  need  to  go  on  and  on  until 
we  are  not  losing  teachers,  or  failing  to  attract  young  people  to 
the  teaching  profession,  because  of  inadequate  salaries.  It  is  that 
simple.  If  we  are  going  to  get  and  keep  an  adequate  number 
of  the  kind  of  teachers  we  must  have,  we  must  compete  for 
them  in  salary  scales.  We  can  do  no  less.  This  is  fundamental. 

2.  Excellent  teachers  must  have  excellent  education  for  their 
profession.  This  education  and  the  institutions  in  which  it  is 
provided  must  be  strengthened.   Scholarships  for  prospective 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

teachers  have  been  proved  worthwhile.  The  number  must  be 
increased  and  extended  to  teachers  and  administrators  in  service. 

3.  The  professional  help  the  teacher  needs  must  be  provided. 
This  applies  to  supervision,  special  teachers,  and  to  in-service 
education  opportunities.  I  will  recommend  to  the  General  As- 
sembly an  appropriation  to  start  a  program  of  in-service  train- 
ing. This  is  the  best  way  to  improve  the  quality  of  classroom 

4.  The  classroom  teaching-learning  situation  must  be  im- 
proved. This  is  essential  if  excellence  is  to  be  achieved.  The 
teacher  must  be  given  time  to  teach.  This  means  that  interrup- 
tions and  nonteaching  duties  must  be  reduced  to  a  minimum. 
The  pupil  must  be  given  time  to  learn.  This  means  that  con- 
flicting demands  on  student  time  and  effort  must  be  eliminated. 

Class  size  must  be  adjusted.  In  the  primary  grades,  no  teacher 
should  have  more  than  t^venty-five  students.  In  the  upper  grades, 
some  classes  might  include  a  larger  number  of  students,  but  all 
students  should  also  meet  sometime  during  the  day  in  very 
small  groups.  Some  individual  attention  is  essential.  A  minimum 
of  fifty  professional  people  for  each  1,000  students  should  be  our 
goal.  I  will  recommend  to  the  General  Assembly  a  first  step  in 
this  direction. 

The  special  services  and  teaching  tools  such  as  textbooks, 
laboratories,  shops,  television,  and  electronic  aids  must  be  ade- 
quate. Libraries,  the  center  of  the  school's  instructional  pro- 
gram, have  been  neglected  in  too  many  schools,  and  this  requires 
our  immediate  action.  I  will  make  recommendations  for  addi- 
tional appropriations  to  the  General  Assembly  concerning  these 

Supporting  services  by  noninstructional  personnel  are  part  of 
the  total  school  effort,  and  these  employees  are  entitled  to  fair 
treatment  and  proper  consideration  and  are  not  going  to  be 

5.  The  student  must  be  given  the  help  he  needs  to  choose 
and  to  follow  successfully  the  right  courses.  Our  goal  is  that  all 
of  the  necessary  guidance  services  needed  must  be  provided.  I 
will  recommend  to  the  General  Assembly  that  we  strengthen 
guidance  services  for  students. 

6.  Educational  opportunity  that  is  excellent  must  have  excel- 
lent leadership.  This  is  true  on  the  state  level  and  on  the  local 
level.  Salaries  and  standards  of  State  Department  professional 
positions  must  be  established  comparable  to  those  of  college 
professors.  Salaries  and  standards  of  local  educational  leadership 
positions  must  be  made  competitive  with  leadership  positions 
in  other  professions. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


7.  Constant  study  of  school  performance  is  some  assurance  of 
achieving  quality  and  excellence.  We  need  continuing  study 
and  research  into  methods,  courses,  techniques,  and  teacher 
education,  if  we  are  to  achieve  constant  improvement.  Every 
business  knows  the  value  of  research.  Witness  the  Research  Tri- 
angle. The  State  Board  of  Education  has  already  started  this 
job  of  research  and  study  in  education,  and  I  will  recommend 
making  it  a  permanent  part  of  the  public  school  structure.  In 
other  words,  we  will  keep  on  asking  ourselves,  "How  good  a  job 
are  we  doing?  How  can  we  improve  what  we  are  doing?" 

Fourth,  and  the  last  guiding  star,  we  need  to  support  our 
schools,  and  this  means  everybody  must  support  them.  We  need 
to  support  them  with  money,  understanding,  encouragement, 
with  determination  that  we  are  entitled  to  the  best,  and  that 
we  have  the  capacity  and  the  resources  to  obtain  the  best. 

This  is  not  so  nebulous.  Let  me  point  out  a  few  of  many 
ways  we  can  give  such  far-ranging  support. 

1.  The  taxpayers  have  been  getting  their  money's  worth  in 
North  Carolina.  The  trouble  is  that  we  haven't  been  buying 
enough.  I  am  certain  that  North  Carolina  gets  more  for  its 
school  dollar  than,  for  example.  New  York  or  California,  where 
much  more  per  student  is  spent.  But  we  are  not  doing  the  job 
because  we  are  not  spending  enough.  While  it  is  almost  mean- 
ingless to  compare  figures  with  national  averages,  this  never- 
theless furnishes  some  guide  to  our  thinking.  The  national 
average  spent  on  a  student  is  |369.  It  is  the  average  of  wealthy 
states  and  poor  states;  it  is  not  the  top  amount.  North  Carolina, 
state  and  local,  spends  $230.  That  doesn't  look  right,  and  it 
isn't.  We  can't  spend  what  we  ought  to  next  year,  no  matter 
how  much  we  might  try,  but  we  can  start  out  now  on  a  deter- 
mined goal  to  increase  this  amount  from  year  to  year.  If  we  had 
unlimited  funds,  we  would  not  want  to  spend  them  next  year. 
The  job  cannot  be  done  in  a  year  or  two,  but  we  can,  during 
the  next  ten  years,  increase  our  appropriations  year  after  year 
until  we  reach,  not  necessarily  the  national  average,  but  the 
point  where  we  are  achieving  the  excellence  we  seek. 

2.  We  must  make  the  teaching  profession  a  truly  attractive 
one.  "Attractive"  is  probably  a  poor  word  because  it  may  sug- 
gest relaxed  ease  and  comfortable  security  and  no  more.  But  I 
mean  "attractive"  in  the  sense  that  it  is  of  critical  importance 
to  the  scholarly  mind.  This  includes  an  atmosphere  of  respect 
as  well  as  circumstances  of  comfortable  security. 

We  must  provide  an  atmosphere  which  will  show  always  its 
respect  and  concern  for  the  teaching  profession.  It  is  not  enough 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

for  this  respect  to  be  shown  in  the  isolated  act  of  belated  public 
recognition  for  a  long  career  of  devoted  teaching  service  come 
to  an  end.  It  must  be  a  continued  concern  throughout  that 
career  that  the  teacher  have  not  only  a  salary  commensurate 
with  the  public  service  performed,  but  those  added  essentials 
to  a  feeling  of  dignity  which  all  of  us,  even  teachers,  must  have 
in  order  to  give  sustained  performance. 

For  example,  should  a  public  school  teacher,  on  the  theory 
that  she  has  three  summer  months  in  which  to  have  all  her  ill- 
nesses, not  be  allowed  a  single  day  of  sick  leave  without  paying 
her  own  substitute?  I  think  this  is  unrealistic,  as  well  as  unfair, 
and  not  in  keeping  with  the  spirit  of  a  state  which  seeks  the 
best  possible  teachers. 

3.  Recognition  of  teacher  quality  is  essential.  To  quote  a  reso- 
lution of  the  National  Education  Association,  "It  is  a  major 
responsibility  of  the  teaching  profession,  as  of  other  professions, 
to  evaluate  the  quality  of  its  services.  To  enable  educators  to 
meet  this  responsibility  more  effectively,  the  association  calls  for 
continued  research  to  discover  means  of  objective  evaluation  of 
the  performance  of  all  professional  personnel  and  their  inter- 
relationships for  the  purpose  of  improving  instruction." 

I  agree  with  this  statement  and  think  this  should  be  the  ap- 
proach in  North  Carolina,  where,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  such  study 
and  research  is  presently  being  carried  on. 

This  is  not  the  so-called  subjective  merit  rating  which  has 
been  found  unworkable  in  other  states. 

I  would  hope  that  this  study  could  point  the  way  for  a  lively 
program  of  encouraging  private  endowments  to  reward  excep- 
tional teaching,  similar  to  the  plan  of  Kenan  Professors  at  Chapel 

4.  It  means  that  parents  must  understand  and  support  and 
believe  in  the  kind  of  school  system  we  hope  will  be  developed 
in  North  Carolina.  It  means  they  must  stand  behind  the  school 
board  in  difficult  decisions  of  consolidation  and  school  locations. 
It  means  they  must  support  the  school  administrators  who  have 
the  courage  to  curtail  midweek  extracurricular  activities.  It 
means  they  must  insist  on  homework  being  assigned  and  insist 
on  homework  being  done. 

5.  It  means  that  students  in  school  must  accept  the  responsi- 
bility of  learning.  I  have  difficulty  in  getting  this  point  across 
to  two  at  home,  and  I  have  no  illusions  about  getting  it  across 
to  the  more  than  a  million  in  the  school  system;  but  it  is  a 
challenging  job  for  teachers  properly  to  challenge  all  children 
to  do  their  best.  Schooling  is  not  a  mother-bird  activity.  The 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


students  must  feed  themselves. 

There  is  no  magic  ten-year  plan.  The  Governor  cannot  force 
educational  standards  upward.  There  is  no  push  button  marked 
"quality  education." 

This  will  be  everybody's  job.  This  is  a  call  to  arms.  It  is  time 
for  North  Carolinians  to  march— to  start  our  march  from  the 
forefront  of  the  South  to  the  forefront  of  the  nation. 

The  route-of-approach  is  outlined  in  our  plans  and  programs, 
but  the  marching  must  be  done  by  the  people  of  North  Caro- 
lina—all of  the  people  of  North  Carolina. 

The  objective  is  quality  education  for  our  boys  and  girls, 
second  to  none.  The  objective  is  quality  education  which  will 
lift  North  Carolina  in  its  every  endeavor. 

I  have  not  covered  everything.  Education,  like  life  in  North 
Carolina,  is  expanding,  dynamic,  and  difficult  to  define  in  an 
exactly  outlined  framework.  Our  plans  can  never  be  put  in  a 
neat  package  in  a  showcase.  They  will  be  altered  as  we  learn, 
as  we  move  forward. 

It  will  take  the  best  thinking  of  local  school  boards.  I  am 
thankful  for  the  dedicated  citizens  who  make  up  these  school 
boards.  I  am  thankful  that  tradition  in  North  Carolina  has 
caused  these  school  boards,  with  few  exceptions,  to  be  guided 
by  nonpartisan  and  nonpolitical  motives. 

It  will  take  the  best  in  leadership  of  the  school  administrators. 
It  will  take  the  devotion  and  determination  of  the  teachers. 

Above  all,  it  will  take  the  understanding  and  support  of  all 
the  citizens,  a  willingness  to  go  forward  in  the  conviction  that 
all  progress  stems  from  education. 

Shakespeare  put  it  this  way: 

There  is  a  tide  in  the  affairs  of  men, 

Which,  taken  at  the  flood,  leads  on  the  fortune, 

Omitted,  all  the  voyage  of  their  life 

Is  bound  in  shallows  and  in  miseries. 

On  such  a  full  sea  are  we  now  afloat; 

And  we  must  take  the  current  when  it  serves, 

Or  lose  our  ventures. 

The  "full  sea"  of  which  Brutus  spoke  is  around  us.  The  rising 
tide  is  lapping  at  our  feet.  We  cannot  fail  to  see  it  unless  we  are 
blind  and  cannot  see  or  are  fearful  and  will  not  open  our  eyes. 

Education  is  the  barque  on  which  we  must  launch  our  hopes. 
Through  education  of  our  people,  the  promise  of  the  New  Day 
will  be  achieved.  If  we  cling  to  it  strongly  enough  it  will  lift  us 
on  the  floodtide  of  opportunity. 

My  faith  always  has  been  that  the  people  of  North  Carolina 

102  Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

are  ready  to  go— ready  to  make  this  New  Day  of  opportunity  a 
New  Day  of  achievement. 


Fort  Bragg 
January  24,  1961 

[Within  a  month  after  assuming  the  governorship,  Sanford  presented  an 
address  which  he  entitled  "President  Kennedy  and  the  Quest  for  Peace."  He 
endorsed  Kennedy's  foreign  policy  and  spoke  of  its  meaning  to  persons  in 
uniform  and  to  civilians  who  were  concerned  with  the  struggles  for  peace 
and  the  future  of  the  United  Nations.] 

President  Kennedy  at  his  inauguration  aptly  expressed  the 
determined  spirit  of  this  generation  of  Americans:  "Born  in  this 
century,  tempered  by  war,  disciplined  by  a  hard  and  bitter  peace, 
proud  of  our  ancient  heritage— and  unwilling  to  witness  or  per- 
mit the  slow  undoing  of  those  human  rights  to  which  this  nation 
has  always  been  committed." 

No  group  could  better  understand  this  determination  and 
no  group  could  be  more  ready  to  fight  to  preserve  these  national 
commitments  than  soldiers  and  ex-soldiers  like  yourselves.  There 
is  no  question  about  this  readiness  and  willingness  to  fight  and 
die;  the  question  is  will  we  take  the  leadership  in  defending 
"our  ancient  heritage"  without  fighting.  Will  we,  again  in  the 
words  of  John  F.  Kennedy,  "begin  anew  the  quest  for  peace, 
before  the  dark  powers  of  destruction  unleashed  by  science  en- 
gulf all  humanity  in  planned  or  accidental  self-destruction"? 

It  is  a  paradox  that  fighting  is  less  difficult  for  the  democratic 
mind  to  grasp  than  is  the  "quest  for  peace."  Fighting  unleashes 
the  native  spirit,  while  the  quest  for  peace  requires  all  the  re- 
straints, and  all  the  patience,  and  all  the  understanding  with 
which  man,  unhappily,  is  not  naturally  endowed  at  birth. 

That  has  been  the  story  of  most  wars.  Patience,  understanding, 
restraint,  not  fully  developed  in  man,  failed. 

You  know  better  than  many  that  talking  is  better  than  shoot- 
ing, that  negotiating  is  easier  than  digging  foxholes,  and  that 
debating— however  vitriolic— burns  a  man  less  than  white  phos- 
phorous or  radiation. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


The  United  States  and  the  other  nations  of  the  world  have 
found  in  the  last  fifteen  years  around  the  tables  of  the  United 
Nations  that  restraint  and  patience  are  not  natural  attributes 
of  man,  but  they  know  bombast  is  better  than  bombs,  and  the 
insult  of  words  is  less  disrespectful  than  the  insult  of  death. 

When  we  are  tempted  to  despair  of  the  fruitless  argument 
around  West  92nd  Street,  we  might  well  remember  the  lethal 
arguments  around  Bastogne,  around  Guadalcanal,  and  around 

We  all  know  that  American  military  might  is  capable  of  de- 
stroying Soviet  cities,  and  Khrushchev's  missiles  could  destroy 
ours.  This  is  the  cold  fact  that  has  helped  to  keep  the  cold  war 
from  growing  too  hot.  This  is  why  we  continue  to  fight  our 
fights  around  the  conference  tables  at  the  UN.  I  firmly  believe 
that  the  United  Nations,  supported  by  the  strength  of  the  United 
States  and  other  free  nations,  has  kept  us  out  of  World  War  III. 

Let's  look  at  the  United  Nations.  It  has  its  shortcomings.  It 
has  its  frustrations,  and  it  has  had  its  failures.  But  the  shadows 
of  its  failures  are  not  as  wide  as  the  brightness  of  its  potential 
and  are  not  as  dark  as  the  threat  of  war.  I  believe  any  student 
of  the  history  of  man  would  agree  with  me  that  the  very  exist- 
ence of  the  United  Nations  is  remarkable.  It  is  a  remarkable, 
even  if  a  somewhat  faltering,  step  toward  the  universal  peace  for 
which  men  have  strived  and  for  which  women  have  yearned 
since  Cain  killed  Abel. 

Here  are  sovereign  nations  sitting  down  together  in  the  spot- 
light of  international  attention  and  arguing  their  cases.  Here 
are  the  smallest  nations  of  the  earth  occupying,  on  the  platform 
of  the  world,  space  equal  to  the  largest  countries.  Here  the  poor- 
est government  is  afforded  the  same  rights  as  the  richest  gov- 
ernment. Here  in  the  United  Nations  are  represented  every 
race,  color,  and  creed. 

The  United  Nations  logically  resulted  from  the  devastation 
of  war  and  the  aspirations  of  all  men  to  be  free,  to  be  fed,  and 
to  be  able  to  face  the  future  without  fear. 

If  the  United  Nations  has  failed  to  do  all  that  a  war-weary 
world  in  1945  hoped  it  would  do,  we  should  remember  that  it 
was  a  long  and  painful  time  in  being  formed.  When  early  men 
came  down  from  the  trees  and  out  of  the  caves,  it  was  natural 
they  should  establish  governments:  first  the  family,  then  the 
tribe,  then  the  city-states  and  the  kingdoms  and  empires. 

Now  the  kingdoms  and  the  nations  and  the  empires  long  have 
entered  into  alliances  for  mutual  protection.  There  were  con- 
federations, the  ententes,  the  axes. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Woodrow  Wilson  came  along  with  his  proposal  for  a  new 
kind  of  international  combination,  the  League  of  Nations. 

The  United  States,  following  the  poor  advice  of  that  little 
group  of  willful  men,  declined  to  join  in  Wilson's  great  experi- 
ment. We  refused  to  sit  at  the  tables  in  Geneva. 

I  do  not  believe  it  an  exaggeration  to  say  the  wounds  we  suf- 
fered at  Pearl  Harbor,  on  the  Anzio  Beach,  at  the  Battle  of  the 
Bulge,  and  all  the  other  battlefields  of  World  War  II  were  a 
direct  and  tragic  sequel  to  that  refusal  to  enter  the  League. 

In  World  War  II  we  learned  as  we  suffered.  In  1945  America, 
first  under  Franklin  Delano  Roosevelt  and  then  under  Harry 
S.  Truman,  took  the  lead  in  establishing  the  United  Nations. 

I  think  I  should  point  out  here  that  North  Carolinians  indi- 
vidually and  North  Carolina  as  a  state  helped  pour  the  concrete 
for  the  foundation  of  the  United  Nations.  In  1941,  before  Pearl 
Harbor,  the  North  Carolina  General  Assembly,  by  an  act  known 
as  the  Humber  Resolution,  called  on  the  nation  to  move  toward 
the  establishment  of  a  world  order  with  powers  limited  to  mat- 
ters of  armament  for  the  purpose  of  stopping  war. 

That  action  on  March  3,  1941,  by  the  General  Assembly  of 
North  Carolina  will,  I  believe,  rank  in  importance  in  our  history 
along  with  the  Halifax  Resolves  and  the  Mecklenburg  Declara- 
tion, which  were  forerunners  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence. 
This  was  the  first  time  in  history  that  a  state  had  taken  such 
a  stand.  More  than  thirty  states  followed  suit. 

I  concur  completely  with  the  President  of  the  United  States, 
who  stated  last  week  the  official  policy  of  this  nation,  that  the 
United  Nations  is  "our  last  best  hope  in  an  age  where  the  in- 
struments of  war  have  far  outpaced  the  instruments  of  peace." 

North  Carolina  will  move  in  the  front  lines  with  the  Presi- 
dent in  the  march  to  the  New  Frontiers  of  freedom  and  peace. 
We  will  honor  and  support  his  pledge  "to  prevent  the  United 
Nations  from  becoming  merely  a  forum  for  invective— to 
strengthen  its  shield  of  the  new  and  the  weak— and  to  enlarge 
the  area  to  which  its  writ  may  run." 

There  are  many  here  who  wear  the  United  Nations  ribbon  for 
service  in  Korea.  By  many  standards  that  war— or  "police  action" 
if  you  prefer— was  not  a  satisfactory  war. 

Of  course,  I  have  never  heard  of  a  war  that  really  was  satis- 
factory. But  before  the  partisan  critics  of  the  Korean  War  dis- 
miss that  conflict  as  "Mr.  Truman's  War,"  let  them  be  reminded 
of  some  places  where  the  League  of  Nations  did  not  fight.  Let 
them  be  reminded  of  the  Rhineland,  Austria,  and  Czechoslo- 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


The  United  Nations,  in  Korea,  fought  and  halted  commu- 
nism. The  United  Nations  served  notice  that  aggression  would 
not  be  tolerated.  It  is  hard  to  estimate  how  many  other  small 
nations  have  been  able  to  preserve  their  integrity  through  this 
timely  warning  of  Korea.  I  am  one  who  believes  that  those  who 
died  in  Korea  did  NOT  die  in  vain. 

The  failures  and  the  shortcomings  of  the  UN  have  been  well 
publicized.  But  let's  look  at  some  of  the  other  accomplishments 
besides  Korea. 

Soviet  troops  were  withdrawn  from  Iran  after  World  War  II 
after  the  United  Nations  adopted  a  resolution  calling  for  with- 

Fighting  between  India  and  Pakistan  over  Kashmir  was  halt- 
ed after  the  United  Nations  Good  Offices  Committee  intervened. 
Dr.  Frank  Porter  Graham*^^  of  North  Carolina  was  a  key  con- 
ciliator in  that  cessation  of  hostilities. 

Of  course,  the  UN  played  a  vital  role  in  the  Suez  crisis,  in  the 
Berlin  blockade  and  right  now  is  playing  a  vital  role  in  the 
Congo.  Any  one  of  these  situations  could  have  pushed  us  into 
World  War  III. 

But  the  United  Nations  has  said  to  aggressors:  "Halt!" 

Aggression  may  succeed  momentarily,  but  we  will  not  let  them 
use  Hungary  as  a  stepping  stone  to  further  aggression  like  Hitler 
used  Czechoslovakia. 

We  will  not  let  Korea  or  Laos  go  undefended  like  Manchuria 
in  1931. 

We  will  not  permit  imperialism,  no  matter  under  what  name 
it  parades,  use  the  Congo  as  a  proving  ground  like  Mussolini 
used  Ethiopia. 

The  United  Nations  has  said  to  all:  Trespassers  will  be  prose- 

When  aggressors  and  would-be  aggressors  recognize  this  fact, 
then  we  can  devote  our  efforts  toward  the  abolition  of  disease 
and  hunger  and  make  the  United  Nations  the  organization  to 
promote  the  welfare  of  all  nations  and  of  all  men,  women,  and 

You  as  soldiers  have  been  the  protectors  in  war  and  the  police- 
men of  peace.  The  cause  for  which  you  fought  in  Korea  was 
not  only  the  defense  of  America  but  also  defense  of  free  men 

Frank  Porter  Graham  (1886-  ),  teacher,  public  official,  World  War  I 
veteran;  President  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill,  1930-1949; 
member  of  various  boards  of  importance,  including  the  Carnegie  Foundation, 
Woodrow  Wilson  Foundation,  National  Council  of  Churches,  Hampton  Institute; 
United  States  senator,  administrator  of  United  States  Department  of  Labor,  United 
Nations  representative  for  India  and  Pakistan.  Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  504. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

everywhere.  The  Second,  Third,  Seventh,  Twenty-fourth,  Twenty- 
fifth,  Fortieth,  and  Forty-fifth  Infantry  Divisions  and  the  First 
Cavalry  and  the  Marines  and  the  Navy  and  the  Air  Force  were 
fighting  under  the  United  Nations  flag  as  well  as  under  the  Stars 
and  Stripes. 

Now  the  cynics  throw  up  their  hands  in  horror  when  the 
United  Nations  fails  as  it  failed  at  the  time  of  the  Hungarian 
Revolution.  The  United  Nations  is  impotent,  they  charge. 

The  United  Nations  has  had  its  setbacks— Hungary  was  the 

But  we  don't  abolish  our  Congress  when  it  enacts  a  law  which 
doesn't  work.  And  we  do  not  disband  our  police  force  when 
someone  gets  away  with  murder.  We  strengthen  them! 

To  abandon  or  weaken  the  United  Nations  now  would  lead 
to  international  anarchy. 

Rather  than  abandoning  the  United  Nations,  rather  than  di- 
luting our  support  of  it,  let  us  work  from  the  blueprint  drawn 
by  President  Kennedy:  "To  invoke  the  wonders  of  science  in- 
stead of  its  terrors  ...  to  explore  the  stars,  conquer  the  deserts, 
eradicate  disease,  tap  the  ocean  depths  and  encourage  the  arts 
and  commerce." 

Chapel  Hill 
February  2,  1961 

As  he  was  to  do  on  several  occasions,  Governor  Sanford  ad- 
dressed members  of  the  North  Carolina  Press  Association.  At  the 
1961  meeting,  he  compared  the  power  of  the  press  to  the  court- 
room prosecutor,  judge,  and  grand  jury.  This  power  carried 
with  it  tremendous  responsibility,  and  the  Governor  commended 
the  group  for  accepting  its  role.  He  congratulated  the  press  for 
the  goodwill  and  good  sense  exhibited  by  North  Carolina  news- 
papers in  backing  the  sensible  approach  to  the  integration-segre- 
gation question,  giving  credit  to  them  for  helping  keep  the 
schools  open  during  the  crisis.  The  Governor  then  charged 
them  to  help  with  the  "equally  difficult  task  of  helping  to  im- 
prove these  schools." 

Throughout  the  years  of  his  tenure,  Sanford's  primary  con- 
cern was  education.  He  addressed  groups  throughout  North 
Carolina  and  the  nation  on  the  subject,  and  his  speech  to  the 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


North  Carolina  Press  Association  was  no  exception.  He  praised 
the  newspapermen  for  supporting  the  report  of  a  fact-finding 
group  which  had  shown  the  critical  ne^ds  of  the  public  schools. 
After  discussing  plans  for  the  financial  support  of  the  schools, 
the  Governor  remarked  that  money  was  not  the  ^ole  answer  but 
that  the  job  could  not  be  done  without  money.  He  concluded 
that  the  story  of  education  was  important  to  all  segments  of  the 
public,  was  vital  to  those  working  on  newspapers,  and  would  be 
the  top  story  for  the  year  1961. 


February  6,  1961 

As  Governor  Sanford  traveled,  he  became  more  and  more 
convinced  that  North  Carolinians  were  determined  "to  move 
forward  economically  by  taking  full  advantage  of  the  consider- 
able potential  we  possess  in  the  fields  of  agriculture,  industry, 
and  education."  With  human  and  natural  resources  being  mar- 
shaled into  one  big  effort  for  higher  standards  and  opportuni- 
ties for  all,  he  said  that  citizens  were  building  for  the  future 
and  should  not  concentrate  selfishly  on  the  present.  He  com- 
mended the  Wilson  Industrial  Council  for  accepting  such 
responsibility.  The  Governor  observed  that  economic  diversity, 
a  problem  in  the  eastern  counties,  had  to  become  a  reality.  In 
that  area,  "Agriculture  is  the  backbone  of  the  economy  and 
tobacco  is  the  backbone  of  agriculture."  Change  was  imperative; 
diversification  of  agriculture  and  the  establishment  of  an  indus- 
trial balance  would  reveal  new  economic  activity  in  the  east, 
provide  challenge  and  opportunity.  To  keep  young  people  at 
home,  they  would  have  to  be  supplied  with  knowledge,  techni- 
cal training,  and  desire.  The  burden  of  responsibility  of  meeting 
the  goals  would  have  to  be  met  by  each  individual  who  would 
"dedicate  himself  to  the  task." 



February  10,  1961 

Early  in  his  administration.  Governor  Sanford  undertook  the 
task  of  carrying  his  message  of  quality  education  to  the  people 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

of  North  Carolina.  His  talk  to  the  Grifton  Junior  Chamber  of 
Commerce  was  one  of  those  occasions  in  which  the  Governor 
explained  his  program.  He  believed  that  the  primary  work  of 
the  governor,  the  legislature,  parents,  and  citizens  was  the  edu- 
cation of  children.  He  explained  the  need  for  new  classrooms, 
more  books,  more  teachers,  attention  to  the  mentally  retarded 
and  the  exceptionally  talented.  Programs  for  the  groups  at  both 
ends  of  the  scale  as  well  as  for  the  average  children  would  mean 
provision  "whereby  the  weak  could  grow  strong  and  the  strong 
could  grow  great."  The  Governor  concluded  his  talk  with  an 
appeal  to  the  Jaycees  of  Grifton  and  throughout  North  Carolina 
to  help  in  the  effort  to  improve  the  educational  opportunities 
in  the  state. 



February  21,  1961 

[In  its  February  20  issue,  the  News  and  Observers  Farm  and  Home 
Magazine  carried  a  message  from  the  Governor  in  which  he  stated  that 
"Kerr  Scott  got  the  farmer  out  of  the  mud;  it  is  our  job  to  get  the  farmer 
out  of  the  hole."  The  next  day  he  spoke  to  farm  leaders  and  reiterated  his 
stand  to  give  emphasis  to  agriculture  as  the  previous  administration  had 
concentrated  on  industry.  He  encouraged  a  realistic  understanding  of  the 
situation  and  called  for  ideas  which  would  result  in  a  stronger  farm  econ- 
omy. Appearing  in  September  before  the  Farmers  Cooperative  Exchange, 
Sanford  again  urged  that  steps  be  taken  to  move  the  farm  economy  upward.] 

This  conference  here  tonight  is  proof  that  farming  is  not  dead 
in  North  Carolina.  This  meeting  of  the  leaders  of  all  major 
farm  organizations  in  our  state  is  an  excellent  example  that 
farmers  are  working  together  like  never  before  to  assure  a 
healthy  gro^vth  in  North  Carolina's  most  fundamental  industry 

For  the  past  several  years,  as  I  have  traveled  over  our  state, 
I  have  pointed  out  something  that  all  of  you  know  but  some- 
thing that  the  skeptical  seem  to  doubt:  Far  from  being  dead, 
North  Carolina's  farms  contain  the  seed  for  a  great  new  harvest 
of  rural  prosperity. 

This  conference  shows  that  that  was  one  campaign  statement 
which  is  irrefutable. 

If  anyone  needs  further  evidence  of  the  vitality  and  the  po- 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


tential  growth  of  our  farms  and  of  our  farmers,  let  him  read  the 
calendar  of  farm  meetings  in  this  state  this  week.  To  cite  only 
a  few: 

Monday  through  Saturday,  cotton  growers  from  the  northeast 
to  the  southwestern  corners  of  our  state  are  observing  the  Agri- 
cultural Stabilization  and  Conservation  "Highlight  Week."  Mon- 
day through  Wednesday,  the  first  North  Carolina  barrow  show 
is  being  held  in  Johnston  County.  Monday,  two-bale  cotton 
growers  were  honored  at  State  College.  Yesterday,  a  program  on 
cattle  feeding  was  held  at  the  Nash  County  courthouse.  Yesterday, 
a  meeting  on  corn  production  was  held  in  Martin  County. 
Tomorrow,  a  meeting  on  egg  production  will  be  held  in  the 
same  county.  Tuesday  through  Thursday,  a  regional  conference 
on  marketing  is  being  held  at  the  YMCA  here  in  Raleigh.  Tomor- 
row, Ayshire  breeders  meet  in  Greensboro.  Day  after  tomorrow, 
Guernsey  breeders  meet  in  Durham.  Thursday,  Landrace  hog 
breeders  will  hold  a  sale  in  Rocky  Mount  Friday,  Poland  hog 
breeders  will  hold  a  sale  at  Greenville.  Thursday,  a  peanut  prod- 
uct meeting  will  be  held  in  the  Halifax  County  courthouse. 
Thursday,  a  sweet  potato  show  and  a  Negro  4-H  Club  sale  will  be 
held  in  Rocky  Mount.  Friday,  a  beef  cattle  tour  will  be  held  in 
Northampton  County.  Saturday,  the  Raleigh  Production  Credit 
Association  holds  its  annual  meeting  down  the  street  from  here. 
Monday  through  Saturday  is  Future  Farmers  of  America  Week. 

May  I  say  here  that  it's  easy  to  see  from  a  schedule  like  this 
why  farm  families  find  it  easy  to  obey  the  Fourth  Command- 
ment and  observe  Sunday  as  a  day  of  rest. 

These  meetings  indicate  the  increasing  diversity  of  North 
Carolina's  farming  business.  They  show  that  farming  is  impor- 
tant not  only  to  the  rural  areas  of  our  state  but  also  to  our 
largest  cities. 

They  suggest  that  what  happens  on  the  farm  is  significant  to 
what  happens  in  the  factory  and  the  mill  and  the  business  office. 

But,  then,  you  here  tonight  don't  need  a  lawyer  to  tell  you 
this.  You  know  it. 

You  also  are  aware  of  the  great  irony  of  the  rural  economy  in 
our  state:  North  Carolina,  with  some  of  the  richest  farmland  in 
the  nation,  has  some  of  the  poorest  farms,  and  some  of  the  most 
underpaid  farmers. 

Why  is  this? 

It  can't  be  because  North  Carolina  farmers  don't  work  as 
hard  as  farmers  elsewhere.  The  acres  of  this  state  have  been  well 
irrigated  with  the  sweat  of  farmers. 

It  can't  be  because  we've  lacked  rural  leadership.  We've  grown 


Papers  of  Terry  Saxford 

in  this  state  some  of  the  great  farm  leaders  of  the  nation.  To 
mention  just  a  few,  our  state  produced  Hugh  Bennett/^  who 
fathered  the  soil  conservation  program.  We've  had  men  like 
Flake  Shaw^o  ^nd  M.  G.  Mann^^  and  Kerr  Scott  and  Clarence 
Poe.^-  And  as  of  tonight  three  of  the  most  important  agricultural 
posts  in  President  Kennedy's  administration  are  filled  by  Harry 
Caldwell,^^  Charles  Murphy,^*  and  Horace  Godfrey.^-^  Congress- 
man Harold  Cooley^^  from  this  district  is  chairman  of  the  House 
Agriculture  Committee.  L.  Y.  "Stag"  Ballentine  has  worked  long 
and  well  as  Commissioner  of  Agriculture. 

I  could  go  on,  but  those  are  enough  to  show  that  any  poverty 
of  our  farms  cannot  be  blamed  on  poor  leadership. 

Nor  can  our  farm  problems  be  blamed  on  poor  climate.  We 
have  one  of  the  best  in  the  world.  We  have  a  long  grooving 

Hugh  Hammond  Bennett  (1881-1960),  soil  scientist,  public  official  in  state, 
national,  and  international  capacities;  first  chief  of  United  States  Soil  Conservation 
Service;  named  "father  of  soil  conservation."  Jaques  Cattell  (ed.),  American  Men 
of  Science:  A  Biographical  Directory  (Tempe,  Arizona:  Jaques  Cattell  Press,  In- 
corporated [Tenth  Edition,  revised,  I960])  ,  Vol.  A-E,  274. 

R.  Flake  Shaw,  farm  leader  from  Greensboro;  Executive  Secretary  of  North 
Carolina  Farm  Bureau  Federation,  1940-1957;  member  of  Board  of  Directors  and 
the  Executi^•e  Committee  of  the  American  Farm  Bureau;  member  of  Federal  Reserve 
Bank  of  Richmond.  Information  supplied  by  Irby  Shaw  \Valker,  daughter  of  Flake 
Shaw  and  employee  of  State  Farm  Bureau  Federation. 

®^  Manly  G.  Mann  ('1889-1958),  farm  leader,  railroad  employee,  bank  official; 
Director  of  North  Carolina  Cotton  Growers'  Association  and  of  Farmers  Cooperative 
Exchange.  News  and  Obsewer,  November  16,  1952. 

^  Clarence  Hamilton  Poe  (1881-1964)  ,  editor-publisher  from  Raleigh;  holder  of 
honorary  degrees  from  ^Vake  Forest,  University  of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill, 
Washington  College  in  Maryland,  Clemson,  and  North  Carolina  State  University; 
editor  of  the  Progressive  Farmer,  1899-1953;  member  of  the  State  College  Board  of 
Trustees,  State  Board  of  Agriculture,  Agriculture  Committee  of  the  United  States 
Chamber  of  Commerce,  Committee  on  Rural  Electrification;  master  of  the  State 
Grange;  elector  for  the  Hall  of  Fame  of  Great  Americans,  1925-1964.  Powell, 
North  Carolina  Lives,  981. 

^  Harry  B.  Caldwell,  farmer,  co-operative  executive  from  Greensboro;  active  in 
North  Carolina  agrarian  causes;  Chairman  of  the  Agricultural  Advisory  Committee 
in  ^Vashington;  holder  of  other  federal  posts  in  the  Hoover  and  Eisenhower  ad- 
ministrations. Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  203. 

^  Charles  S.  Murphy  (1909-  )  ,  lawyer,  government  official  from  Wallace; 
educated  Duke  University;  legislative  counsel,  United  States  Senate,  1934-1946; 
administrative  assistant  to  Harry  S.  Truman;  lawyer  engaged  in  active  practice, 
1953-1961;  Under  Secretary  of  Agriculture  under  John  F.  Kennedy.  Powell,  North 
Carolina  Lives,  896. 

^  Horace  David  Godfrey  (1915-  )  ,  government  executive;  former  Wake  Coun- 
ty farmer;  holder  of  long  record  of  government  service,  beginning  with  work  in 
the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  1934-1943;  Mason  and  Grange  leader;  admin- 
istrator of  Agricultural  Stabilization  and  Conservation  Service.  Powell,  North 
Carolina  Lives,  491. 

®«  Harold  D.  Cooley  (1897-  ),  lawyer  and  member  of  Congress  from  Nashville; 
studied  at  Duke  University  and  Law  School  of  Yale  University;  member  of  Con- 
gress from  the  Fourth  District,  1934-19—;  chairman  of  House  Committee  on  Agri- 
culture. Powell,  North  Carolina  Lives,  282;  North  Carolina  Manual,  1961,  504. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


The  farm  problem  of  this  state  certainly  cannot  be  explained 
by  a  lack  of  water.  We  are  heaven-blessed  in  this  respect.  Of 
course,  we  have  tended  to  squander  this  great  resource.  We  have 
let  it  flow  down  to  the  Atlantic  without  using  it,  and  we  have, 
for  entirely  too  long,  let  it  carry  away  some  of  our  best  topsoil. 

One  of  the  outstanding  extension  programs  is  the  one  carried 
on  in  this  state. 

So,  we  see  that  we  have  the  people,  we  have  the  soil,  we  have 
the  climate  and  the  water.  We  have  everything  necessary  for 
rural  prosperity.  In  spite  of  all  of  these  ingredients,  we  have  not 
discovered  the  proper  recipe  for  putting  them  together.  For  last 
year  hundreds  of  North  Carolina's  family  farms  went  out  of 
business.  Many  others  operated  in  the  red  or  barely  broke  even. 
And  our  farm  children  moved  away  in  droves  as  they  reached 

The  census  of  1960  showed  that  the  counties  which  lost 
heaviest  in  population  were  the  agrarian  counties.  Real  farm 
income  continued  to  go  down. 

The  low  income  of  the  majority  of  North  Carolina's  farms  is 
in  large  measure  responsible  for  the  low  per  capita  income  stand- 
ing of  North  Carolina. 

I  have  heard  it  happily  explained  that  new  industry,  a  new 
plant,  would  solve  the  needs  of  people  making  inadequate 
incomes  on  the  farms  now.  This  is  misleading. 

We  cannot  convert  them  all  to  industrial  workers.  The  answer 
is  not  to  send  them  all  to  town.  You  know  what  there  is  in  town 
tonight.  There  are  large  numbers  of  unemployed  and  underem- 
ployed workers  already.  Industrialization  is  one  of  the  most  urgent 
needs  of  this  state,  but  industrialization  is  not  the  answer  to  our 
farm  problems.  We  need  new  industry  and  will  work  toward 
this  goal,  but  we  also  need  new  income  from  the  soil,  and  we 
must  work  even  harder  for  this  goal,  because  the  path  is  more 

I  have  no  magic  answer  to  the  farm  needs.  I  would  hope  that 
you  here  tonight  might  from  time  to  time  suggest  programs  that 
would  help.  From  talking  with  you  and  farmers  across  the  state, 
it  seems  obvious  that  you  have  solved  many  of  the  problems  of 

Now  you  face  the  problems  of  distribution.  We  need  to  grow 
what  will  sell,  and  we  need  to  sell  it  at  a  profit.  The  enormity  of 
the  distribution  problem  can  be  grasped  when  we  consider  the 
wheat  and  eggs  and  other  commodities  overflowing  the  storage 
bins  in  this  nation  and  the  millions  upon  millions  of  hungry 
men,  women,  and  children  in  other  nations. 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  we  don't  have  to  go  to  India  or  the  Congo 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

or  Latin  America  to  find  hungry  people.  When  we  acted  last 
week  to  bring  North  Carolina  into  the  federal  surplus  food  pro- 
gram on  a  full-time  basis,  we  found  that  upward  of  500,000  North 
Carolinians  are  underfed.  Incidentally,  I  believe  this  surplus 
food  program  is  going  to  help  two  ways:  First,  it's  going  to  help 
feed  the  hungry;  and  secondly,  it's  going  to  help  reduce  farm 
surpluses  which  have  a  habit  of  depressing  the  prices  of  the 
current  harvests. 

One  of  the  programs  on  which  Kerr  Scott  was  working  when  he 
died  was  a  World  Food  Bank.  I  am  happy  to  see  others  are  con- 
tinuing that  work.  I  am  happy  to  see  that  President  Kennedy  has 
carried  this  idea  to  the  point  of  creating  programs  to  carry  out 
this  goal. 

Our  farm  surpluses  are  greater  weapons  in  this  cold  war 
with  communism  than  our  atomic  stockpile.  Unhappily,  they  are 
weapons  we  have  barely  used.  These  food  surpluses  are  especially 
potent  weapons  in  a  year  when  the  Soviet  and  Chinese  collective 
farms  have  suffered  one  of  their  periodic  failures. 

If  communism  breeds  on  hunger,  democracy  can  grow  on 
nourishment.  It  may  well  be  that  the  minds  of  those  uncom- 
mitted millions  around  the  globe  will  be  won  through  their 

Now  let's  come  back  closer  to  home  in  our  look  at  government 
and  the  farmer.  Here  in  Raleigh  for  the  last  six  years  we  saw 
what  a  determined  policy  by  state  government  could  do  in  ex- 
panding industry. 

This  administration  means  to  give  the  same  emphasis  to  farm- 
ing in  the  next  four  years  as  was  given  to  industrialization  in  the 
last  administration.  First  of  all,  let  me  say  the  door  to  the  Gover- 
nor's Office  is  going  to  be  open  as  wide  and  as  quickly  to  a  farmer 
as  it  is  to  an  industrial  prospect.  And,  I  might  add,  it's  going  to 
be  open  at  all  times  to  both. 

I  want  your  ideas  and  will  help  you  put  them  to  work. 

I  am  happy  to  see  the  electric  and  telephone  co-ops  represented 

These  co-ops  lighted  farm  houses  and  brought  phones  to  them 
when  they  were  needed.  I  am  not  picking  any  fight  with  the  com- 
mercial utility  companies  when  I  say  that  the  co-ops  will  be 
protected.  There  is  room  and  there  is  need  aplenty  for  both  the 
commercial  and  the  co-operative  utilities.  You  have  done  much 
to  lay  the  foundation  for  better  rural  life. 

So  long  as  people  need  food  to  eat,  so  long  as  they  want  tobacco 
to  smoke,  so  long  as  they  require  clothes  to  wear,  and  so  long  as 
they  need  wood  to  build,  then  farming  will  be  the  major  industry 
of  our  state. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


Let  us  use  our  imagination  to  develop  our  resources,  to  im- 
prove our  income,  to  widen  our  opportunities. 

The  answer  to  most  of  our  problems— schools,  roads,  income- 
lies  in  a  stronger  farm  economy. 



February  22,  1961 

Addressing  personnel  of  the  Prison  Department,  Governor 
Sanford  talked  about  prison  administration.  He  discussed  the 
challenge  facing  these  people,  a  challenge  created  by  the  growing 
knowledge  of  human  behavior  and  the  science  of  government. 
The  Governor  commended  the  state's  prison  officials  for  their 
courage  and  competence,  saying  that  the  policies  followed  by 
them  reflected  the  thinking  of  foremost  penologists  and  prison 
administrators  in  the  world.  He  explained  that  policy-making  was 
subject  to  change,  but  the  basic  guides,  such  as  those  outlined  in 
the  Prison  Department  Guidebook,  had  to  be  followed.  The 
co-operation  betwen  the  prison  system  and  the  Institute  of  Gov- 
ernment in  Chapel  Hill  in  planning  courses  for  personnel  was 
cited  as  a  good  example  of  the  dynamic  progress  being  made.  More 
and  more  use  of  probation  and  parole  meant  a  higher  percentage 
of  serious  offenders  remaining  under  the  care  of  the  prison 
officials.  Rehabilitation  had  taken  on  new  meaning  as  programs 
such  as  Alcoholics  Anonymous,  work  release,  education  while  in 
prison,  recreation,  and  job  placement  had  been  put  into  effect. 
Governor  Sanford  made  it  clear  that  the  prison  personnel  had 
his  support  in  the  job  they  had  to  do. 



February  28,  1961 

Governor  Sanford  stated  that  North  Carolina  had  the  resources, 
the  will,  the  opportunity  to  move;  the  result  would  be  a  new 
day  through  education.  He  spoke  of  the  PTA  as  a  powerful  force, 
and  he  urged  three  lines  of  action:  (1)  increased  attention  to  the 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

development  of  closer  relationships  between  parents  and  teachers 
with  mutual  trust,  exchange  of  information,  and  extension  of  the 
schools'  guidance  programs  so  that  each  child  would  have  two 
advocates— one  at  home  and  one  at  school;  (2)  promotion  of 
united  efforts  to  secure  for  every  child  an  educational  opportunity 
of  high  quality,  though  the  achievement  of  this  goal  would 
require  agreement  as  to  the  kind  of  job  the  school  should  do  so 
that  its  primary  objective  of  education  would  not  be  forgotten; 
and  (3)  aggressiveness  in  political  action  to  assure  laws  and 
appropriations  which  would  promote  better  public  education  for 
all  children.  "Money  will  not  do  the  job  but  we  cannot  do  the 
job  without  money."  The  Governor  concluded  by  saying  that  the 
support  of  quality  education  had  to  be  "the  first  order  of  our 
public  business." 

March  9,  1961 

[To  emphasize  Sanford's  program  of  quality  education  for  North  Caro- 
lina, a  series  of  education  rallies  were  held  throughout  the  state;  the  guber- 
natorial address  was  a  feature  of  nearly  all  of  these  meetings.  The  Governor 
often  visited  several  schools  in  more  than  one  county  in  a  single  day,  making 
as  many  as  ten  or  twelve  speeches.  His  ideas  in  the  field  of  education  were 
repeated  on  numerous  occasions,  not  only  at  rallies  such  as  the  one  at 
Smithfield  but  to  the  state's  citizens  by  means  of  television  and  radio.  His 
first  televised  "Report  to  the  People"  incorporated  many  of  the  thoughts 
presented  to  this  smaller  group;  the  "Report"  is  summarized  on  page  21.] 

I  come  to  you  here  tonight  to  continue  the  campaign  seeking 
the  support  of  the  adults  of  this  state  for  the  children  of  this 
state.  I  have  traveled  many  more  miles  across  North  Carolina  dur- 
ing the  last  thirteen  months,  asking  for  this  support  for  the 
schools,  than  I  traveled  all  through  World  War  II.  I  believe 
this  campaign  we  are  waging  for  better  schools  is  of  equal— if, 
indeed,  not  greater— importance  than  those  campaigns  of  World 
War  II.  For  the  first  prerequisite  to  democracy  is  an  educated 

The  decision  on  whether  our  schools  shall  be  improved  and 
whether  the  education  of  our  children  shall  be  the  first  order  of 
business  is  now  in  the  hands  of  the  people  of  this  state  and  their 
elected  representatives. 

I  have  promised  to  work  for  the  improvement  of  educational 
opportunities.  I  have  always  said  that  I  would  do  my  duty  in 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


recommending  new  taxes,  if  needed,  to  pay  for  those  oppor- 

I  have  proposed  a  far-reaching  program. 

I  have  now  proposed  to  your  elected  representatives  in  the 
General  Assembly  the  means  of  financing  the  part  of  the  program 
which  requires  expenditures. 

The  question  of  our  schools  and  the  question  of  our  children's 
education  is  now  in  your  hands  and  the  hands  of  your  fellow 
citizens  across  the  state.  Are  you  willing  to  pay  the  price  for  the 
education  of  your  children? 

I  think  that  all  of  us,  no  matter  what  our  views  on  a  particular 
tax  may  be,  can  agree  that  there  is  no  greater  need  in  North 
Carolina  today  than  the  improvement  of  the  public  schools. 
There  are  too  many  unhappy  statistics  which  cry  out  that  need. 

Let's  look  at  the  record  and  see  how  our  state  compares  with 
our  sister  states  in  education. 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-fifth  among  the  fifty  states  in  the 
amount  of  money  we  spend  on  each  child  going  to  school.  We 
spend  an  average  of  $240  a  year  for  the  education  of  each  of 
our  school  children  in  North  Carolina.  The  average  American 
child  has  $369  a  year  spent  on  him. 

North  Carolina  ranks  fortieth  in  the  per  capita  expenditure  of 
state  and  local  governments  for  local  schools. 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-first  in  per  capita  expenditure  of 
state  and  local  governments  for  all  public  education. 

North  Carolina  in  the  last  decade  raised  the  rate  of  teachers' 
salaries  less  than  any  other  state  in  the  union.  Our  teachers' 
salaries  were  low  in  1950  and  far  below  the  national  average. 
After  ten  years,  those  salaries  were  appreciably  farther  below  the 
national  average. 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-first  in  pupil-teacher  ratio.  That 
means  that  forty  states  give  teachers  smaller  class  loads  than  we 
require  teachers  of  this  state  to  teach. 

Now  let's  look  at  some  figures  with  a  close  correlation  to  those 
I  have  just  listed.  Let's  look  at  the  result  of  our  poor  support  of 
our  children's  education. 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-first  among  the  states  in  the  per 
cent  of  adults  with  college  diplomas. 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-first  among  the  states  in  the  per 
cent  of  our  population  fourteen  years  old  and  older  who  are 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-fourth  among  the  fifty  states  in 
the  percentage  of  adults  with  less  than  five  years  of  schooling. 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-fifth  in  the  percentage  of  men 
rejected  by  the  armed  forces  because  they  were  illiterate. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-seventh  among  the  fifty  states  in  the 
median  school  years  completed  by  adults— that  is,  persons  t^venty- 
five  years  old  or  older. 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-eighth  among  the  fifty  states  in  the 
percentage  of  our  adult  population  who  are  high  school  gradu- 

Now,  let's  look  at  one  more  brief  set  of  statistics.  I  rather  sus- 
pect there  is  a  strong  cause-and-effect  relationship  between  the 
figures  I  have  already  listed  and  these  I  am  about  to  list. 

North  Carolina  ranks  thirty-seventh  among  the  states  in 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-third  in  per  capita  disposable 

North  Carolina  ranks  forty-fifth  in  per  capita  income. 

Lest  someone  accuse  me  of  looking  only  on  the  dark  side,  let 
me  point  out  that  North  Carolina  ranks  eighth  among  the  states 
in  the  number  of  school  children.  That  is  our  greatest  asset. 

But  we  have  cultivated  our  children's  minds  less  well  than  we 
have  cultivated  our  tobacco  and  cotton  and  peanut  acres. 

W^e  have  given  proportionately  less  attention  to  the  mainte- 
nance of  schools  than  we  have  to  the  maintenance  of  wardrobes, 
our  automobiles,  and  our  kitchen  stoves. 

North  Carolina  is  rightly  concerned  when  anyone  attempts  to 
lower  our  tobacco  parity  of  90  per  cent. 

Yet  we  have  let  our  children's  educational  parity  fall  to  less 
than  66  per  cent. 

I  could  go  on  reciting  statistics  until  midnight,  but  I  believe 
the  ones  you  have  just  heard  convince  any  sensible  person 
of  the  need. 

These  are  the  facts,  these  are  the  figures  that  ^ve  must  ^veigh 
when  we  consider  the  admittedly  unhappy  prospect  of  new 
taxes.  These  are  the  facts  that  I  had  to  consider  before  I  went 
before  the  General  Assembly  of  North  Carolina  Monday  night 
with  the  special  budget  message  on  education.  These  are  the 
facts  your  elected  representatives  of  the  General  Assembly  must 
^veigh  in  the  coming  months. 

These  unhappy  facts  are  the  facts  that  every  citizen  must 

The  decision  on  the  future  of  North  Carolina  schools  is  the 
decision  that  will  determine  in  large  measure  the  future  of  oar 
children.  And,  it  is  true,  that  the  future  of  North  Carolina  will 
be  determined  by  the  children. 

That  decision  is  in  the  hands  of  you,  the  adult  citizens  of 
North  Carolina. 

Now  in  the  last  three  days,  there  has  been  some  talk  that  runs 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


about  like  this:  "Yes,  I  favor  the  Governor's  program  for  better 
schools  and  better  educational  opportunities  for  my  children,  but 
I  don't  like  his  tax  idea." 

Now  we  all  agree  that  taxes  are  unpleasant. 

But  I  know  of  few  things  in  this  world,  though,  that  don't 
require  a  price  of  some  sort. 

The  Battle  of  the  Bulge  was  not  something  that  GI's  went 
into  because  they  wanted  to.  They  went  in  it  and  they  fought 
and  they  stuck  because  it  was  absolutely  necessary  to  do  so. 
The  alternative  was  worse  than  the  fighting,  the  freezing,  the 
bleeding,  and  even  the  dying. 

There  was  never  a  church  built  in  North  Carolina  that  didn't 
require  someone's  sacrifice.  There  was  never  a  foreign  mission 
established  for  which  someone  didn't  have  to  pay  in  discomfort 
or  even  suffering. 

I  am  confident  of  the  answer  the  General  Assembly  of  North 
Carolina  will  give  to  this  program.  I  have  faith  in  the  people's 
decision  on  this  program. 

Our  state's  record  is  too  clear  to  doubt  that  decision.  Our 
grandfathers  who  supported  Aycock  at  the  turn  of  the  century 
and  our  fathers  who  supported  the  sales  tax  during  the  depression 
have  left  a  strong  heritage  to  guide  us. 

Now  let  us  look  at  the  cost  of  better  schools  and  better  edu- 
cational opportunities  for  our  children. 

I  have  proposed  an  across-the-board  sales  tax  to  pay  for  the 

I  did  so  only  after  the  most  careful  and  conscientious  con- 
sideration. 1  eliminated  getting  the  money  for  improving  the 
schools  from  the  income  tax  because  the  federal  government  has 
just  about  exhaused  that  source. 

I  eliminated  the  property  tax  because  that  is  the  chief  and 
one  of  the  few  taxes  for  local  and  county  governments  in  paying 
for  the  necessary  services  they  provide. 

I  did  not  propose  the  crown  tax  on  soft  drinks  for  the  same 
reason  that  I  did  not  propose  a  tax  on  candy  bars,  peanuts,  or 
ice  cream  cones.  We  already  have  a  3  per  cent  tax  on  these  items. 

I  did  not  propose  additional  taxes  on  cigarettes.  Cigarettes  are 
heavily  taxed  by  the  federal  government,  we  tax  them  at  3  per 
cent,  and  it  would  not  bring  in  enough  money  to  begin  to  do 
the  job. 

I  did  propose  as  large  an  increase  in  whisky  taxes  as  I  believe 
we  could  collect  without  driving  trade  to  the  woods. 

This  talk  that  tax  should  be  put  on  whisky  and  cigarettes  and 
luxuries  before  we  tax  food  and  the  other  items  that  we  will 
tax  by  eliminating  the  exemptions  is  misleading  and  ignores  the 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

fact  that  whisky,  beer,  wine,  cigarettes,  and  the  "luxuries"  are 
already  taxed. 

So,  we  must  turn  inevitably  to  the  sales  tax.  There  we  have  two 
choices:  Raise  the  rate  on  the  items  now  taxed  from  3  to  4  per 
cent  or  eliminate  the  exemptions. 

I  fail  to  see  that  you  treat  the  poor  man  any  better  by  raising  the 
tax  he  must  pay  when  buying  his  children  blue  jeans  and  shoes 
and  socks  and  underclothes  than  by  eliminating  the  exemptions. 

For  that  matter,  an  additional  tax  on  cigarettes  or  on  soft 
drinks  will  hit  the  poor  man  just  as  hard  as  it  does  the  wealthy. 
The  poor  man  drinks  as  much  "pop"  and  smokes  just  as  much 
as  the  rich  man.  I'm  not  saying  a  poor  man  should  smoke  or  drink 
soda.  But  you  and  I  know  he  does. 

Now  what  about  this  tax  on  food.  And  when  we  talk  of  elimi- 
nating the  sales  tax  exemptions  to  raise  the  funds  for  better 
schools  we  are  talking  about  a  tax  on  food.  There  is  no  beating 
around  the  bush  about  it,  for  |50  million  in  the  program  for 
education  will  be  derived  from  the  tax  on  food.  This  brings  us 
to  a  very  simple  decision.  Do  we  want  to  pay  30  cents  on  every  $10 
worth  of  food  in  order  better  to  prepare  our  children  for  life?  I 
honestly  know  of  no  other  way. 

I  am  well  aware  of  the  hardships  of  paying  tax  on  necessary 
items  by  those  whose  income  is  so  low  that  every  penny  counts. 
But  I  am  also  aware  of  the  greater  hardship  placed  upon  the 
children  of  these  same  people  by  inadequate  school  opportunities, 
and  I  have  been  able  to  devise  no  way  that  the  poorest  can  be 
exempt  from  a  general  sales  tax. 

Welfare  payments  and  the  distribution  of  free  food  answer 
the  complaint  raised  in  behalf  of  the  poorest  among  us.  I  have 
worked  with  other  state  officials  to  secure  for  the  poor  of  this  state 
full  advantage  of  the  federal  food  surplus  program.  This  program 
already  is  underway. 

I  hope  that  those  who  may  be  tempted  to  speak  out  against  the 
food  tax  will  suggest  some  painless  way  we  can  get  the  money. 

I  hope  they  will  explain  why  it  is  fair  to  tax  the  food  which 
persons,  including  the  poor,  who  must  "eat  out"  pay  on  food  at 
cafes  and  restaurants.  As  you  know,  we  have  been  taxing  that  food 
since  1933.  I  hope  they  will  remember  that  twenty-six  of  the 
thirty-five  states  with  sales  tax,  do  NOT  exempt  food. 

I  hope  also  they  will  remember  that  if  we  tax  bread  we  also  will 
be  taxing  cake;  if  we  tax  fatback,  we  also  will  tax  caviar;  if  we 
tax  cornmeal,  we  also  will  tax  filet  mignon. 

No  one  is  going  to  go  hungry  because  of  this  tax. 

But  the  children  of  North  Carolina  will  go  thirsty  for  quality 
education  if  we  do  not  enact  this  program  for  better  schools. 

Sanford  carried  out  his  campaign  promises  despite  the  "Pie  in  the  Sky"  label 
given  by  his  opponents  during  the  campaign.  The  event  pictured  here  occurred  on 
May  11,  1960,  in  front  of  the  Wake  County  Courthouse. 

The  Governor  and  his  wife  are  shown  participating  in  the  Civil  War  Cen- 
tennial observance. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


The  decision  is  just  as  simple  as  that.  I  am  not  trying  to  thrust 
anything  upon  the  people.  I  am  trying  to  do  my  duty  to  serve  the 
future  of  our  children,  and  I  hope  you  will  decide  to  help  pay 
the  cost  in  order  to  have  the  quality  of  schools  the  future  demands. 



March  18,  1961 

Speaking  early  in  the  observance  of  the  Confederate  Cen- 
tennial, Governor  Sanford  observed  that  the  past  was  being 
commemorated  and  the  future  surveyed.  Commemorating  the 
first  raising  of  the  Confederate  flag  in  North  Carolina,  which 
occurred  in  Franklin  County  when  Major  Orren  Randolph 
Smith  and  his  neighbors  flew  their  homemade  one  on  March 
18,  1861,  the  Governor  said  that  North  Carolina  rose  to  the  need 
when  volunteers  were  called.  Though  citizens  of  the  present 
might  not  agree  with  all  the  issues  of  the  South  of  1861,  the 
courage  and  devotion  with  which  North  Carolina  served  was 
cause  for  admiration.  Those  who  survived  deserved  recognition 
for  their  part  in  creating  one  prosperous  nation.  The  observance 
in  1961  of  what  archivist  and  historian  R.  D.  W.  Connor  called 
a  "victory  of  the  vanquished"  was  a  commemoration  of  the  end 
of  the  struggle  which  brought  about  a  better  union.  Governor 
Sanford  voiced  the  opinion  that  if  North  Carolina  of  1961 
exercised  the  courage  and  devotion  of  North  Carolina  of  1861, 
the  fight  for  better  schools  would  be  won.  The  state,  because  of 
its  preparation  for  the  future,  had  never  wasted  time  moaning. 
It  would  continue  to  fight  for  educational  opportunities,  would 
continue  to  rise,  and  would  continue  to  grow  and  move. 

[In  the  absence  of  Governor  Sanford,  this  speech  was  read  by  Thomas  N. 
Lambeth,  Administrative  Assistant.] 



March  20,  1961 

Speaking  on  the  topic,  "A  Sense  of  Values,"  Governor  Sanford 
pointed  out  the  fact  that  Governor  Charles  B.  Aycock,  whose 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

home  was  near  Goldsboro,  heralded  a  message  similar  to  that  of 
his  administration.  He  referred  to  the  magic  of  radio,  on  which 
this  speech  was  carried,  as  illustrative  of  the  different  degrees  of 
education  demanded  of  present-day  students.  He  emphasized  the 
added  significance  of  education,  which  could  no  longer  be  con- 
sidered a  luxury  for  the  well-bred  but  was  a  matter  of  survival. 
Leading  authorities  who  had  visited  North  Carolina  had  con- 
sidered the  long-range  plan  for  quality  education  significant  and 
outstanding  in  America.  Needs  and  costs  had  to  be  measured, 
but  the  Governor  expressed  the  belief  that  quality  education  was 
worth  almost  any  temporary  sacrifice.  The  tax  on  food  was  less 
objectionable  than  the  neglect  of  full  and  adequate  education  for 
all  children.  Expressing  hope  that  the  people  of  North  Carolina 
would  support  the  program,  the  Governor  urged  consideration 
by  the  General  Assembly  of  ways  of  paying  for  the  program. 
Though  the  food  tax  seemed  the  only  way  to  support  quality 
education,  Sanford  promised  to  consider  any  suggestions  sub- 
mitted to  him.  In  1949,  1953,  and  1959,  the  people  voted  clearly 
for  education  when  they  approved  multimillion-dollar  bond 
issues;  a  vote  in  the  affirmative  in  this  case  would  mean  a  vote 
for  the  future  of  North  Carolina. 


March  23,  1961 

The  Governor  congratulated  the  Future  Farmers  group  for 
honors  it  had  received,  saying  the  teachers  and  the  families 
deserved  credit  for  their  contributions.  He  reviewed  briefly  the 
history  of  the  organization,  pointing  out  that  it  had  promoted  in- 
structional programs  and  rendered  valuable  service  to  students 
and  to  the  entire  agricultural  industry  since  its  beginning  in  1928. 
He  observed  that  action  of  the  group  was  indicative  of  the  fact 
that  North  Carolina  did  not  intend  to  get  out  of  the  farming 

Because  students  were  concerned  with  subjects  other  than 
agriculture.  Governor  Sanford  discussed  education  in  general, 
talking  about  the  program  for  a  new  day  in  North  Carolina.  He 
said  the  state  had  to  provide  financial  support,  had  to  make  teach- 
ing a  profession  with  the  highest  quality  of  training  and  per- 
formance, had  to  insist  on  a  better  balance  in  the  curriculum,  and 
had  to  guard  time  so  as  not  to  waste  it  on  nonessential  activities. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


Governor  Sanford  elaborated  on  these  points.  He  commented  that 
any  youth  failing  to  get  the  best  education  of  which  he  was 
capable  had  failed  in  his  responsibility  to  himself,  his  state,  his 
nation.  In  the  field  of  agriculture  awards  and  competition  had 
been  carried  to  the  extreme;  a  balance  in  the  curriculum  had  to  be 

In  conclusion,  the  Governor  urged  the  fathers  to  support  edu- 
cation with  taxes,  the  students  to  support  education  by  hard 
work  and  study.  He  said  students  should  not  consider  their 
education  completed  when  they  finished  high  school;  opportuni- 
ties for  further  training  were  available.  He  expressed  confidence 
that  the  youth  of  North  Carolina  would  respond  to  the  promise 
of  a  new  day  and  to  the  challenge  before  them. 



March  23,  1961 

In  a  speech  originating  in  the  Raleigh  studio  of  WUNC-TV, 
Governor  Sanford  gave  the  first  of  many  televised  reports  deal- 
ing with  the  issue  of  North  Carolina  education.  He  urged  citizens 
to  consider  facts.  The  Governor  cited  many  of  the  figures  given 
in  his  education  rally  speech  in  Smithfield  on  March  9  (see  pages 
114-119).  Confronted  by  "these  unhappy  facts,"  Governor  San- 
ford urged  each  citizen  to  weigh  his  own  set  of  values  and  decide 
for  or  against  a  program  of  better  education.  Many  people,  he 
said,  favored  lifting  the  educational  standards  but  opposed  new 
taxes  with  which  to  implement  the  program.  He  reminded  them 
that  few  things  required  no  price.  Though  the  final  decision  would 
be  left  to  the  General  Assembly  and  the  people  of  North  Caro- 
lina, the  Governor's  view  was  that  the  food  tax  was  the  only 
feasible  way  of  obtaining  the  needed  solid  financial  foundation. 
This  conclusion  was  based  on  a  study  of  the  tax  structure  and 
precedents  set  by  other  states  and  was  drawn  only  after  all 
alternate  proposals  were  deemed  inadequate.  Harder  work  from 
teachers,  more  homework  from  students,  more  encouragement 
from  parents  would  make  taxation  seem  the  least  of  the  sacrifices. 
"Upon  no  other  basis— at  no  less  cost— can  we  fulfill  the  possi- 
bilities of  North  Carolina." 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 



April  5,  1961 

[The  Department  of  Conservation  and  Development  sponsored  six  con- 
ferences to  stimulate  industrial  development  in  various  sections  of  North 
Carolina.  The  Governor  spoke  at  each  of  these  gatherings,  adapting  his 
message  to  fit  local  conditions.  This  address  to  the  northeastern  group  is 
given  in  full  as  it  presents  the  over-all  philosophy  of  the  Governor  in  the 
field  of  industrial  development.  The  addresses  presented  in  other  areas  on 
May  3,  June  6,  September  7,  November  2,  and  November  29  are  summarized; 
the  summaries  may  be  found  on  pages  129,  136-137,  174,  190-191,  and  211- 

I  am  happy  to  meet  with  you  today  in  this  important  con- 
ference of  business,  civic,  and  government  leaders  of  northeastern 
North  Carolina.  Your  very  presence  here  indicates  to  me  that 
you  recognize  the  need  for  close  co-operation  in  the  develop- 
ment of  this  area. 

You  have  the  guarantee  of  assistance  from  the  Board  and  the 
Department  of  Conservation  and  Development  and  all  other 
agencies  of  state  government  in  building  the  economy  of  north- 
eastern North  Carolina.  I  want  to  extend  to  you  my  personal 
pledge  that  the  Governor's  Office  will  be  working  with  you  and 
for  you  as  you  move  ahead. 

By  the  same  token,  I  challenge  you  to  work  with  state  govern- 
ment and  its  agencies  and,  above  all,  to  work  with  each  other  in 
developing  this  area. 

The  time  for  petty  rivalries  is  past.  Neither  northeastern  North 
Carolina  nor  any  area  of  North  Carolina  can  afford  them.  The 
time  for  complacency  also  is  gone.  All  we  have  to  do  to  know 
that  we  can  and  should  do  better  is  to  read  the  population  figures 
for  the  last  decade  for  the  counties  represented  here  today. 

Of  the  twenty-one  counties  comprising  this  conference,  eleven 
lost  population  during  the  last  decade.  Most  of  the  rest  of  your 
counties  barely  held  their  own. 

When  we  consider  the  high  birth  rate  in  northeastern  North 
Carolina,  we  begin  to  get  the  picture  of  how  great  the  out-mi- 
gration from  this  area  really  was. 

In  these  twenty-one  counties  of  northeastern  North  Carolina, 
there  was  a  bare  1.48  per  cent  gain  in  population  in  the  1950's. 
In  the  state  as  a  whole,  there  was  a  gain  of  12.2  per  cent  in  popu- 

Some  of  the  greatest  losses  North  Carolina  suffered  in  World 
War  I,  World  War  II,  and  the  Korean  War  did  not  occur  on 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


the  battlefields.  Perhaps  the  greatest  losses  were  the  men  and 
women  who  went  away  to  the  service  and  to  the  war  industries 
and  never  came  back  because  they  found  greater  opportunities 
in  other  states. 

There's  not  a  person  here  today  who  doesn't  know  of  some 
talented  young  persons  who  have  moved  away  from  this  area  and 
this  state  to  make  a  better  living  elsewhere. 

You  and  I  can  understand  the  reason.  North  Carolina  suffers 
from  one  of  the  lowest  per  capita  incomes  in  the  nation.  Yet  the 
per  capita  income  of  northeastern  North  Carolina  is  almost  a 
third  less  than  the  state's  per  capita.  And,  I  repeat,  the  state's 
per  capita  of  $1,485  is  nothing  to  brag  about.  The  per  capita  for 
this  twenty-one-county  area  is  only  $1,052.  Five  of  these  twenty- 
one  counties  did  not  build  a  single  new  industry  in  the  fifties.  I 
know  there  are  many  reasons  for  this  low  figure.  But  there  are 
equally  strong  reasons  why  we  can  raise  it  substantially. 

A  good  illustration  of  what  we  can  do  in  northeastern  North 
Carolina,  and  in  all  of  North  Carolina,  can  be  seen  right  here 
in  Tarboro.  In  recent  years  this  town  has  added  the  payrolls  of 
Glenroit  Mills,  Carolina  Plastics,  and  other  companies. 

These  companies  have  pumped  new  opportunities  not  only 
into  Tarboro  but  also  into  all  of  Edgecombe  County  and  north- 
eastern North  Carolina.  They  didn't  just  happen.  These  com- 
panies came  to  Tarboro  because  the  leaders  here  worked  to  bring 
them  to  this  town. 

Now  I'm  not  down  here  to  tell  you  that  industry  is  the  answer 
to  all  of  our  problems.  It  certainly  is  not.  We  are  not  going  to 
try  to  build  here  in  this  area— or  in  any  other  section  of  the 
state— a  Jersey  City,  or  a  Detroit,  or  a  Pittsburgh. 

I'm  not  sure  we  could  if  we  wanted  to  and  I  don't  think  we 
want  to.  One  of  the  strengths  of  North  Carolina  has  long  been 
its  small  towns  and  its  medium-sized  cities,  drawing  their  man- 
power and  their  raw  materials  from  the  nearby  countryside. 

What  we  need  in  northeastern  North  Carolina,  and  what  we 
need  throughout  North  Carolina,  is  a  balance  between  agricul- 
ture, industry,  and  commerce.  In  this  area,  industry  and  com- 
merce haven't  achieved  the  proper  balance  with  agriculture.  If 
we  have  two  bad  crops  running,  the  courthouse  yard  is  filled  with 

The  industry  that  we  need  in  this  area  doesn't  have  to  be  of 
the  great  proportions  of  DuPont  at  Kinston.  We  are  very  proud 
to  have  the  DuPont  plant,  but  you  know  and  I  know  that  that 
type  of  plant  isn't  built  very  often. 

We  are  equally  proud  to  have  the  home-grown  and  home- 
manned  plants  like  Monk  Harrington's  at  Lewiston  and  Long 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Manufacturing  Company. 

The  biggest  employer  in  North  Carolina,  Burlington  In- 
dustries, started  as  a  small  home-grown  company.  Cannon  Mills 
and  Reynolds  Tobacco  Company  are  other  examples  which 
prove  that  North  Carolina  can  build  great  industries— as  well  as 
import  them. 

So  when  we  put  the  welcome  mat  out  for  the  out-of-state 
plants— and  it  is  out  and  it's  going  to  stay  out  as  long  as  I  am 
Governor— we  must  not  forget  to  leave  the  door  open  for  our 
neighbors  down  the  street. 

Whether  we  are  seeking  the  plants  of  an  out-of-state  corpor- 
ation or  the  expansion  of  established  firms  or  the  construction 
of  new  home-grown  companies,  there  are  certain  foundation 
stones  we  must  place.  I  believe  the  chief  of  these  foundation 
stones  is  attitude.  The  attitude  we  need  in  northeastern  North 
Carolina  and  the  attitude  we  need  all  across  this  state  is  one  that 
discards  with  equal  vigor  defeatism  on  the  one  hand  and  com- 
placency on  the  other  hand.  There  really  is  no  excuse  for  a 
defeatist  attitude  anywhere  in  this  state,  least  of  all  in  north- 
eastern North  Carolina.  The  people  are  here  and  the  land  and 
water  and  climate  are  here.  The  heritage  of  greatness  also  is 

In  this  area  are  located  some  of  the  great  historic  shrines  of 
America:  the  first  English  colony  in  the  New  World,  the  first  air- 
plane flight,  the  first  declaration  for  American  Independence;  all 
of  these  took  place  in  the  area  you  represent.  They  are  natural 
tourist  attractions,  as  are  the  excellent  hunting  and  fishing  that 
abound  in  this  area. 

As  these  great  new  interstate  Highways  95  and  85  open  up, 
this  area  is  going  to  become  more  and  more  a  route  of  the  tourists 
moving  south  for  the  winter  and  north  for  the  summer.  I  hope 
you  will  help  us  in  our  efforts  to  persuade  these  travelers  to  spend 
some  time— and  some  money— in  North  Carolina.  The  State  High- 
way Commission,  under  the  leadership  of  two  men  from  north- 
eastern North  Carolina,  Merrill  Evans  and  Ben  Roney,^"^  is  work- 
ing on  plans  to  see  that  northeastern  North  Carolina  benefits 
fully  from  the  new  Cheasapeake  Bay  Tunnel. 

Now  while  we're  talking  about  transportation,  I  would  like 
to  discuss  an  area  airport  with  you.  I  know  you  have  discussed 
it  many  times  in  the  past  and  some  of  you  are  still  working  for  it. 
I  would  hope  that  out  of  this  conference  would  come  the  spirit 

Benjamin  E.  Roney,  from  Rocky  Mount;  Administrative  Assistant  to  W.  Kerr 
Scott  during  his  terms  as  Governor  and  Senator;  appointed  Director  of  Secondary 
Roads  by  Governor  Sanford,  July,  1961.  See  Governor  Sanford's  news  release  of 
June  29,  1961. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


of  co-operation  and  determination  that  would  at  long  last  make 
such  an  airport  possible. 

Last  week,  I  had  the  opportunity  of  helping  to  celebrate  the 
first  flight  on  Piedmont  Air  Lines  route  from  Norfolk  to  Tennes- 
see. That  route  will  include  stops  at  Elizabeth  City  and  Rocky 
Mount.  This  was  a  step— or  a  flight— in  the  right  direction. 

But  we  know  that  in  order  to  gain  adequate  airline  service, 
this  area  of  Rocky  Mount,  Wilson,  Greenville,  Goldsboro,  and 
Kinston  needs  a  consolidated  airport.  If  cities  the  size  of  Raleigh 
and  Durham  or  Greensboro  and  High  Point  find  it  beneficial 
to  consolidate  their  efforts  in  joint  airport  operations,  wouldn't 
it  be  likely  that  your  cities  could  also  benefit  from  a  joint  effort? 

This  takes  us  back  to  attitude.  No  one  of  the  counties  or  cities 
of  this  area  can  achieve  its  full  potential  working  by  itself.  Work- 
ing together,  with  an  attitude  of  enlightened  self-interest,  you 
can  change  the  face  of  this  area. 

A  good  illustration  of  what  can  be  accomplished  by  joint 
effort  is  East  Carolina  College,  Atlantic  Christian  College,  the 
College  of  the  Albemarle,  and  Elizabeth  City  Teachers  College. 
These  institutions  were  not  the  result  of  the  efforts  of  a  single 
community.  They  resulted  from  the  devotion  and  work  of  people 
all  across  this  area. 

The  attitude  that  we  need  to  build  this  area  and  this  state 
starts  at  the  individual  level.  There  is  not  a  single  person  here 
today,  and  I  doubt  if  there  is  a  person  living  in  northeastern 
North  Carolina,  who  would  not  readily  agree  that  we  need 
improvement.  We're  all  for  progress.  But  whether  we  achieve 
progress  or  not  will  require  something  more  than  a  vague  desire. 

Here  are  some  of  the  hard  questions  we  must  answer  if  we 
truly  want  a  better  economy  for  ourselves  and  a  better  opportunity 
for  our  sons  and  daughters  in  this  area:  Are  you  willing  to  sell 
land  that  has  been  in  your  families  for  generations,  and  sell  it  at 
reasonable  prices,  to  give  new  companies  a  place  to  locate?  Are 
you  willing  to  face  some  competition  from  new  firms  for  workers? 
Are  you  willing  to  extend  some  honest-to-goodness  southern 
hospitality  to  new  people  with  different  accents?  Are  you  willing 
to  restore  and  maintain  the  cleanliness  of  our  streams  for  the 
man  and  the  town  downstream?  Is  your  civic  pride  strong 
enough  to  make  you  clean  up  the  eyesores  of  your  town  and 
county  and  build  the  facilities  we  need  to  attract  industries  and 
tourists— and  to  hold  your  own  sons  and  daughters  who  have  been 
leaving  this  area  in  great  number?  Is  your  civic  pride  enlightened 
enough  to  thrust  off  petty  jealousies  in  order  to  work  in  a  co- 
operative campaign  for  the  good  of  this  whole  area?  Are  you 
willing  to  invest  your  time,  your  effort,  and  your  money  to 

126  Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

make  your  town,  your  county,  your  area,  and  your  state  a  better 

If  I  were  not  confident  of  your  answers,  I  would  not  be  here 

Northeastern  North  Carolina  is  rich  in  history. 
It's  richer  still  in  its  potential. 

I  look  forward  to  working  with  you  to  achieve  that  potential. 


April  10,  1961 

In  this  tribute  to  the  mother  of  the  year,  Governor  Sanford 
spoke  both  personally  and  as  a  representative  of  the  state. 
Charles  B.  Aycock's  mother,  he  pointed  out,  could  neither  read 
nor  write;  this  factor  inspired  her  son  toward  a  successful  career 
and  helped  give  birth  to  the  reality  of  universal  education  in 
North  Carolina.  Sanford  paid  tribute  to  the  debt  he  owed  his 
mother  for  instilling  in  him  a  keen  interest  in  education.  The 
Governor  praised  mothers  and  their  many  roles,  challenging  them 
to  help  build  the  quality  of  North  Carolina  education  by  co-oper- 
ating with  teachers  and  by  encouraging  children  to  take  advan- 
tage of  their  opportunities. 



April  18,  1961 

This  annual  literary  tribute  at  which  Governor  Sanford  spoke 
was  sponsored  by  the  Goldsboro  Rotary  Club  and  the  libraries  of 
Wayne  County.  He  praised  the  interest  of  the  group  in  good 
literature,  adding  that  too  often  leaders  failed  to  appreciate  and 
promote  cultural  activities.  Turning  his  remarks  to  the  particular 
author  and  book  being  honored,  Oliver  Orr,  Charles  Brantley 
Aycock,  he  said  this  was  an  appropriate  time  "to  take  cognizance 
of  the  high  ideals  and  dedication  to  the  common  good"  expressed 
by  Governor  Charles  B.  Aycock.  The  Governor  described  Oliver 
Orr's  biography  of  Aycock  as  a  real  contribution  to  literature,  a 
book  in  which  Aycock  was  divested  of  abstractions  and  vague 

Pictured  above  are  the  (iovernor's  parents,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cecil  Sanford 

Over  40,000  letters  were  received  and  answered  after  the  Governor  asked  school 
children  to  write  to  him  on  the  subject  of  quality  education.  He  is  shown  here 
with  Judy  Pleasant,  of  Sherwood  Bates  School  in  Raleigh,  and  her  letter  on  March 
3,  1962. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


references  and  a  book  which  revealed  an  image  in  which  the 
man  stood  tall.  The  book  contributed  to  an  understanding  of 
present-day  objectives,  and  in  closing,  Governor  Sanford  quoted 
Aycock's  words: 

"I  would  have  all  our  people  to  believe  in  the  possibilities  of  North  Caro- 
lina; in  the  strength  of  her  men;  the  purity  of  her  women,  and  their  power 
to  accomplish  as  much  as  can  be  done  anywhere  on  earth  by  any  people.  I 
would  have  them  to  become  dissatisfied  with  small  things;  to  be  anxious  for 
higher  and  better  things;  to  yearn  for  real  greatness;  to  seek  after  knowledge; 
to  do  the  right  thing  in  order  that  they  may  be  what  they  ought.  I  would 
have  the  strong  to  bear  the  burdens  of  the  weak  and  to  lift  up  the  weak 
and  make  them  strong— teaching  men  everywhere  that  real  strength  consists 
not  in  serving  ourselves  but  in  doing  for  others." 



April  19,  1961 

When  he  addressed  the  1961  meeting  of  the  Congress  of  Par- 
ents and  Teachers,  Governor  Sanford  was  careful  to  direct  his 
remarks  on  education  so  that  they  were  appropriate  for  his 
audience.  He  spoke  of  the  broad  interests  of  the  group  and  of  the 
purposes  of  the  PTA  organization.  Sanford  challenged  the  group 
"to  move  out  into  a  fuller  realization  of  this  broad  area  of 
responsibility  that  you  have  set  for  yourselves."  Welfare  of 
children  was  a  primary  concern  of  the  PTA,  and  the  Governor 
reminded  those  in  attendance  that  they,  as  parents  and  teachers, 
were  in  a  strategic  position  to  accomplish  this  aim.  Citing  educa- 
tion as  the  only  means  of  achieving  a  new  day,  the  Governor 
called  for  the  support  of  the  PTA  in  the  endeavor  to  raise  the 
educational  level  of  North  Carolina.  He  specifically  called  for 
co-operation  in  three  areas:  the  formation  of  a  closer  relationship 
between  parents  and  teachers;  aggressive  promotion  to  secure  for 
every  child  educational  opportunity  of  high  quality,  including, 
of  necessity,  selectivity  with  regard  to  extracurricular  activities 
and  use  of  school  time;  and  active  political  action  to  win  approval 
by  the  legislators  of  laws  and  appropriations  which  would  promote 
education.  Governor  Sanford  elaborated  on  each  point  and  again 
concluded  with  a  call  for  co-operation  and  a  pledge  of  his  help. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

April  26,  1961 

The  Governor  expressed  pleasure  at  the  opportunity  of  joining 
Pitt  County  and  the  state  in  this  salute  to  East  Carolina  College. 
From  an  opening  in  1909  to  106  students,  the  enrollment  had 
grown  to  4,599.  The  institution  was  approved  by  ten  major 
accrediting  associations,  had  a  faculty  of  which  half  had  doctoral 
degrees,  and  trained  more  teachers  than  any  other  college  in 
North  Carolina  and  was  fifth  in  the  nation  in  this  regard.  The 
Governor  called  the  school  "the  artery  of  the  educational  blood- 
stream of  eastern  North  Carolina."  He  recognized  the  indebted- 
ness of  the  state  to  the  administration,  the  trustees,  and  the 
faculty  of  former  and  present  years.  In  urging  students  to  pay 
the  greatest  salute  possible  to  East  Carolina  College  by  remaining 
in  North  Carolina  to  live  and  work,  he  referred  to  the  state  as 
one  "on  the  go!"  He  said  the  state  had  expressed  faith  in  the 
students  by  supporting  the  college,  and  he  had  confidence  that 
the  students  would  prove  their  faith  in  the  state  by  remaining  in 
North  Carolina. 



April  28,  1961 

The  occasion  for  this  address  was  a  father-son  banquet,  which 
Governor  Sanford  noted  as  particularly  appropriate  because  of 
the  close  relationship  between  farm  and  home.  He  praised  the 
Future  Farmers  program,  saying  that  an  enviable  record  of  group 
activity  and  individual  accompUshment  had  been  set  at  Bath.  He 
then  discussed  vocational  agriculture  and  its  role  in  North 
Carolina's  new  day.  Pointing  out  the  obvious  need  for  production 
and  prosperous  agriculture  in  the  state  led  to  the  comment  that 
all  FFA  members  studied  subjects  other  than  agriculture  and  all 
should  be  interested  in  education  in  general.  The  Governor  pro- 
ceeded to  discuss  the  over-all  program  for  quality  education. 
As  he  had  done  on  other  occasions,  the  Governor  stressed  the 
need  for  fathers  to  support  public  education  with  taxes,  for  stu- 
dents to  support  it  by  hard  work  and  study,  and  for  students  to 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


remember  that  their  education  would  not  be  completed  with  high 
school  graduation.  In  concluding  his  address,  Sanford  told  tihe 
audience  that  a  bright  future,  through  hard  work,  was  ahead  for 
North  Carolinians  in  the  new  day. 



May  3,  1961 

The  Governor,  in  his  second  industrial  development  conference 
address,  again  urged  the  people  of  the  area  to  seek  to  realize  the 
full  potential  which  was  awaiting  them.  He  outlined  resources  of 
a  good  water  supply,  the  deep-water  ports,  forests,  rich  soil,  and 
excellent  climate  of  the  southeastern  region,  adding  that  these 
were  the  advantages  to  be  used  in  attracting  industry  rather  than 
tax  gimmicks  and  tax  rebates.  Sanford  also  reminded  his  audience 
of  the  man-made  resources,  such  as  good  roads.  He  urged  the 
southeastern  citizens  to  provide  needed  facilities  so  that  big 
conventions  could  be  held  in  the  area;  he  also  encouraged  the 
establishment  of  additional  food  processing  plants.  North  Caro- 
lina, once  called  the  "Rip  Van  Winkle  State"  had  been  more 
recently  called  the  "State  on  the  Go";  this  change  was  attributed 
to  the  attitude  and  hard  work  of  citizens  like  those  attending  the 
Clinton  conference. 



May  4,  1961 

Speaking  at  the  dedication  of  Washington  County  Union 
School,  the  Governor  again  sounded  his  keynote  of  education. 
After  referring  to  the  importance  of  this  school  to  the  economic 
future  of  Washington  County  and  North  Carolina,  he  referred  to 
quality  education  as  a  prerequisite,  as  the  foundation  of  the 
needs  and  hopes  of  the  nation.  He  called  education  "life  and 
growth  and  happiness."  The  Governor  continued  by  explaining 
the  program  for  education,  its  cost,  and  its  need.  He  said  that 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

North  Carolina's  rank  of  eighth  in  the  number  of  school  children 
was  the  state's  greatest  asset.  ''But  we  have  cultivated  our 
children's  minds  less  well  than  we  have  cultivated  our  tobacco 
and  cotton  and  peanut  acres."  This  school  was  called  proof  that 
the  state  would  pay  for  quality  education,  and  the  Governor 
concluded  by  calling  on  educators,  teachers,  and  students  to 
meet  their  respective  responsibilities. 



May  9,  1961 

The  Governor  began  by  praising  bankers  for  their  willingness 
to  accept  community  responsibility.  The  promotion  of  economic 
growth  in  the  state  was  advantageous  to  bankers  and  to  all 
North  Carolinians,  and  the  Governor  stressed  the  importance  of 
the  fact  that  a  large  number  of  people  looked  to  those  in  the 
banking  profession  for  "guidance  and  leadership,  for  advice  and 
encouragement  in  many  activities  affecting,  not  just  themselves, 
but  their  communities  as  well."  He  expressed  the  opinion  that 
those  living  today  would  have  to  dedicate  themselves  to  the  obli- 
gations and  opportunities  of  the  day  so  that  future  generations 
would  look  back  to  this  generation  with  pride  and  gratitude. 
While  many  parts  of  the  nation  were  standing  still  or  losing 
ground,  North  Carolina  was  moving  ahead.  With  the  future 
looking  brighter  for  the  nation  as  a  whole.  North  Carolina  stood 
in  an  excellent  position  to  accelerate  its  economic  development. 
Bankers  as  individual  citizens  and  as  leaders  were  faced  with  a 
big  responsibility;  Governor  Sanford  assured  them  that  he  knew 
they  would  measure  up  to  this  challenge  as  they  had  done  to 
those  of  the  past. 


Pittsburgh,  Columbus,  Dayton,  Indianapolis,  Cincinnati 

May  22-26,  1961 

[Though  Governor  Sarjford  stressed  quality  education  as  his  number-one 
interest,  industrial  growtti  was  not  neglected.  Accompanied  by  thirty-five 
of  the  state's  leading  businessmen,  who  traveled  at  their  own  expense,  the 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


Governor  launched  a  five-day  "good  will"  industrial  promotional  tour.  He 
spoke  at  several  major  cities,  advertising  North  Carolina's  assets  and  denying 
allegations  of  piracy  and  gimmicks  to  attract  industries  to  the  state.  Leaving 
Raleigh  during  the  meeting  of  the  General  Assembly  for  a  tour  such  as  this 
was  considered  by  some  to  be  unorthodox,  but  the  timing  proved  perfect. 
By  June  6  Press  Secretary  Graham  Jones  issued  a  preliminary  report  show- 
ing that  eighty-eight  companies  had  expressed  interest  in  the  possibility  of 
locating  plants  in  North  Carolina,  with  three  firm  commitments  to  locate 
in  the  state  immediately.  Excerpts  from  the  Ohio  Valley  speeches  are  given 

North  Carolina  once  was  called,  by  one  of  its  own  historians, 
the  "Rip  Van  Winkle  State." 

We're  here  to  tell  you  that  this  Rip  Van  Winkle  woke  up. 

Today  North  Carolina  truly  is  the  "State  on  the  Go." 

It  is  the  "State  on  the  Go"  in  industry,  in  commerce,  in  agri- 
culture, and  in  education. 

In  the  last  decade,  more  than  $1.5  billion  was  invested  in  new 
and  expanded  industrial  plants  in  North  Carolina. 

In  the  first  quarter  of  this  year,  our  state  broke  all  records  in 
erecting  new  industry— more  than  $42  million  worth. 

During  the  recession  of  1960,  North  Carolina's  economy  ex- 
panded. A  recent  United  States  Department  of  Commerce  report 
pointed  out:  "Business  in  North  Carolina  generally  held  firm 
during  1960  despite  reported  recessive  downtrends  in  the  nation." 

The  truth  of  the  matter  is  that  during  the  recession  year  of 
1960,  North  Carolina  was  compiling  a  new  record  of  industrial 
growth.  In  1960  we  added  more  than  $235  million  in  new  and 
expanded  manufacturing  plants. 

Now  my  administration  and  the  citizens  of  North  Carolina 
don't  mean  to  slow  down  in  our  industrialization  campaign.  We 
mean  to  accelerate  that  industrial  drive! 

That's  why  we're  here. 

There  is  profit  in  North  Carolina  for  new  industry.  North  Caro- 
lina is  the  leading  industrial  state  of  the  fastest  growing  new 
market  in  America,  the  Southeast. 

We  have  not  come  here  to  beg  handouts.  We've  come  to  talk 
business  with  the  leaders  of  this  great  industrial  area  who  have 
plans  for  expanding  into  new  markets. 

We  have  not  come  here  to  try  to  uproot  or  transplant 
established  factories.  We  have  come  to  get  the  seeds  for  industrial 
plantings  for  our  fertile  fields  of  North  Carolina. 

This  North  Carolina  industrial  mission  is  not  an  invasion.  It 
is  an  invitation  to  businessmen  interested  in  expanding  their 
industries  and  increasing  their  profits. 

This  is  not  a  raid.  It  is  a  good  will  mission. 

We  are  not  here  to  engage  in  plant  piracy.  We  are  here  to 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

encourage  industrial  expansion.  We  haven't  come  to  steal,  we've 
come  to  sell— to  sell  North  Carolina  as  a  profitable  site  for 
expanding  industries. 

We're  not  offering  gimmicks.  We're  offering  reciprocal  and 
mutually  profitable  interstate  trade. 

For  more  than  a  century,  North  Carolina  has  exported  young 
people  to  this  area.  And  for  more  th^n  a  century,  we  have 
imported  your  manufactured  products.  Now  we're  ready  to 
trade  our  production  and  market  opportunities  for  your  branch 

I  would  like  to  list  briefly  some  of  the  assets  of  North  Caro- 
lina which  have  attracted  new  industry,  both  native  and  out-of- 
state,  and  some  of  the  assets  which  have  made  these  new  industries 
profitable  to  their  management  and  to  their  stockholders. 

First,  North  Carolina  has  an  abundance  of  rich  land  from  the 
Coastal  Plain  of  eastern  North  Carolina  to  the  red  clay  of  the 
Piedmont  and  the  Blue  Ridge  and  Smoky  Mountains  of  western 
North  Carolina. 

North  Carolina  has  a  heaven-blessed  water  supply.  Our  precipi- 
tation is  almost  double  the  national  average.  We  have  an  annual 
average  rainfall  of  fifty  inches  and  a  practically  untapped  volume 
of  ground  water. 

North  Carolina  has  an  excellent  temperate  climate  which  gives 
the  farmer  a  long  growing  season  and  the  industrialists  a  year- 
round  manufacturing  season. 

North  Carolina  has  one  of  the  best  moving  transportation 
systems  in  the  nation. 

We  have  long  been  known  as  the  "good  roads  state."  This  was 
true  when  George  Washington  and  General  Lafayette  traveled 
over  our  roads  in  the  eighteenth  century.  It  also  is  true 
today  when  99  per  cent  of  North  Carolina's  population  live  either 
along  paved  roads  or  within  a  mile  of  a  paved  road.  Recently, 
the  United  States  Bureau  of  Roads  issued  a  report  showing  that 
North  Carolina  ranks  ninth  among  the  states  in  the  number  of 
miles  of  the  new  interstate  highway  system  open  to  traffic. 

Complementing  our  highway  system— which,  incidentally  is 
the  largest  in  mileage  maintained  by  any  state  government— are 
the  tracks  of  twenty-eight  railroads. 

We  have  excellent  passenger  and  freight  service  by  airlines,  and 
we're  improving  that  service  almost  daily. 

As  far  as  port  facilities  for  import  and  export  trade  are  con- 
cerned we  are  this  year  approving  a  multimillion  dollar  expansion 
program  at  our  deep-water  ports.  That  expansion  program  is 
going  to  increase  the  shipping  capacity  of  the  state  ports  at  More- 
head  City  and  Wilmington  by  65  to  70  per  cent. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


All  of  these  transportation  facilities  combine  to  give  North 
Carolina  manufacturers  easy  accessibility  to  national  and  inter- 
national markets. 

Now  let's  turn  to  government. 

North  Carolina's  state  government  always  has  reflected  the  will 
of  the  people  that  it  serves.  Like  the  citizens  of  North  Carolina, 
our  state  government  has  been  not  the  last  to  cast  the  old  aside, 
nor  yet  the  first  the  new  to  accept.  We  have  been  in  North 
Carolina  neither  radical  nor  reactionary.  We  have  built  steadily 
and  we  have  built  solidly. 

Since  the  year  of  1900,  there  has  not  been  so  much  as  a  breath 
of  scandal  in  North  Carolina's  state  government.  Without  any 
self-praise,  I  can  honestly  report:  "Good  Government  is  a  Habit 
in  North  Carolina." 

Because  of  this  stable  and  business-like  operation  of  our  state 
government.  North  Carolina's  credit  rating  ranks  at  the  very 
top— triple  A— on  Wall  Street.  Moody's  lists  our  state  bonds  as 
among  the  safest  buys  in  the  nation. 

Of  course.  North  Carolina's  government— state,  county,  and 
municipal— is  simply  a  reflection  of  our  state's  greatest  asset:  the 
citizens  of  North  Carolina. 

We  have  enjoyed  excellent  labor  relations  in  North  Carolina. 
In  1960,  North  Carolina  lost  less  than  .005  per  cent  of  total  work- 
ing time  to  strikes.  In  fact,  strike-caused  production  and  working 
time  losses  dropped  to  an  all-time  low  in  North  Carolina  in  1960. 

We  also  have  enjoyed  in  North  Carolina  harmonious  race 
relations.  Not  a  single  school  has  been  closed  a  single  day  in 
North  Carolina  since  the  Brown  decision  on  school  desegregation. 
I  might  add  that  when  a  Negro  student  earns  the  editorship  of  the 
North  Carolina  Law  Review/^  as  he  did  recently,  it  makes  more 
news  in  other  states  than  it  does  in  North  Carolina.  There  is  a 
mutual  respect  between  the  races— white,  Negro,  and  Indian— in 
our  state. 

Another  blue  chip  stock  that  North  Carolina  has  to  offer  is  our 
educational  system,  from  the  first  grade  through  the  graduate 
school.  This  year  I  have  proposed,  and  the  General  Assembly  is 
now  considering,  a  major  advance  for  our  public  schools.  I  pro- 
posed this  program,  and  the  General  Assembly  is  considering  it 
with  favor,  because  we  believe  good  educational  opportunities 
are  the  first  prerequisite  to  industrial,  agricultural,  and  personal 

We  believe  you  will  be  interested  in  this  education  program 

^J.  Le  Vonne  Chambers,  editor  of  the  North  Carolina  Law  Review,  1961-1962 
(Vol.  40). 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

of  progress  because  it  is  that  program  that  will  train  the  executives 
and  the  employees  for  the  plants  you  locate  in  North  Carolina. 
Incidentally,  to  raise  the  revenue  for  that  program,  I  have  pro- 
posed elimination  of  sales  tax  exemptions.  The  one  tax  source 
that  both  the  administration  and  the  legislature  ruled  out  from 
the  beginning  was  any  increase  in  income  taxes— either  corporate 
or  personal. 

A  good  example  of  the  interdependence  of  industry  and  educa- 
tion in  North  Carolina  is  our  new  Research  Triangle.  That  tri- 
angle, composed  of  Duke  University  at  Durham,  the  University 
of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill  and  North  Carolina  State 
College  at  Raleigh,  is  designed  to  utilize  to  the  fullest  possible 
extent  for  industry,  commerce,  and  government  the  brain  power 
of  those  three  great  institutions  of  higher  learning. 

The  businessmen  of  North  Carolina  have  contributed  millions 
of  dollars  for  the  establishment  of  the  Research  Triangle  Park 
on  which  are  being  built  great  new  laboratories  for  science  and 

These,  then,  are  some  of  the  assets  of  North  Carolina. 

These  are  the  assets  that  attracted  to  North  Carolina  in  recent 
years  new  plants  of  companies  like  DuPont,  General  Electric, 
Westinghouse,  Western  Electric,  Douglas  Aircraft,  Ford  Motors, 
Alcoa,  Pittsburgh  Plate  Glass,  Sperry  Rand,  Dayton  Rubber, 
Firestone,  and  U.  S.  Rubber— to  mention  just  a  few. 

These  are  some  of  the  assets  that  have  helped  such  companies 
grow  in  North  Carolina  and  grow  profitably. 

North  Carolina  has  not  gone  in  for  tax  rebate  gimmicks  in 
the  past  and  we  have  no  intention  whatsoever  to  dangle  them  in 
the  future.  We  don't  offer  such  gimmicks  because  they  would 
be  unfair  to  established  industries  and  because  we  have  learned 
by  observation  that  the  industry  looking  for  such  gimmicks  makes 
a  poor  corporate  citizen. 

We  are  not  seeking  new  industry  just  to  add  smokestacks  to 
the  skyline  of  North  Carolina.  We  are  seeking  new  industries  to 
provide  better  opportunities  for  North  Carolinians  to  make  better 

North  Carolina  is  advertising  efficient  and  hard-working 
employees— not  cheap  labor. 

North  Carolina  is  selling  its  good  climate— both  industrial  and 
weather— not  a  sweatshop  atmosphere. 

North  Carolina  is  promoting  an  equitable  corporate  and 
individual  tax  rate— not  tax  gimmicks  and  rebates. 

North  Carolina  is  a  good  site  on  which  to  manufacture  and  a 
good  market  in  which  to  sell. 

Most  important  of  all.  North  Carolina,  with  its  historical. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


cultural,  and  vacation  varieties  that  extend  from  the  Atlantic  to 
the  Smokies,  is  a  good  place  to  live. 

There  is  profit  in  North  Carolina.  We  invite  you  to  come  and 
share  it  with  us. 


High  Point 
May  28,  1961 

Speaking  on  the  topic,  "The  Private  College  in  the  Pattern  of 
Educational  Opportunity,"  Governor  Sanford  told  students  that 
they  were  graduating  from  a  time-honored  institution.  With  47 
per  cent  of  North  Carolina  students  in  institutions  of  higher 
learning  attending  church-related  colleges,  the  role  of  these 
schools  was  of  concern  and  interest  to  the  state.  The  church 
schools  served  the  dual  purpose  of  promoting  Christian  education 
and  filling  a  need  as  part  of  the  total  higher  education  effort.  The 
Governor  remarked  that  a  partnership  existed  between  private 
and  public  colleges,  but  the  theory  of  separation  of  church  and 
state  was  jealously  guarded. 

The  magnitude  of  the  operation  of  educational  institutions  of 
higher  learning  meant  the  necessity  of  examining  the  total  picture, 
including  curriculums,  quality  of  instruction,  and  the  role  of 
liberal  education.  The  Governor  elaborated  on  each  of  these 
points,  concluding  that  co-operative  effort  on  the  part  of  both 
public  and  private  institutions  was  required.  He  explained  to  the 
graduates  that  they  owed  a  debt  to  their  schools  and  to  the 
state,  a  debt  which  could  be  paid  only  by  serving  in  positions  of 
leadership  and  by  helping  find  answers  to  the  problems  of  the  day. 


May  29,  1961 

In  addressing  the  alumnae  of  Woman's  College,  the  Governor 
spoke  on  the  total  co-ordination  of  public  education.  With 
student  population  increasing,  the  best  possible  education  would 
have  to  be  made  available  at  the  lowest  cost.  He  discussed  three 
alternative  decisions  facing  those  in  positions  of  planning  for 
the  state's  education:  to  do  nothing;  to  continue  in  the  pattern 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

the  state  was  then  following;  to  develop  a  planned  pattern  of 
educational  opportunity  from  elementary  school  through  the 
graduate  school.  The  latter  course,  involving  further  development 
of  community  colleges  and  industrial  education  centers,  was 
imperative  to  the  state's  future.  Sanford  spoke  of  the  need  for 
leadership  which  was  not  "saddled  to  the  status  quo."  The 
consolidation  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina  in  the  1930's 
required  vision  and  planning;  results  of  that  move  had  been 
applauded.  The  Governor  said  he  wanted  to  urge  groups  such 
as  this  to  contribute  to  the  solution  of  problems  facing  education 
in  North  Carolina  by  study,  criticism,  and  support. 


June  5,  1961 

More  than  4,000  students,  including  the  Governor  himself, 
studied  at  Presbyterian  Junior  College  between  the  time  of  its 
opening  on  September  4,  1929,  and  the  time  of  the  1961  com- 
mencement exercises.  Governor  Sanford  expressed  the  hope  that 
the  1961  graduates  would  be  stimulated  to  assume  roles  of  leader- 
ship by  the  contributions  of  former  students  and  the  ideals  of 
higher  education  learned  at  the  school.  He  noted  plans  for  the 
opening  of  St.  Andrews  College,  observing  that  the  new  college 
showed  the  strong  faith  of  the  Presbyterians  in  higher  education. 
He  praised  expansion  being  made  by  many  denominations,  point- 
ing out  the  need  of  support  for  church-related  colleges.  Stressing 
the  importance  of  education,  Sanford  said,  "Quality  education  is 
the  vitamin  for  personal  growth  and  economic  growth."  In  his 
closing  remarks,  the  Governor  said  he  "did  not  come  to  preach  a 
eulogy  for  Presbyterian  Junior  College,"  but  "to  take  part  in  the 
baptism  of  a  larger  education  endeavor."  He  expressed  belief  that 
the  spirit  of  the  old  would  thrive  as  an  integral  part  of  the  new 
St.  Andrews  College. 

(Delivered  by  Hargrove  Bowles,  Jr.) 


June  6,  1961 

The  recreational  potential  of  western  North  Carolina  would 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


have  to  be  complemented  with  industry,  the  Governor  told  the 
Western  North  Carolina  Industrial  Development  Conference,  and 
he  pledged  the  co-operation  of  state  agencies.  Industry  would  have 
to  be  offered  technical  services,  repair  services,  and  stability  in 
community  and  area  growth.  Sanford  said  that  businessmen 
investigating  the  suitability  and  potentials  of  a  city  would  consider 
whether  or  not  the  community  had  measured  its  future  needs 
and  had  realistically  planned  and  budgeted  for  those  needs.  A 
city  needed  to  know  which  sites  were  available  for  industry  and 
should  require  appropriate  zoning.  Development  of  resources, 
however,  included  development  of  human  resources.  In  this  area 
lay  the  importance  of  industrial  education  centers.  The  Governor 
spoke  of  the  importance  of  the  Western  North  Carolina  Regional 
Planning  Commission,  established  in  1957,  in  helping  answer 
questions  about  sound  growth  for  the  future.  A  plan  of  action  for 
the  full  development  of  the  area  would  demand  local  initiative 
and  hard  work,  co-ordinated  with  local  and  regional  programs. 


June  8,  1961 

[In  his  address  to  the  broadcasters  of  North  Carolina,  the  Governor  re- 
viewed the  action  of  the  1961  General  Assembly.  He  dubbed  this  legislature 
one  "with  a  conscience,"  and  he  gave  a  sympathetic  appraisal  on  most  points. 
He  singled  out  for  praise  the  educational  program  adopted  by  the  session. 
The  address  was  carried  "live"  to  the  citizens  of  North  Carolina.] 

I  appreciate  the  opportunity  of  meeting  with  the  radio  and 
television  leaders  of  North  Carolina. 

I  especially  appreciate  the  "live"  coverage  of  these  remarks  on 
the  state-wide  networks  you  have  set  up. 

As  those  of  you  here  in  this  room  know,  I  was  one  of  your 
frequent  customers  last  year.  The  only  difference  is  that  last  year 
you  made  me  pay  every  time  I  went  on  the  air. 

Now  to  demonstrate  my  appreciation  for  this  free  time  you've 
given  me  today,  let  me  assure  all  the  stations  on  this  network 
that  I  will  quit  in  plenty  of  time  for  the  commercial. 

I  am  grateful  for  the  opportunity  not  only  to  speak  to  the 
radio  and  television  broadcasters  but  also  to  address  the  citizens 
all  across  North  Carolina.  I  have  said  on  several  occasions  that  as 
Governor  of  a  state  with  four  and  a  half  million  citizens,  who  live 
from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Smokies,  there  is  only  one  way  I  know 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

to  speak  directly  to  the  entire  citizenry  at  one  time,  and  that  is 
through  the  radio  and  television  networks  of  the  state. 

Since  my  inauguration  six  months  ago  this  week,  I  have  had 
several  occasions  to  request  the  radio  and  television  stations  to 
clear  time  so  that  I  might  report  directly  to  the  people  on  matters 
of  importance  to  the  state. 

I  am  happy  to  say,  the  radio  and  television  stations  have  never 
let  us  down. 

This  co-operation  is  typical,  I  believe,  of  the  strong  public 
service  spirit  that  prevails  in  the  broadcasting  industry  of  North 
Carolina.  Recently,  my  desk  has  been  flooded  with  letters  from 
stations  agreeing  to  carry— without  any  charge  to  the  taxpayers— 
"spots"  advertising  North  Carolina  as  a  "Variety  Vacationland" 
and  as  a  good  place  for  new  industry  to  earn  profits. 

But  broadcasting  is  more  than  just  a  "fair  weather"  friend. 

I  would  like  to  remind  the  listeners  of  this  broadcast  that  every 
time  they  hear  the  buzz  of  a  Conelrad  test  on  their  radios,  they 
are  hearing  another  example  of  the  support  the  broadcasting 
industry  of  North  Carolina  is  rendering  our  national  preparedness 

The  television  and  radio  stations  have  given  generously  of  their 
time  and  their  money  in  alerting  the  citizens  of  our  state  of 
impending  natural  disasters.  The  hurricanes  we  have  suffered  in 
recent  years  in  North  Carolina  cost  the  state  many  millions  of 
dollars  in  property  damage.  But  imagine,  if  you  can,  the  lives 
that  were  NOT  lost  because  the  population  had  the  advance 
warning  from  the  "hurricane  watch"  broadcast  by  TV  and  radio 

I  want  to  express  particular  praise  for  the  television  stations 
that  have  participated  in  the  "in-school"  teaching  programs  and 
those  which  have  helped  teach  adults  how  to  read  and  write.  This 
is  a  vital  program  in  a  state  where  the  adult  illiteracy  rate  is 
almost  the  worst  in  the  nation. 

On  behalf  of  the  people  of  North  Carolina,  I  thank  the  radio 
and  television  stations  of  North  Carolina  for  their  public  service 

It  has  been  suggested  that  I  use  this  occasion  to  give  the  people 
of  North  Carolina  a  report  on  their  1961  General  Assembly, 
which,  at  this  very  moment,  is  working  in  Raleigh  to  build  a 
stronger  North  Carolina  with  greater  opportunities  for  all  the 
citizens.  I  welcome  the  opportunity. 

I  understand,  from  a  radio  news  report  I  heard  en  route  to 
Durham,  that  the  General  Assembly  is  expected  to  begin  voting 
within  the  hour  on  the  most  important  single  piece  of  legislation 
that  has  come  before  a  North  Carolina  General  Assembly  since 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries  139 

the  days  of  Governor  Charles  Brantley  Aycock. 

That  legislation,  of  course,  is  the  educational  program. 

I  would  not  be  so  presumptuous  as  to  predict  the  exact  vote 
on  either  the  appropriations  bill  or  the  revenue  bill.  But  I  will 
tell  you  this:  If  I  were  not  absolutely  confident  that  majorities  in 
both  the  Senate  and  the  House  share  with  me  a  strong  determi- 
nation that  our  sons  and  daughters  shall  receive  educational 
opportunities  equal  to  the  best  and  second  to  none,  I  would  not 
be  addressing  you  today. 

Last  year  I  broadcast  from  Wilmington  to  Asheville  the  fact 
that  if  the  citizens  of  North  Carolina  elected  me  their  governor, 
quality  education  would  be  the  overriding  goal  of  my  admini- 
stration. I  have  tried  not  to  backtrack  a  single  step  and  not  to 
deviate  a  single  degree  from  that  goal. 

On  occasion  in  the  past  six  months,  some  have  suggested  that 
I  might  twist  some  legislative  arms  on  the  many  issues  before  the 
General  Assembly. 

I  have  chosen  not  to  twist  any  arms.  I  made  that  choice  because 
I  have  complete  confidence  in  the  vision,  judgment,  and  integrity 
of  the  General  Assembly. 

North  Carolina  has  moved  into  the  mainstream  of  America. 

I  am  happy  to  acknowledge  that  this  move  has  been  made 
possible  by  the  strong  oarsmanship  of  the  members  of  the  1961 
General  Assembly. 

The  education  program  is  en  route  to  passage.  Its  adoption  is 
going  to  mean  a  stronger  state— a  state  stronger  in  industry, 
stronger  in  commerce,  stronger  in  agriculture.  For  the  children 
of  our  state,  this  quality  education  program  is  going  to  mean 
richer  minds— as  well  as  richer  pocketbooks. 

There  are  those  who  have  agreed  with  us  that  we  needed  to 
appropriate  substantially  greater  sums  to  teach  the  children.  But 
they  kick  up  their  heels  in  horror  over  the  taxes  needed  to  pay 
for  quality  education  if  we  had  not  adopted  this  program. 

Let  me  very  briefly  summarize  my  feelings  on  the  new  school 
taxes.  It  would  have  been  nice  to  get  the  money  for  better  educa- 
tional opportunities  from  taxes  on  luxuries  like  mink  coats. 

But  there  just  aren't  enough  mink  coats  sold  in  North  Carolina 
to  raise  the  revenue  the  state  must  have  if  it  is  to  adopt  the 
quality  education  program. 

No  one  is  going  to  go  hungry  because  of  the  tax  on  food  items 
not  presently  taxed. 

But  the  children  of  North  Carolina  would  have  gone  thirsty 
for  quality  education  if  we  had  not  adopted  this  program. 

I  am  happy  to  report  to  the  citizens  of  North  Carolina  that  a 
majority  of  their  legislators  have  the  courage  to  stand  up  and  be 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

counted— not  only  for  appropriating  the  funds  for  quality  educa- 
tion but  also  to  pay  the  cost  of  that  program  by  voting  for  the 
revenue— a  revenue  vote  without  which  the  appropriation  vote 
would  be  meaningless. 

Now  some  honest  and  conscientious  persons  have  objected  to 
the  tax  on  food  on  the  grounds  that  tihere  are  undernourished 
people  in  North  Carolina. 

There  are  undernourished  people  in  North  Carolina— entirely 
too  many. 

It  would  be  a  pittance,  and  a  fraud  to  claim  we  would  be 
alleviating  their  poverty  by  allowing  them  to  retain  the  few 
pennies  involved  in  the  new  school  taxes.  To  do  this  would  not 
help  them,  but  it  would  damage  seriously  the  opportunities  of 
their  children,  and  all  children,  for  a  better  education  and  a 
better  living. 

We  have  a  better  solution  to  help  the  poor.  The  administration, 
working  closely  with  the  General  Assembly,  has  moved  quickly 
and  definitely  to  do  something  about  empty  stomachs.  We  have 
brought  North  Carolina  for  the  first  time  into  active  participation 
in  the  surplus  food  program.  A  number  of  counties  already  have 
joined  in  this  program.  And,  I  am  reliably  informed,  many  more 
counties  will  join  soon  after  the  start  of  their  new  fiscal  year  next 

The  General  Assembly  has  tentatively  approved  substantial 
increases  in  the  appropriations  for  welfare  funds. 

The  record  of  the  1961  General  Assembly  on  the  entire  matter 
of  helping  the  needy  of  our  state  has  been  the  best  of  any  legisla- 
ture in  a  long  time.  This  General  Assembly  has  tentatively  adopted 
appropriations  that  will  provide  for  increased  benefits  for  the 
hungry,  the  indigent  old,  the  crippled,  and  the  dependent  chil- 
dren of  North  Carolina. 

On  another  highly  important  measure,  the  1961  General 
Assembly  overwhelmingly  adopted  an  amendment  to  the  State 
Minimum  Wage  Act  that  raised  the  wages  of  19,000  North 
Carolina  workers. 

The  General  Assembly  is  still  working  on  measures  to  improve 
the  unhappy  lot  of  migratory  farm  workers— to  assure  safe  trans- 
portation and  decent  sanitary  conditions  for  those  workers. 

We  are  beginning  to  open  up  the  dead-end  roads.  The  lot  and 
future  of  these  people  are  major  concerns  of  mine. 

The  General  Assembly  is  still  working  on  bills  to  abolish  the 
abuses  of  loan  sharks  who  have  given  the  lending  business  a  bad 
name.  I  expect  a  good  bill  will  be  passed. 

Yes,  the  1961  General  Assembly  has  been  a  legislature  with  a 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


Now  let  me  speak  for  a  minute  on  that  most  difficult  of  legisla- 
tive problems:  reapportionment  and  redistricting. 

On  this  perennial  problem  I  would  point  out  that  the  1961 
General  Assembly  has  made  more  progress  than  has  been  made 
since  1941. 

The  General  Assembly  did  reapportion  the  House  of  Repre- 

The  General  Assembly  did  adopt  an  automatic  reapportion- 
ment act  that  I  hope  may  set  the  pattern  for  speedy  and  equitable 
reapportionment  in  future  sessions. 

It  is  true  that  the  General  Assembly  has  not  found  an  agreeable 
way  to  redistrict  the  seats  of  the  State  Senate.  On  the  matter  of 
congressional  redistricting,  the  General  Assembly  is  now  moving 
toward  enactment  of  a  bill. 

Some  people  are  unhappy  with  that  bill.  Of  course,  there  is 
no  way  the  General  Assembly  could  possibly  eliminate  one 
congressional  district— as  it  must  under  the  1960  census— and  make 
everyone  happy. 

I  will  say  this  with  all  the  force  at  my  command:  Anyone  who 
says  the  Senate-approved  bill  is  unfair  to  the  minority  party  must 
have  overlooked  the  fact  that  the  county  in  which  the  minority 
party  has  its  greatest  membership  and  the  home  county  of  the 
minority  party  congressman  would  be  included  in  the  new  district. 
Gerrymandering  is  done  by  the  Republican-controlled  legislatures 
in  other  states,  and  the  proposed  map  has  less  of  the  gerrymander 
than  the  present  districts  in  North  Carolina. 

I  can  tell  you  the  Democratic  legislature  of  North  Carolina  is 
a  lot  more  considerate  of  the  minority  party  than  the  Republican 
legislatures  are  of  Democratic  congressional  districts  north  of  here. 

The  1961  General  Assembly  adopted,  and  sent  to  the  people 
for  approval  in  a  state-wide  constitutional  vote,  one  of  the  best 
court  improvement  programs  of  any  state  at  any  time. 

The  bill  that  was  adopted  was  not  all  that  its  sponsors  hoped 
for.  On  the  other  hand,  it  went  further  than  some  of  its  opponents 
would  have  liked.  But  this  General  Assembly  worked  in  the  best 
tradition  of  democratic  government  and  both  sides  deserve  great 
credit  for  the  resulting  bill  which  is  a  good  bill  and  a  vast 

If  the  people  of  the  state  approve  the  proposed  amendment  to 
the  Constitution,  and  I  believe  they  will,  our  administration  of 
justice  in  North  Carolina  would  be  more  expeditious,  more 
nearly  exact,  and  more  equitable. 

On  highway  safety  legislation,  the  1961  General  Assembly  made 
some  marked  advancements. 

The  Assembly  extended  the  compulsory  automobile  liability 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

insurance  act  to  protect  the  citizens  of  the  state  against  un- 
insured drivers. 

The  Assembly  improved  substantially  the  point  system  to  slow 
down  habitual  traffic  violators. 

The  Assembly  also  increased  the  penalties  for  prearranged 
racing.  Other  safety  measures  are  awaiting  action. 

On  reorganization  of  state  government,  the  General  Assembly 
has  adopted  major  administration  proposals  including  enlarging 
the  membership  of  the  State  Highway  Commission  and  bringing 
it  closer  to  the  people.  The  Assembly  also  reorganized  the  Board 
of  Conservation  and  Development  to  assure  that  proper  attention 
will  be  given  to  all  aspects  of  the  conservation  and  development 

Road  building  is  always  a  question  of  prime  importance  to  the 
citizens  of  North  Carolina.  It  is  especially  important  to  those  who 
still  live  on  muddy  roads. 

On  the  recommendation  of  the  administration,  this  General 
Assembly  has  established  a  major  policy  that  will  mean  more 
roads  in  both  the  secondary  and  primary  systems. 

That  is  the  policy  of  halting  the  diversion  of  highway  tax 
money  to  non-highway  uses. 

The  General  Assembly  is  in  the  process  of  relieving  the  High- 
way Fund  of  the  cost  of  the  Prison  System  and  the  cost  of  the 
boards  of  Paroles  and  Probation.  The  Assembly  also  has  tenta- 
tively approved  the  bill  to  let  the  Highway  Commission  use 
interest  on  Highway  Fund  money  to  build  roads. 

Under  these  three  important  and  excellent  measures,  funds 
have  been  made  available  to  build  roads  that  would  not  have 
been  available  under  the  old  system  of  diverting  highway  funds. 

This  is  especially  important  when  we  consider  that  highway 
revenues  have  not  been  keeping  pace  with  General  Fund  increases. 

In  brief,  under  the  three  measures  to  halt  diversion  of  Highway 
Fund  money,  more  rural  roads  will  be  built  during  the  next  two 
years  than  could  have  been  built  under  the  old  system. 

Now  I  could  talk  for  hours  about  other  significant  achievements 
of  the  1961  General  Assembly. 

But  I'm  not  sure  you  would  give  me  that  much  free  time  on 
the  radio  and  television  stations. 

Let  me  simply  sum  up  my  personal  appraisal  of  the  1961 
General  Assembly  this  way: 

I  have  neither  seen  in  my  lifetime  nor  read  in  my  histories  of 
any  General  Assembly  of  the  twentieth  century  that  has  rendered 
greater  service  to  the  people  of  North  Carolina. 

I  will  always  be  proud  to  have  served  as  the  Governor  w^ho 
worked  with  the  General  Assembly  of  North  Carolina  of  1961. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


June  10,  1961 

[About  200  people  attended  this  conference,  including  more  than  180 
teen-agers  representing  91  counties  of  North  Carolina.  After  the  address,  in 
which  he  called  for  a  rededication  of  youth  fitness  in  mental  and  spiritual 
realms,  as  well  as  in  the  physical  sense,  Governor  Sanford  presented  awards 
to  a  boy  and  girl  selected  for  their  outstanding  fitness.] 

I  appreciate  the  honor  of  meeting  with  you  and  of  discussing 
with  you  briefly  our  plans  and  our  efforts  to  make  North  Carolina 
physically,  as  well  as  fiscally,  mentally,  and  spiritually  stronger. 

On  behalf  of  all  the  citizens  of  our  state,  I  want  to  thank  each 
of  you  for  your  unselfish  and  unpaid  service  to  the  state  in  this 
vital  field  of  physical  fitness. 

It  has  become  a  trite,  but  true,  commentary  on  our  times  that 
we  parents  of  today  hurry  to  drive  our  children  to  school  so  that 
they  won't  be  late  for  their  physical  education  classes. 

Youth  fitness  plays  an  important  role  in  the  current  cold  war 
just  as  it  did  in  the  world  wars  and  the  Korean  conflict.  We  all 
pray  that  this  cold  war  will  never  boil  over  into  a  hot  war.  But 
we  must  be  prepared  collectively  as  a  nation  and  individually  as 
citizens  if  it  should. 

The  physical  and  mental  fitness  of  the  young  people  of  the 
nation  is  as  great  a  deterrent  to  communism  as  the  launching 
pads  at  Canaveral. 

Those  Americans  who  enjoy  amateur  sports  have  been  dismayed 
in  recent  Olympic  games  to  have  the  regimented  Soviet  teams 
outscore  us  repeatedly.  Year  after  year  in  the  last  decade,  the 
Australian  tennis  teams  defeated  the  American  teams  in  the  Davis 
Cup  play-offs. 

Now,  I  am  not  so  concerned  by  the  Soviets  outscoring  us  in 
the  Olympics  or  the  Australians  winning  the  Davis  Cup  as  I  am 
of  the  fact  that  these  losses  may  well  reflect  a  general  softening 
of  the  traditional  American  physical  vigor. 

Today,  as  never  before,  our  way  of  life  is  being  besieged  from 
every  corner.  There  is  not  only  the  communist  threat,  but  also 
the  many  domestic  obstacles  that  seem  to  multiply  daily. 

These  challenges  must  be  met,  grappled  with,  and  conquered. 
They  are  like  hurdles  in  a  race  which  must  be  vaulted  to  reach 
the  finish  line. 

I  have  spent  the  greater  part  of  the  last  two  years  talking  about 
and  working  for  quality  education  for  all  the  sons  and  daughters 
of  North  Carolina.  I  have  been  speaking  of  quality  education  in 
the  broadest  sense  of  those  words:  from  the  first  grade  through 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

the  graduate  school,  and  from  physical  education  to  physics. 

I  think  it  appropriate  that  a  conference  such  as  this  one  should 
consider  this  quality  education  program.  Because,  I  know,  when 
you  speak  of  youth  fitness  you  are  not  restricting  yourselves  to  a 
kind  of  vegetable  care  and  growth  for  our  children.  If  you  were 
interested  in  the  physical  side  of  fitness  only,  you  probably  would 
be  forced  to  the  conclusion  that  the  children  of  our  state  should 
spend  all  their  time  on  the  gym  floors  or  at  the  beaches. 

What  you're  interested  in  and  what  I  am  interested  in  is  the 
fullest  possible  development  of  every  boy  and  girl  of  this  state. 
That  includes  proper  attention  to  physical  education,  and  that 
includes  proper  attention  to  the  mental,  social,  and  spiritual 
education  of  every  child. 

In  balancing  the  time  allotments  for  each  of  these  aspects  of 
growth,  I  want  it  clearly  understood  that  I  am  not  advocating 
taking  more  time  from  the  textbooks  for  interscholastic  or  inter- 
collegiate sports.  On  the  contrary!  I  believe  we  have  cheated  too 
many  students  by  permitting  too  many  midweek  out-of-town 
games  in  the  public  schools. 

It  is  just  possible  that  the  recent  basketball  scandals  were  bless- 
ings in  disguise,  for  they  made  us  re-examine  our  whole  inter- 
collegiate and  interscholastic  programs. 

There  has  been  too  much  "spectating"  and  not  enough  partici- 
pating by  the  vast  majority  of  our  high  school  and  college  students 
in  this  field  of  sports. 

On  many  occasions,  I  have  pointed  out  that  we  must  not  rob 
the  classroom  time  for  extracurricular  activities.  If  we  are  to 
build  quality  education  programs  that  will  develop  the  whole 
personality  of  the  child,  we  must  give  the  teacher  time  to  teach. 

I  believe  the  time  has  come  to  re-examine  out-of-town  games 
in  the  middle  of  the  school  week.  Studies  must  take  first  priority 
if  our  state  is  to  develop  youth  fitness  in  the  true  sense. 

There  is  a  strong  interdependence  between  the  intellect,  the 
morality,  and  the  physique  of  the  child. 

We  must  not  permit  intellectual  and  mental  stagnation.  We 
must  not  tolerate  moral  decay.  And  we  must  not  condone  physical 

These  three  elements  are  inseparable.  They  are  like  the  mathe- 
matical equation:  A  equals  B;  B  equals  C;  therefore,  A  equals 
C.  They  represent  the  three  corners  of  the  equilateral  triangle 
which  is  the  same  regardless  of  which  side  is  used  as  the  base. 

Intellectual  brilliance  can  only  be  utilized  when  it  is  bound 
together  by  fibers  of  moral  strength  and  propelled  by  physical 

Moral  depth  comes  only  from  knowledge  that  gives  us  apprecia- 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


tion  of  the  rights  of  others  and  an  intellectual  and  physical 
stamina  that  allows  us  to  stand  up  in  the  face  of  adversity. 

None  of  these  component  parts  of  the  total  personality  is 
achieved  easily.  We  cannot  attain  intellectual  brilliance,  moral 
depth,  or  physical  stamina  just  by  wishing.  It  takes  diligence  and 
practice— every  day  and  every  month  and  every  year. 

As  I  have  said,  physical  fitness  is  an  integral  part  of  the  develop- 
ment of  the  child— and  of  the  program  for  letting  every  boy  and 
every  girl  of  North  Carolina  burgeon  out  the  best  that  is  within 

Recently,  I  had  occcasion  to  speak  to  automobile  liability 
insurance  company  executives  in  New  York  City.  We  were 
discussing  highway  safety  for  North  Carolina.  I  told  those  insur- 
ance executives  that  one  way  to  help  solve  the  traffic  problem 
would  be  for  all  of  us  to  walk  to  work.  I  have  tried  to  practice, 
whenever  my  schedule  permits,  that  preaching  by  walking  to  the 

Besides  cutting  down  on  wrecks  and  frayed  nerves  of  rush-hour 
driving  at  the  start  of  every  day,  such  a  practice  would  also  cut 
down  the  bulging  waistlines  of  North  Carolina. 

North  Carolina's  rate  of  rejections  by  Selective  Service  has 
been  entirely  too  great.  Many  of  those  rejected  were  turned  down 
because  of  illiteracy.  With  our  quality  education  program,  North 
Carolina  is  going  to  solve  that  problem. 

I  am  counting  on  groups  like  this  to  help  us  solve  the  problem 
of  persons  rejected  for  physical  reasons.  Because  as  well  as  the 
large  number  rejected  for  illiteracy,  there  also  was  an  unusually 
large  number  of  persons  in  our  state  rejected  for  physical  reasons. 

Now  I  realize  no  physical  fitness  program  can  make  the  blind 
see  or  the  deaf  hear.  But  we  can  certainly  trim  down  the  incidence 
of  heart  disease  due  to  overweight,  and  we  can  certainly  curtail 
other  preventable  physical  deficiencies. 

If  North  Carolina  is  to  swim  in  the  mainstream  of  American 
life,  every  man,  woman,  and  child  must  recognize  the  need  for 
individual  strength— mental  strength,  moral  strength,  and  physical 

I  shall  look  forward  to  working  with  you  to  build  a  stronger 
North  Carolina  by  building  stronger  North  Carolinians. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 



July  13,  1961 

Governor  Sanford  told  the  vocational  agriculture  teachers  that 
they  occupied  key  positions,  but  they  would  have  to  realize  the 
importance  of  inevitable  change.  He  said  it  was  man's  nature  to 
go  forward,  though  change  might  create  hardship  and  problems. 
He  proceeded  to  discuss  his  program  for  improvements  in  the 
educational  system  of  the  state,  including  a  review  of  legislation 
adopted  by  the  1961  General  Assembly.  He  explained  that  intel- 
ligent action  and  a  real  spirit  of  enthusiasm  would  be  needed  on 
the  part  of  farming  interests.  Sanford  expressed  the  opinion  that 
the  teachers  at  this  meeting  had  accepted  the  responsibility  facing 
them,  that  the  attitude  of  the  group  was  one  of  confidence,  and 
that  confidence  was  a  force  which  would  overcome  any  obstacle, 
achieve  any  goal. 



July  13,  1961 

The  dedication  of  the  Federal  Housing  Administration's  new 
office  marked  the  twenty-sixth  year  of  business  headquarters  in 
Greensboro  and  afforded  Governor  Sanford  another  opportunity 
to  praise  the  co-operative  partnership  between  government  and 
free  enterprise.  An  organization  synonymous  with  sound  fiscal 
policies,  intelligent  planning,  efficient  management,  and  con- 
structive policies,  the  FHA  had  helped  house  America  since 
1934,  with  no  cost  to  taxpayers.  Governor  Sanford  attributed  the 
enactment  of  the  Housing  Act  of  1961  partially  to  the  success  of 
the  FHA  program.  The  new  act  would  help  government  and 
private  citizens  "to  get  on  with  the  job  of  razing  the  slums  and  of 
raising  new  homes.  ..."  The  Governor  pointed  out  the  benefits 
to  be  derived  by  North  Carolina  citizens— the  poorer  group,  the 
elderly,  and  the  students— from  the  legislation.  He  pledged  the 
support  of  his  administration  to  work  with  the  FHA  and  private 
enterprise  in  taking  full  advantage  of  the  provisions  of  the  new 
act.  He  concluded  with  the  statement  that  good  housing  helped 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries  147 

"make  a  stronger  neighborhood,  a  stronger  community,  a  stronger 
state  and  a  stronger  nation." 


July  16,  1961 

[Governor  Sanford,  participating  in  the  dedication  of  a  new  National 
Guard  Armory  at  Benson,  spoke  meaningfully  of  America's  desire  for  peace 
but  willingness  to  fight  to  preserve  freedom.  He  reiterated  his  belief  in  the 
desires  and  goals  of  Americans  to  foster  both  peace  and  freedom  throughout 
the  world  in  this  talk  and  in  a  number  of  other  speeches  delivered  during 
his  administration.] 

I  appreciate  the  honor  you  have  extended  to  me  in  inviting  me 
to  participate  in  the  dedication  of  this  new  National  Guard 
Armory.  This  armory  will  serve  as  an  integral  part  in  the  Table 
of  Organization  and  Equipment  of  our  national  defense  effort. 
And  the  men  who  train  in  this  armory  will  march  as  part  of  the 
American  army  of  freedom.  The  men  who  will  train  here  will  be 
primarily  citizen-soldiers.  They  will  be  the  kind  of  citizen-soldiers 
who  answered  that  first  call  to  rally  around  the  flag  of  freedom 
at  Bunker  Hill.  They  will  march  in  the  footsteps  of  the  citizen- 
soldiers  who  fought  and  won  under  Andy  Jackson  at  New  Orleans 
a  century  and  a  half  ago.  They  will  also  march  in  the  footsteps 
of  the  citizen-soldiers  who  answered  Woodrow  Wilson's  call  and 
fought  under  "Black  Jack"  Pershing  "to  make  the  world  safe  for 

I  know  the  men  who  train  here  will  be  faithful  to  our  heritage 
of  freedom  just  as  their  older  brothers  were  faithful  to  that 
heritage  in  Bataan,  at  Bastogne,  at  Guadalcanal  and  Iwo  Jima. 

Our  nation  has  never  had  a  Junker  military  caste  like  Bismarck 
and  the  Kaiser  and  Hitler  had  to  call  on.  And  as  long  as  Americans 
are  willing  to  leave  their  civilian  jobs  to  defend  freedom,  we  never 
will!  Americans  do  not  march  just  to  hear  hobnail  boots  striking 
the  ground.  We  are  a  nation  that  would  rather  hear  the  beat  of 
rock'n'roll  than  the  beat  of  Wagner's  militaristic  music. 

The  order  of  the  day  in  America  is  peace— not  war.  The  uniform 
of  the  day  is  the  overall  of  the  farmer  or  the  Ivy  League  suit  of 
the  salesman  or  the  dungarees  of  the  factory  worker— not  battle 
dress  of  militarists.  Our  chow  lines  are  at  a  civilian  hot  dog  stand 
or  a  Dairy  Queen— not  at  military  messes.  But  let  no  dictator 
misinterpret  this  traditional  love  of  peaceful  pursuit.  Civilian- 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

soldiers  have  proved  since  1776  that  they  will  fight  if  fight  they 

The  dictators  in  the  Kremlin  and  the  dictators  in  Peiping 
should  take  a  long  hard  look  at  the  history  of  America  before  they 
start  anything.  The  American  eating  peanuts  at  the  ball  park 
will  sacrifice  that  bag  of  peanuts  for  a  can  of  C-rations  if  he  must. 
And  the  American  civilian  will  exchange  his  golfing  putter  for 
an  M-1  if  it  is  necessary  to  do  so  to  safeguard  freedom  here  and 

This  armory  that  we  are  dedicating  here  today  is  symbolic  of 
the  fact  that  while  Americans  prefer  peaceful  pursuit,  they  are 
willing  to  take  up  arms  to  protect  their  right,  and  the  right  of 
their  families,  to  freedom.  In  short,  we  are  willing  to  work  for 
peace,  but  we  are  also  willing  to  fight  for  freedom. 

President  Kennedy  has  demonstrated  to  the  Soviets  and  to  the 
world  that  America  does  not  fear  to  negotiate.  But  he  also  has 
said,  and  he  has  shown,  that  we  will  never  negotiate  out  of  fear. 

President  Kennedy  is  willing  to  go  to  Vienna— to  negotiate. 

But  Jack  Kennedy  will  never  go  to  Munich— to  appease. 

If  Nikita  Khrushchev  is  as  smart  a  man  as  he  is  supposed  to  be, 
he  must  know  that  a  man  like  Jack  Kennedy  who  fought  to 
defend  this  nation  against  Tito  and  Hitler  will  also  fight  to  defend 
the  free  world  against  imperialistic  communism. 

All  Americans  who  sweated  in  the  jungles  of  the  Pacific  and 
shivered  in  the  mud  of  Italy  and  froze  in  the  snows  around 
Bastogne  pray  in  their  hearts  that  we  will  never  again  have  to 
sweat  and  freeze  and  bleed  and  die  just  to  prove  to  a  dictator  that 
we  are  willing  to  do  so  to  preserve  democracy. 

We  pray  that  the  Communists,  who  profess  to  base  their  beliefs 
on  historical  dialectics,  will  read  in  their  histories  the  unmis- 
takable lesson  that  has  been  written  in  blood:  the  lesson  that 
Americans  will  fight  though  they  prefer  peace;  the  lesson  that 
Americans  will  negotiate,  but  will  never  surrender;  the  lesson 
that  the  assembly  lines  which  turn  out  the  consumer  goods  which 
we  enjoy  also  can  turn  out  tanks  and  planes  and  rockets. 

It  is  because  dictators  sometimes  misinterpret  the  American 
mood  that  we  need  armories  like  this  one.  It  is  because  dictators 
sometimes  overlook  the  hard  lesson  of  history  that  it  is  necessary 
for  civilian-soldiers  to  learn  to  handle  weapons  in  this  armory. 

I  was  happy  to  see  the  report  issued  recently  by  North  Caro- 
lina's Adjutant  General,  Claude  Bowers.  General  Bowers  ap- 
praised the  state  of  readiness  of  the  North  Carolina  National 
Guard  as  the  best  in  his  memory.  And  as  you  old  soldiers  and  you 
veterans  know,  General  Bowers'  memory  of  the  Guard  goes  back 
to  World  War  I.  It  is  reassuring  to  have  a  man  like  General 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


Bowers  leading  the  civilian-soldiers  of  North  Carolina.  It  is  reas- 
suring to  have  men  like  Colonel  Ivan  Hardesty^^  and  their  fellow 
officers  here  at  Benson  and  across  the  state  in  command  of  our 
civilian-army  corps  in  North  Carolina.  It  also  is  reassuring  to 
have  the  excellent  cadre  of  noncommissioned  officers  that  the 
North  Carolina  National  Guard  has. 

And  as  a  man  who  served  his  time  as  a  private,  I  will  say  to 
the  beginners  in  the  Guard:  An  army  couldn't  exist  without  you 
—for  as  you  know,  the  buck  stops  with  you,  and  you  do  most  of 
the  work. 

The  civilian-soldiers  of  North  Carolina  and  the  civilian-soldiers 
of  the  other  forty-nine  states  are  ready  to  mobilize— if  mobilization 
is  ordered  by  the  President. 

General  Bowers  has  noted  that  the  civilian-soldier  "has  always 
fought  well"  and  that  the  strength  of  the  civilian-soldier  is  in 
being  able  to  make  do  with  what  he  has. 

Marching  alongside  of  the  RA's  in  a  half  dozen  wars,  the 
civilian-soldiers  of  North  Carolina  have  never  failed  in  their 
mission,  their  mission  to  defend  freedom. 

We  have,  in  recent  days,  reached  one  of  those  crises  in  history 
when  the  fate  of  the  free  world  hangs  in  the  balance.  At  this  very 
hour,  the  fate  of  Berlin  hangs  precariously.  And  the  fate  of 
Berlin  is  just  as  important  to  all  the  free  world  in  the  summer 
of  1961  as  was  the  fate  of  the  Polish  Corridor  in  the  summer  of 

I  wish  Nikita  Khrushchev  could  have  been  here  today  and  seen 
the  demonstration  of  America's  willingness  to  fight  if  he  forces 
us  into  a  fight.  I  would  hope  that  Pravda  and  Isvestia  and  Red 
Star  J  the  main  newspapers  of  the  Soviet  Union,  might  mention 
this  dedication  somewhere  in  their  news  columns  tomorrow 
morning.  For  this  dedication  is  a  striking  example  that  America 
is  ready  to  answer  the  call  of  President  Kennedy  if  that  call  to 
arms  is  forthcoming. 

We  are  prepared  and  we  will  fight  to  save  Berlin  and  to  safe- 
guard the  free  world. 

I,  therefore,  am  happy  to  dedicate  this  building  as  a  citadel  to 
the  defense  of  the  liberties  of  America— and  to  the  defense  of 
liberty  throughout  the  world. 

^  Ivan  Hardesty,  Assistant  Chief  Engineer  of  Highway  Department  from  Raleigh, 
career  National  Guardsman  since  1926;  promoted  from  colonel  to  brigadier  gen- 
eral. May,  1962.  Governor  Sanford's  news  release  of  May  29,  1962. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Columbia,  South  Carolina 
July  18,  1961 

[An  early  morning  flight  enabled  Governor  Sanford  to  leave  Raleigh  and 
arrive  in  Columbia  in  time  to  address  the  South  Carolina  Education  Week 
Conference.  The  conference  was  made  up  of  representatives  of  the  School 
of  Education  of  the  University  of  South  Carolina,  the  South  Carolina  Asso- 
ciation of  School  Administrators,  the  South  Carolina  Association  of  School 
Boards,  and  the  Congress  of  Parents  and  Teachers.  He  urged  the  South  to 
move  forward  in  the  field  of  education  and  was  critical  of  areas  in  which 
the  region  was  backward.  His  address  was  not,  however,  without  the  charac- 
teristic Sanford  optimism.] 

The  South  is  rising  again!  It  is  not  rising  again  through 
secession  from  the  union,  nor  through  insurrection,  nor  through 
nullification.  It  is  rising  again  through  education,  through 
industry,  through  commerce,  and  through  agriculture. 

It  is  rising  through  the  exercise  of  its  long-neglected  literary 
talents,  through  its  research  in  the  scholarly  fields  and  in  the 
applied  sciences.  It  is  rising  to  heights  that  will  make  the  great 
accomplishments  of  the  "Old  South"  pale  by  comparison. 

The  South  is  moving  again  into  the  mainstream  of  American 

Now  that  it  is  moving,  the  South  deserves  a  chance  to  work 
out  its  future  without  free  advice  from  people  who  neglect  their 
own  problems  in  order  to  give  ill-informed  attention  to  ours. 
It  is  doubtful  that  we  will  have  it.  The  issues  are  too  alive,  too 
complex,  too  pressing,  and  too  emotional. 

The  South  has  been  on  the  defensive  too  long.  The  defensive 
position  is  not  conducive  to  positive  thought  and  action.  But 
positive  thought  and  action  are  what  we  must  have  today  in  the 
South  and  in  the  nation.  We  must  and  we  intend  to  move  out  of 
the  defensive.  If  there  is  to  be  a  New  South,  it  must  have  a  new 
policy— a  policy  consistent  with  the  national  conscience,  to  be 
sure,  but  a  policy  which  also  will  preserve  that  which  is  best  of 
the  South's  distinctive  culture  and  enable  it  to  realize  its  highest 
potential  for  good.  We  can  move  from  the  defensive  to  national 
leadership,  and  this  we  must  do  because  the  very  future  of  the 
nation  depends  on  what  we  are  able  to  accomplish. 

What  should  the  new  southern  policy  be?  To  the  extent  that 
education  is  basic  to  the  achievement  of  our  national  goals,  and 
nothing  is  more  basic  to  it,  education  must  be  the  foundation 
of  progress  in  the  South.  The  issue  must  not  be  whether  there 
will  be  education.  The  issue  must  be  whether  the  education  that 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


is  available  is  appropriate,  of  excellent  quality,  and  adequately 

North  Carolina  has  settled  the  question.  It  does  not  intend  to 
turn  back.  We  have  faced  the  bleak  alternatives  to  better  schools, 
and  we  have  chosen  to  expand  and  improve  our  schools. 

The  clarion  call  for  better  schools  has  replaced  the  rebel  yell 
as  the  voice  of  the  South,  and  it  deserves  the  attention  of  a 
national  audience  which  usually  is  only  too  willing  to  hear  the 
opposite.  Education  across  the  nation  is  crying  for  direction  and 
leadership.  Well,  let's  lead. 

North  Carolina  is  on  the  move  as  is  South  Carolina  and,  indeed, 
the  entire  South.  It  is  backing  up  its  promises  with  money  in 
unprecedented  amounts. 

The  General  Assembly  of  North  Carolina  recently  appropriated 
over  $100  million  in  enrichment  funds  for  public  education. 

The  General  Assembly  of  North  Carolina  has  met  the  challenge 
of  the  times  by  that  action.  The  South  Carolina  legislature,  I  am 
told,  also  has  moved  to  meet  that  challenge.  We  cannot  do  the 
job  that  needs  doing  in  education  without  money  provided  by 
those  legislatures. 

But  money,  whether  it  is  provided  by  the  city  council,  the 
legislature,  or  the  Congress,  cannot  do  the  job  alone. 

As  James  Bryant  Conant  put  it:  "The  road  to  better  schools 
will  be  paved  by  the  collective  action  of  the  local  citizenry.  The 
responsibility  for  the  sorely  needed  upgrading  of  our  schools 
cannot  be  passed  to  the  state  legislatures  or  to  Congress.  The 
responsibility  rests  on  every  citizen  in  the  land." 

But  though  the  support  must  come  from  the  people  and  their 
elected  representatives,  the  educating  must  come  from  the 
teachers.  You  educators  must  not  fail,  for  all  else  depends  on  you 
as  we  seek  our  regional  and  national  goals. 

I  would  hope  that  those  in  education,  self-assured  in  their  own 
competency,  would  leave  their  minds  wide  open  for  all  criticism 
and  new  ideas.  Those  who  are  motivated  to  sharp  criticism  of 
existing  institutions  from  their  own  sincere  concern  make  a 
valuable  contribution  to  the  advancement  of  our  society. 

Now  is  the  time  for  fresh  approaches,  bold  action,  tearing  away 
from  any  tinge  of  self-satisfaction,  an  appreciative  willingness  to 
give  all  thoughts  and  suggestions  a  fair  audience. 

I  have  noted  in  some  of  my  friends  and  associates  in  the  field 
of  education,  a  group  in  which  I  count  myself  to  be  a  member, 
a  tendency  to  be  oversensitive.  Criticism  of  the  school  system 
too  often  evokes  criticism  of  the  person  making  the  criticism. 

I  welcome  all  ideas,  thoughts,  suggestions,  criticism— even  harsh 
and  blunt  criticism.  I  do  not  pretend  to  take  all  advice,  but  I 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

do  try  to  listen  and  weigh  and  profit  by  all  advice  which  comes 
my  way. 

A  case  in  point  is  Admiral  Hyman  C.  Rickover.  Here  a  distin- 
guished scientist,  a  patriot  o£  the  highest  order,  a  man  moved  by 
an  overriding  concern  for  the  future  of  democracy  is  suspected 
of  being  against  the  school  system  because  he  is  harsh  in  his 
criticism.  I  will  admit  that  I  suspect  he  occasionally  deliberately 
overstates  his  case,  takes  an  unusually  blunt  stance,  slaps  harder 
than  is  needed,  in  order  to  shock  us  to  attention.  This  is  his 
method,  but  not  his  purpose,  and  we  might  in  candor  concede 
that  his  method  is  justified  by  our  laxness  in  many  areas. 

I  say  those  of  us  charged  with  the  future  of  education  in  a 
democracy  can  take  criticism  and  that  we  will  expect  and 
welcome  it.  In  this  way  we  will  profit,  and  democracy  will  profit 
and  survive. 

I  would  not  follow  all  the  suggestions  of  Admiral  Rickover, 
and  perhaps  not  any  of  them  exactly,  but  I  use  him  as  an  example 
because  the  reaction  to  his  prodding  has  been  extreme. 

For  example,  consider  these  statements  of  Rickover: 

We  are  now  confronted  with  clear-cut  evidence  that  in  the  all-important 
field  of  education  our  true  competitive  position  against  other  certain  ad- 
vanced nations  is  unsatisfactory.  The  wall  behind  which  we  have  been 
nursing  the  illusion  that  "our  schools  are  the  best  in  the  world"  is  being 
rudely  pulled  down  and  we  must  face  up  to  the  truth,  remedy  our  educa- 
tional errors  and  do  a  great  deal  better  by  our  children. 

There  is  no  answer  in  this  statement,  but  there  is  much  truth, 
and  we  will  do  well  to  look  back  over  our  shoulders  to  see  indeed 
that  our  adversaries  are  gaining  on  us. 

Continuing  to  quote: 

The  enormous  wealth  [of  America  has  been]  a  mighty  prop  to  self-esteem. 
.  .  .  Thus  protected  against  the  harsh  facts  of  life,  it  is  easy  to  imagine 
oneself  superior,  not  just  in  wealth  but  in  other  things  as  well.  This  is  a 
pleasant  illusion,  but  it  may  have  consequences  not  even  the  richest  can 

Here,  perhaps,  is  a  key  to  the  reason  the  youth  is  in  a  better 
position  to  move  into  national  leadership.  We  have  had  less 
reason  to  become  haughty  and  vain,  and  we  know  we  have  a  job 
to  do  in  building  our  opportunities. 

And  again: 

.  .  .  not  even  so  rich  a  people  as  we  can  afford  underpaid  and  under- 
educated  teachers,  absence  of  academic  standards,  and  a  philosophy  of  fun 
and  games  at  school.  .  .  . 

Now  don't  jump  at  conclusions  by  saying  to  yourself  we  can't 
have  inflexible  national  standards.  Maybe  we  can't,  but  put  your 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


mind  to  working  on  how  we  can  have  academic  standards  which 
afford  goals  and  measure  achievement.  That  is  the  way  to  put 
blunt  criticism  to  work  running  in  your  favor. 

And  don't  get  miffed  when  I  quote  "fun  and  games"  by  think- 
ing, "well,  we  certainly  don't  have  that  in  our  schools."  Maybe 
you  don't,  but  too  many  do,  and  we  are  all  too  lax  in  too  many 

I  am  saying  to  educators  let's  be  our  own  harshest  critics.  Let's 
seek  out  our  shortcomings,  look  for  ways  of  improvement,  and 
get  on  with  the  job. 

Take  the  four  things  I  have  just  mentioned:  underpaid  teachers, 
undereducated  teachers,  absence  of  academic  standards,  "fun  and 

Teachers  are  underpaid.  I  am  responsible  for  that,  and  all 
citizens  are  responsible.  I  said  across  my  state  that  this  was 
problem  number  one.  The  people  agreed,  the  General  Assembly 
agreed,  and  we  are  moving  to  higher  pay. 

Many  people  have  asked:  "How  will  paying  a  teacher  more 
convert  her  into  a  better  teacher  than  she  was  last  year?"  The 
answer  is  twofold.  We  have  to  start  paying  more  before  we  start 
attracting  an  adequate  number  of  qualified  people.  This  is  no 
chicken  or  egg  dilemma.  Higher  pay  must  come  first. 

The  other  answer  is  immediate.  Higher  pay  demonstrates  that 
we  have  confidence  in  our  teachers,  that  we  understand  the 
priority  of  education,  and  that  we  believe  in  upgrading  its 
importance.  This  leads  to  improved  morale  and  a  terrific  chal- 
lenge, and  every  teacher  worth  his  salt  immediately  starts  trying 
to  do  a  better  job. 

When  I  speak  of  undereducated  teachers,  I  am  not  restricting 
myself  to  the  teachers  in  the  classrooms  who  hold  something  less 
than  "A"  certificates.  I  am  speaking  also  of  those  teachers  who 
have  taken  an  overdose  of  courses  of  how  to  teach  and  who  have 
had  far  too  few  courses  of  what  to  teach. 

It  is  time  that  our  schools  of  education  bring  the  courses  on 
subject  matter  into  balance  with  the  courses  on  teaching  methods. 

I  think  there  would  be  no  argument  from  this  audience  if  I 
observe  that  in  the  field  of  academic  standards  an  "A"  on 
arithmetic  in  one  school,  or  in  one  county,  does  not  equal  an 
"A"  on  the  same  subject  in  another  school  or  in  another  county. 
The  results  of  entrance  examinations  for  college  freshmen  prove 
the  inequality  of  academic  standards  of  various  schools  and 
various  counties  and  various  states. 

We  might  sum  up  the  problem  of  the  overemphasis  on  "fun  and 
games"  this  way:  It  is  true  that  all  work  and  no  play  makes 
Johnnie  a  dull  boy.  But  all  play  and  no  work  at  school  will  make 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Johnnie  an  ignorant  boy.  And  it  will  make  him  a  poor  boy  when 
he  goes  out  into  the  world  to  compete  for  a  job. 

Carolinians  have  always  understood  that  education  is  the  means 
by  which  our  states  must  reach  their  full  potential  growth  in  both 
economic  and  human  values.  At  the  turn  of  the  century,  Walter 
Hines  Page  made  the  following  statement  of  faith: 

I  believe  in  the  free  public  training  of  both  the  hands  and  the  mind  of 
every  child  born  of  woman. 

I  believe  that  by  the  right  training  of  men  we  add  to  the  wealth  of  the 
world.  All  wealth  is  the  creation  of  man,  and  he  creates  it  only  in  proportion 
to  the  trained  uses  of  the  community;  and,  the  more  men  we  train,  the  more 
wealth  everyone  may  create. 

I  believe  in  the  perpetual  regeneration  of  society,  in  the  immortality  of 
democracy,  and  in  growth  everlasting.®" 

We  have  had  our  successes  and  we  have  made  progress  and 
we  have  a  remarkable  record  considering  that  we  suffered  many 
years  of  struggle  against  the  oppressive  tactics  of  vindictive  victors 
as  an  aftermath  of  the  Civil  War.  But  whatever  our  successes,  it 
is  not  enough  for  the  rapidly  advancing  scientific,  changing  world 
we  now  enter. 

The  job  is  not  finished.  What  we  have  really  done  is  to 
create  new  and  unlimited  opportunities. 

The  late  Dr.  Howard  Odum  of  the  University  of  North  Caro- 
lina, and  a  native  of  Georgia,  showed  clearly  that  the  South  need 
not  continue  to  be  known  as  the  "nation's  economic  problem 
number  one."  While  we  do  not  have  everything,  he  pointed  out, 
we  do  have  in  abundance  those  resources  that  really  matter- 
soil,  water,  climate,  rainfall,  and  people— most  of  all  we  have  a 
stock  of  sturdy  and  able  people.  We  only  need  to  develop  fully 
this  human  resource.  That  again  justifies  our  reliance  on  educa- 
tion as  the  path  to  all  other  objectives. 

Quality  education  is  no  mean  goal!  For  all  other  goals  we 
seek  for  the  South  can  be  measured  by  the  quality,  the  scope,  the 
reach  of  our  educational  efforts. 

Education  is  the  foundation  of  economic  improvement.  We  in 
the  South  are  concerned,  vitally,  with  industrial  development, 
farm  income,  the  economic  growth,  the  chance  of  all  to  make  a 
better  living;  and  because  of  this  we  must  give  top  priority  to 

Education  is  the  foundation  of  democracy.  We  are  concerned 
with  defending  the  principles  of  freedom,  of  individual  liberties, 
of  free  enterprise,  of  equality  and  dignity  of  man;  and  therefore, 
we  seek  the  fulfillment  of  these  principles  through  quality  educa- 
tion we  offer  our  boys  and  girls. 

Page,  Rebuilding  of  Old  Commonwealths,  102. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


Education  is  the  foundation  of  the  needs  and  hopes  of  the 
nation.  We  are  concerned  with  our  part  in  the  world,  and  we 
are  concerned  with  the  peace  of  the  world,  and  therefore,  we  must 
adequately  educate  the  scientists,  the  statesmen,  and  the  citizenry 
who  will  fully  understand  and  are  equipped  to  defend  and 
promote  the  ideals  of  our  dynamic  democracy  of  the  twentieth 

Education,  put  in  the  bleakest  terms,  is  survival.  Here  in  our 
own  small  part  of  the  free  world,  we  can  do  no  less  than  seek  the 
best  as  we  prepare  to  do  our  part  to  defend  America  and  the  free 

And  education,  put  in  its  brightest  terms,  is  life  and  growth, 
and  happiness.  We  are  not  here  merely  to  make  a  living.  We  are 
talking  about  the  fundamental  when  we  are  talking  about  educa- 
tion, and  our  goal  is  worthy  of  the  best  we  have  in  mind,  and 
heart,  and  spirit. 

The  training  the  teachers  are  giving  in  the  classrooms  is 
ultimately  going  to  be  more  important  than  the  training  beir^ 
given  on  the  parade  fields  of  Fort  Jackson  and  Fort  Bragg— and 
I  am  not  minimizing  the  importance  of  the  army  posts. 

How  well  the  students  perform  is  going  to  have  a  greater  effect 
on  history  than  how  well  a  missile  performs  at  Cape  Canaveral. 

The  South  must  improve  its  schools  if  it  expects  to  improve  its 

Yet  despite  this,  we  have  for  too  long  in  the  South  expected 
our  teachers  to  work  for  apples  and  yearbook  dedications. 

North  and  South  Carolina  are  properly  concerned  when  anyone 
attempts  to  cut  our  tobacco  parity  below  90  per  cent.  Yet  we 
have  been  giving  our  sons  and  daughters  something  less  than 
66  per  cent  of  the  national  educational  parity. 

The  South,  like  the  rest  of  the  nation,  needs  to  take  a  long, 
hard  look  at  itself  to  see  where  it  stands  now,  and  to  see  where 
it  hopes  to  stand  and  where  it  will  stand  twenty  years  from  now. 

Our  public  school  system  is  southern,  and  we  have  no  desire 
to  make  it  northern  or  anything  other  than  southern.  But  that 
does  not  require  us  to  be  provincial  in  our  efforts  to  prepare  our 
children  to  take  part  in  life.  We  have  been  forced,  by  the  sheer 
impact  of  the  change  taking  place  in  this  modern  day  America, 
to  place  our  children  in  competition  with  children  from  every 
section  of  the  country. 

The  present  day  businessman  cannot  rely  on  competition  solely 
from  his  own  county  or  even  his  own  state.  Products  from  all 
over  America,  and  indeed  all  over  the  world,  flow  in  daily  to 
compete  against  the  products  he  is  selling  here  in  this  state.  If  he 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

is  a  manufacturer,  he  can  rest  assured  that  a  new  industry  from 
outside  the  South  will  soon  come  in,  and  he  will  have  to  meet 
the  new  demands  for  labor  and  other  resources. 

If  the  child  is  setting  out  to  become  a  lawyer,  he  can  no  longer 
plan  to  make  a  living  on  criminal  cases  and  a  few  civil  actions 
in  the  JP  courts.  He  may  be  practicing  in  what  we  think  of  as 
a  one-horse  town,  but  he  still  must  match  wits  with  bonding 
attorneys  from  Wall  Street,  tax  attorneys  trained  by  the  federal 
government,  and  corporation  lawyers  sent  out  by  General  Motors 
and  Standard  Oil.  The  attorney  today  competes  with  these  experts, 
and  beats  them  from  time  to  time,  or  he  must  give  up  any  hope 
of  a  successful  career. 

Even  to  get  into  a  medical  school  today,  a  student  must  match 
his  wits  against  those  who  come  from  all  over  the  country  to  get 
the  relatively  few  openings  in  our  crowded  medical  schools.  In 
practice,  the  doctor  must  make  use  of  the  most  complex  medicines 
and  methods  of  modern  science. 

In  all  of  these  areas,  the  child  from  the  South  can  no  longer 
think  in  terms  of  how  good  he  is  in  his  own  community;  he  must 
be  competent  to  equal  those  all  across  the  nation.  We  may  still 
revel  in  the  stories  of  the  Old  South,  but  when  it  comes  down 
to  the  hard,  everyday  problem  of  making  a  living,  there  just 
aren't  many  of  us  picking  cotton  anymore.  And  the  public  school 
system  which  is  geared  to  those  times  will  do  our  children  the 
greatest  disservice  in  preparing  them  for  a  race  they  can  never 
win,  a  life  they  can  never  live  to  its  fullest. 

The  South,  like  the  rest  of  the  nation,  needs  to  ask  itself  again 
the  questions  which  Edwin  Markham  angrily  asked: 

Is  this  the  thing  the  Lord  God  made  and  gave 
To  have  dominion  over  sea  and  land.  .  .  ? 
How  will  you  ever  straighten  up  this  shape; 
Touch  it  again  with  immortality: 
Give  back  the  upward  looking  and  the  light; 
Rebuild  in  it  the  music  and  the  dream? 

Through  education!  That  is  how.  Education  will  straighten  up 
this  shape,  touch  it  again  with  immortality,  give  it  back  the 
upward  looking  and  the  light.  But  education  that  is  designed 
for  the  few,  the  rich  and  the  privileged  will  not  do  it.  Education 
that  does  not  take  him  into  account,  or  rejects  him  if  it  notices 
him  at  all,  will  never  straighten  up  this  shape  or  heal  his  im- 
medicable woes. 

Great  southerners  have  long  recognized  this  truth.  Thomas 
Jefferson  knew  that  an  educated  citizenry  is  a  necessary  pre- 

Edwin  Markham,  The  Man  With  the  Hoe  and  Other  Poems  (New  York: 
Doubleday,  Page  and  Company,  1922) ,  16-17. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


requisite  to  free  government.  Woodrow  Wilson,  another  souther- 
ner, knew  that  universal  education  is  a  necessary  prerequisite  to 
making  the  world  safe  for  democracy. 

But  this  is  not  the  only  area  of  educational  need.  The  South, 
like  the  rest  of  the  nation,  needs  also  to  look  at  the  other  end 
of  the  educational  system— the  colleges  and  the  universities. 

Only  three  of  the  thirteen  southern  states  rank  above  the 
national  average  in  the  percentage  of  their  adult  population  with 
four  or  more  years  of  college  education.  North  Carolina  is  not 
among  them.  It  is  thirty-ninth  among  the  fifty  states.  South 
Carolina  ranks  higher,  but  not  high  enough  to  boast.  Your  state 
is  thirty-second  among  the  fifty  states. 

I  do  not  minimize  the  need  for  more  money  in  higher  educa- 
tion, either  public  or  private.  More  money  must  be  provided— 
substantially  more  money.  But  the  South  will  not  keep  faith  with 
the  future  if  we  do  not  take  into  account  the  tremendous  backlog 
of  educational  demand  that  exists  on  the  part  of  honest,  hard- 
working people  who  simply  do  not  have  the  price.  It  is  a  reality 
we  must  face.  It  is  a  reality  the  South  must  take  into  account  as 
it  shapes  a  new  college  policy  for  the  future. 

Universal  quality  education  will  provide  the  cornerstone  for  a 
prosperous  New  South— a  South  that  can  again  lead  the  nation. 

The  place  to  begin  is  with  the  beginning:  in  the  public  schools. 
Here  we  must  reappraise  our  curriculum.  North  Carolina  is 
seeking  a  new  curriculum,  a  curriculum  with  power— "power  in 
itself  to  challenge  the  latent  germ  of  genius,  great  or  small, 
classical  or  modern,  academic  or  technical,  that  every  educable 
human  being  has  within  him  in  some  degree."  It  is  only  in  the 
light  of  this  curriculum  study  that  we  are  investing  another 
$100  million  toward  the  achievement  of  this  goal.  We  await 
results  with  hope  and  with  confidence,  but  meanwhile  we  work. 

This,  however,  is  not  enough  for  the  foundation.  The  key  to 
quality  education  is  quality  teaching.  And  one  of  the  keys  to 
quality  teaching  is  quality  teacher  education,  both  pre -service 
and  in-service  teacher  education.  It  must  be  said  to  the  credit  of 
professional  education  in  North  Carolina  and  South  Carolina 
that  it,  too,  is  taking  a  positive  stand  for  progress.  There  can 
be  no  doubt  that  the  leadership  now  being  exerted  by  the 
profession  will  bring  new  quality,  of  rich  meaning,  to  the 
instruction  in  tens  of  thousands  of  classrooms  in  the  state. 

The  junior  colleges  and  the  church-supported  colleges  must 
play  important  roles  in  the  higher  education  of  our  states.  How 
else  shall  we  face  the  doubling  of  college  enrollments  certainly 
within  the  next  decade?  How  else  will  we  be  able  to  reach  the 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

young  men  and  women  who  simply  do  not  have  the  price  of  a 
residential  college  education? 

The  need  for  industrial,  or  the  so-called  terminal-technical 
education  is  increasing.  At  the  present  time  a  survey  of  every  job 
opportunity  in  North  Carolina  is  being  made,  and  this  survey  will 
lead  to  complete,  accurate  descriptions  of  the  requirements  of  each 
of  these  thousands  of  jobs.  On  the  basis  of  this  survey,  curricular 
standards  will  be  set  up  and  state-wide  courses  of  instruction 
leading  to  certification  of  technicians  will  be  established.  These 
will  form  the  curriculum  of  North  Carolina's  new  system  of 
industrial  education  centers,  which,  although  begun  only  in 
1958,  are  now  reaching  over  15,000  adults. 

I  am  informed  that  South  Carolina  is  moving  quickly  in  this 
field  of  industrial  education. 

At  the  head  of  our  educational  system,  and  carrying  the 
heaviest  responsibility  for  its  leadership  are  our  senior  colleges 
and  universities  with  their  graduate  schools  and  various  profes- 
sional programs.  These  institutions  serve  as  the  brain  centers,  as 
sources  of  ideas  and  plans  for  much  of  our  life.  The  specialized 
leaders  who  come  from  these  institutions  become  the  trusted 
leaders  in  many  fields,  and  the  standard  they  set  is  determined  in 
a  large  part  by  the  standard  to  which  they  have  been  challenged 
by  those  institutions.  As  we  support  these  institutions  to  the 
best  possible  performance,  we  insure  that  our  leadership  will 
have  the  opportunity  to  develop  to  its  fullest. 

Quality  education  which  we  seek  cannot  be  delivered  by  a  city 
council,  or  a  legislature,  or  the  Congress,  although  their  help  is 
essential  in  starting  the  march.  Quality  education  is  complex, 
difficult,  constant  in  required  attention,  and  it  will  demand  the 
best  in  effort  by  school  boards,  the  state  agencies,  the  superintend- 
ents, the  principals,  the  teachers,  the  parents,  the  students,  and 
indeed  all  the  citizens  of  this  university,  this  city,  this  state,  and 
this  nation. 

The  hour  is  at  hand  when  South  Carolina,  North  Carolina,  and 
all  the  South  can  rise  again  and  march  again.  We  will  make  this 
march  not  with  bayonets  but  with  textbooks.  We  will  not  be 
firing  on  Fort  Sumter.  We  will  be  firing  on  the  dungeons  of 

We  will  make  this  march  by  reaching  out  and  grasping  the 
hands  of  our  most  priceless  possession,  our  children  and  our 

Thank  you. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


July  26,  1961 

[Some  1,400  members  of  the  4-H  Clubs  of  North  Carolina  met  in  Raleigh 
for  their  annual  convention.  Discussions,  dress  revues,  contests,  and  elec- 
tions filled  the  days,  but  the  highlight  of  the  week  was  the  address  by  Gov- 
ernor Sanford.  Speaking  at  William  Neal  Reynolds  Coliseum,  the  Governor 
discussed  the  influence  of  farming  on  the  international  scene  and  then 
launched  into  an  analysis  of  the  farm  situation  and  opportunities  in  North 

Each  of  you  sitting  here  today  is  living  testimony  to  something 
that  I  have  been  saying  across  our  state  for  years:  Farming  is 
NOT  dead  in  North  Carolina.  In  fact,  this  remarkable  audience 
and  this  remarkable  demonstration  of  the  work  of  1,400  young 
farm  leaders  is  proof  positive  that  there  is  new  hope,  new  vigor, 
and  new  promise  for  profitable  harvests  on  North  Carolina's 

There  is,  indeed,  a  new  day  in  North  Carolina  agriculture! 

I  grew  up  in  the  farm  trading  town  of  Laurinburg,  although  it 
has  grown  to  three  times  the  size  and  the  designation  of  "All 
American  City"  since  I  left  and  I  know  something  of  the  work 
involved  in  your  activities.  I  know  the  toil  and  sweat  that  go 
into  suckering  tobacco.  And  I  also  know  the  rich  sense  of  personal 
satisfaction,  as  well  as  the  enrichment  of  the  pocketbook,  that 
comes  at  the  end  of  a  good  season. 

Then  I  know  too  what  the  work  that  you  and  your  parents 
are  doing  this  summer  means  to  the  economy  of  a  town  like 
Laurinburg,  and  cities  like  Durham  and  Winston-Salem  and 
Raleigh,  and  even  that  metropolis  of  Charlotte. 

If  you  have  a  bad  year  on  the  farm,  the  urban  people  have  a 
bad  year  in  town.  The  merchant's  sales  drop.  The  banker's 
deposits  fall  off.  The  manufacturer's  orders  go  down. 

When  the  farmer  prospers,  we  know  there  are  going  to  be  good 
profits  in  town.  But  when  the  farmer  suffers,  we  all  are  going  to 

This  is  especially  true  in  North  Carolina,  a  state  that  has  more 
family-sized  farms  than  any  state  in  the  union  except  Texas. 

We  know  of  the  close  correlation  between  the  prosperity  on 
the  farm  and  the  prosperity  of  the  town.  We  learned  that  lesson 
before  any  one  of  you  4-H  Club  members  here  today  was  born. 
We  learned  it  the  hard  way.  There  was  a  farm  depression  in  the 
early  1920's.  Those  were  the  Roaring  Twenties  in  the  big  cities 
so  very  few  people  in  town  worried  very  much  about  the  plight 
of  the  farmer  out  in  the  country. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

But  we  found  out  in  1929  that  the  farm  economy  plays  an 
integral  role  in  the  over-all  national  economy. 

The  farm  depression  of  the  early  twenties  caught  up  with  the 
cities  in  the  fall  of  1929.  If  you've  studied  your  history  of  that 
period,  you  know  that  mighty  Wall  Street  did  something  then 
that  generally  has  been  left  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  barnyard. 

It  laid  an  egg. 

We  had  to  relearn  this  lesson  the  hard  way  again  in  the  1950's. 
These  were  the  years  you  here  today  will  remember.  You  know 
that  we  had  some  officials  in  Washington  who  thought  the  solution 
to  the  farm  problem  was  to  shut  down  the  small  farms. 

You  know  what  happened.  We  first  had  a  farm  recession.  Then 
we  had  a  national  recession.  In  fact  we  had  a  couple  of  them. 

Now,  we  are  in  the  happy  position  of  having  an  administration 
in  Washington  under  the  capable  leadership  of  President  Jack 
Kennedy,  who  fully  appreciates  the  importance  of  keeping  our 
farm  programs  strong. 

As  you  know,  President  Kennedy  and  Secretary  of  Agriculture 
Orville  Freeman  have  relied  heavily  on  North  Carolina  and 
North  Carolinians  in  maintaining  and  developing  the  agricultural 
resources  on  our  New  Frontier. 

Three  of  the  major  policy  makers  in  Secretary  Freeman's 
department  are  North  Carolinians:  Charles  Murphy  from  Wallace 
is  Under  Secretary  of  Agriculture;  Harry  B.  Caldwell  of  Greens- 
boro is  chairman  of  the  President's  Farm  Advisory  Committee; 
and  Horace  Godfrey  is  administrator  of  the  Commodity  Credit 
Corporation.  They  are  working,  as  are  the  President  and  Secretary 
Freeman,  with  Congressman  Harold  Cooley,  the  veteran  chairman 
of  the  House  Agriculture  Committee,  and  with  Senator  B.  Everett 
Jordan,^2  ^  member  of  the  Senate  Agriculture  Committee. 
(Parenthetically,  I  would  like  to  say  that  Senator  Jordan's  com- 
mittee's recent  vote  on  the  farm  bill  was  not  fully  understood. 
In  the  complicated  legislative  process,  which  is  hard  to  under- 
stand, he  was  working  for  the  kind  of  farm  bill  which  would  best 
serve  North  Carolina.  If  you  will  watch  with  patience  you  will 
see  my  prediction  come  true  that  Senator  Jordan  will  play  an 
important  role  in  helping  the  farm  situation  in  our  state  and 

This  position  in  national  leadership  is  important  to  a  state  like 
ours  that  still  is  primarily  an  agricultural  state.  And  this  effort 
to  reinvigorate  the  farm  economy  is  vital  to  the  nation. 

It  is  vital  because,  as  we  have  seen,  the  nation's  domestic 

^B.  Everett  Jordan  (1896-  ),  businessman  from  Saxapahaw;  political  and 
civic  leader;  successor  in  United  States  Senate  to  W.  Kerr  Scott,  who  died  in  1958. 
North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  501-502. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


economy  is  as  strongly  tied  to  the  agricultural  economy  as  it  is 
to  the  steel  or  the  automotive  industries. 

It  is  vital  to  the  United  States  in  our  foreign  policy. 

One  of  America's  secret  weapons  in  this  cold  war  with  com- 
munism is  our  agriculture. 

True,  you  don't  kill  a  man  with  an  ear  of  corn  or  a  bag  of 
peanuts.  You  use  rifles  and  hand  grenades  and  bombs  and  missiles 
for  killing.  But  it  is  equally  true  that  with  the  food  we  raise  here 
in  North  Carolina  you  can  keep  a  man  from  dying. 

In  this  crisis  over  Berlin,  our  surplus  food  is  as  important  to 
the  defense  of  the  free  world  as  our  stockpile  of  atom  bombs. 

I'm  sure  you've  read  the  Biblical  story  of  the  seven  years  of 
feast  that  were  followed  by  the  seven  years  of  famine.  Young 
Joseph  may  well  have  been  a  4-H  Club  member  had  he  lived 
today.  For  he  had  the  good  sense  to  conserve— to  store  the  surpluses 
of  ancient  Egypt  against  the  time  of  drought  and  hunger. 

There  is  a  more  modern  example  of  this  object  lesson. 

I  wonder  how  many  of  you  noticed  the  story  in  the  Sunday 
newspapers  by  Ovid  Martin,  the  Associated  Press  farm  editor. 
Martin  pointed  out  that  "The  Berlin  crisis  and  the  possibility 
that  it  might  develop  into  a  shooting  war  has  put  this  nation's 
farm  surpluses  and  its  excessive  agricultural  productive  capacity 
in  a  new  light." 

He  went  on  to  point  out  that  when  World  War  II  broke  out, 
the  United  States  was  struggling  with  overproduction  and  excess 

It  didn't  take  long  to  exhaust  our  surpluses  in  that  war. 
And,  should  we  have  to  fight  over  Berlin,  or  any  of  the  other 
danger  spots  around  the  globe,  it  would  not  take  long  to  exhaust 
all  our  farm  surpluses. 

In  fact,  the  only  farm  surplus  that  we  now  have  which  is  large 
enough  to  make  our  defense  leaders  feel  easy  is  the  wheat  stock- 
pile. And  that  wouldn't  last  but  twenty-five  months.  It  wouldn't 
last  that  long  if  we  helped  to  supply  our  allies— as  we  did  in  the 
last  war  and  as  we  certainly  would  be  expected  to  do  in  any  future 

Our  surpluses  of  corn  would  last  only  six  months  under  war- 
time conditions.  Our  surpluses  of  tobacco,  cotton,  butter,  dry 
milk,  dry  beans,  rice,  peanuts,  oats,  barley,  cheese,  rye,  flaxseed, 
and  soybeans  would  hardly  last  until  the  next  year's  crops  were  in. 

You  young  members  of  the  4-H  Clubs  here  today  may  not 
remember  the  food  rationing  of  World  War  II.  But  all  of  you 
adult  leaders  do. 

I  hope  and  I  pray  that  we  will  never  have  to  use  our  farm 
surpluses  for  wartime  purposes.  As  a  former  GI,  I  can  tell  you 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

that  those  canned  K  and  C  rations  never  tasted  half  as  good  as 
fresh  vegetables  and  fresh  milk  and  fresh  fruits  and  fresh  meats 
from  the  farms  of  North  Carolina. 

But  it  is  important  for  all  Americans,  including  those  who 
moan  about  full  storage  bins,  to  bear  in  mind  the  vital  role  farm 
surpluses  play  in  winning  wars. 

The  Soviet  Union  may  be  running  neck  and  neck  in  the  missile 
race.  But  they're  not  even  within  hog-calling  distance  of  the 
United  States  in  farm  production. 

The  Communists  of  Russia  and  the  Communists  of  China  have 
tried  to  catch  up.  But  their  collective  farms  have  been  a  miserable 
failure  in  comparison  with  our  privately  owned  farms  operated 
by  free  farmers. 

Incidentally,  I  would  again  refer  you  to  your  history  books  and 
the  great  role  farmers  around  the  globe  have  played  in  the 
defense  of  freedom  against  communism.  Whenever  communism 
has  encroached  or  attempted  to  encroach  on  free  men,  the  farmers 
have  been  frontline  fighters  against  it.  The  Kulaks  in  Russia 
fought  it  and  Stalin  had  to  exterminate  them  before  he  could 
get  on  with  his  communization  and  his  collective  farms.  Many 
thousands,  and  probably  millions,  of  Chinese  farmers  have  resisted 
the  nationalization  of  their  lands,  their  homes,  their  lives. 

The  farmers  in  Poland  were  among  the  first  to  help  slow  down 
communism  of  that  once  free  land. 

Farmers  the  world  over  will  fight  communism,  when  they 
know  what  it  really  is,  as  hard  as  they  fought  serfdom. 

So  we  can  see  that  farmers  as  well  as  farm  surpluses  are  mighty 
weapons  in  the  arsenal  of  democracy. 

This  state,  as  one  of  America's  great  agricultural  states,  and 
America  as  the  greatest  agricultural  nation  in  the  world,  must  go 
on  the  offensive. 

You  young  ladies  already  know  that  the  way  to  a  man's  heart 
is  through  his  stomach. 

Both  you  young  ladies  and  you  young  men  should  also  know 
that  the  way  to  a  man's  mind  also  is  often  routed  through  his 
stomach.  You  don't  find  many  of  the  people  in  the  emerging  new 
nations  who  are  turning  to  communism  on  a  full  stomach. 

But,  by  the  same  token,  you  don't  find  many  starving  people 
worrying  about  political  theories  of  democracy  or  communism  on 
empty  bellies. 

Here  is  where  free  America  can  and  must  go  on  the  offensive. 

We  can  use  our  farm  surpluses  to  feed  a  hungry  world.  And 
we  should  do  so  not  merely  to  win  over  the  uncommitted 
nations— which  is,  of  course,  reason  enough  itself.  But  we  should 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


divide  our  farm  surpluses  with  a  hungry  world  because  it  is 
morally  the  right  thing  to  do. 

It  has  been  truthfully  said  that  our  farm  surpluses  are 
America's  blessing,  not  a  national  burden.  We  should  share 
this  blessing  with  the  underfed  around  the  world. 

Now  I've  been  discussing  with  you  the  importance  of  farmers 
and  farming  in  the  international  situation.  But  what  about  down 
home  on  the  farm  in  North  Carolina? 

You  young  farm  leaders  of  North  Carolina  know  better  than 
most  what  is  right— as  well  as  what  is  wrong— with  the  farms  of 
North  Carolina. 

You  know  that  it's  time  to  be  planting  and  growing  in  North 
Carolina,  not  for  plowing-under  our  farms. 

To  this  end,  the  agricultural  leaders  of  North  Carolina, 
including  your  own  4-H  Club  adult  leaders,  met  with  me  recently 
and  put  forward  North  Carolina's  new  agricultural  opportunities 

Objectives  of  the  program  are  to  lift  the  farm  income,  to 
develop  marketing  and  processing  facilities  and  services,  and  to 
promote  education  for  family  and  community  development. 

A  blueprint  for  accomplishing  these  objectives  was  prepared 
by  the  North  Carolina  Board  of  Farm  Organizations  and  Agri- 
cultural Agencies.  The  program  calls  for  tackling  farm  income 
and  marketing  problems  on  the  basis  of  "economic  areas"  rather 
than  on  the  basis  of  county  or  community  enterprises  alone. 

True,  the  farm  economy  of  North  Carolina,  like  the  farm 
economy  of  the  nation,  has  suffered  its  ills.  But  we  have  made 
significant  gains  in  farm  income  in  the  past  few  years  despite  the 
downward  trend  over  the  nation  at  large. 

We  are  neither  going  to  plow  under  our  family  farms  nor  our 
farmers.  We  are  not  going  to  run  them  off  the  farms  and  into 
cities  where  there  already  is  too  much  unemployment. 

Instead,  we  are  going  to  work  for  new  agricultural  opportunities 
through  every  available  resource  at  our  disposal. 

The  time  has  come  to  do  some  pruning  of  outdated  farming 
and  marketing  practices  and  ideas.  We  have  been  doing  a  fairly 
good  job  in  the  past,  but  we  are  not  reaping  anything  like  our 
potential.  We  need  to  revitalize  our  farm  programs  with  greater 
emphasis  on  agriculture  as  one  of  the  cornerstones  of  our  economy. 

North  Carolina  is  not  getting  out  of  the  farming  business.  We 
can't  afford  to.  Six  out  of  every  ten  persons  in  North  Carolina 
live  in  rural  areas.  The  total  agricultural  business  is  worth  $3.5 
billion  a  year  to  North  Carolina.  What's  more.  North  Carolina 
has  over  190,000  farms. 

I  believe  there  are  certain  areas  where  more  emphasis  needs 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

to  be  placed  and  where  the  Governor's  Office  can  work  effectively 
with  the  Commissioner  of  Agriculture,  State  College,  and  other 
farm  agencies  and  organizations. 

1.  The  Governor  and  the  Highway  Commission  can  see  that 
proper  consideration  be  given  to  rural  roads.  I  recommended  and 
the  General  Assembly  adopted  a  far-reaching  program  to  stop 
highway  fund  diversion  so  that  millions  of  dollars  can  be  freed 
to  work  on  rural  roads. 

2.  The  Governor's  Office  and  the  Department  of  Conservation 
and  Development  are  already  working  day  and  night  to  encourage 
the  establishment  of  more  farm-related  plants  in  North  Carolina. 
We  have  made  good  progress  in  this  field  already. 

Since  January,  I  have  had  the  pleasure  of  helping  to  announce 
a  new  strawberry  packing  plant  in  southeastern  North  Carolina, 
a  new  sweet  potato  drying  and  packaging  plant  in  northeastern 
North  Carolina. 

Next  month,  I  will  help  dedicate  an  important  new  feed  mill 
at  Wilson. 

You  and  I  know  that  such  plants  serve  the  double  purpose  of 
providing  new  markets  for  farm  commodities  and  new  job 
opportunities  for  farm  families. 

3.  The  state  can  and  is  promoting  to  the  fullest  the  great 
export  market  possibilities.  To  this  end  I  have  recommended  and 
the  General  Assembly  has  approved  and  sent  to  the  people  a 
program  to  expand  the  deep  water  ports  of  North  Carolina. 
Through  these  ports  we  are  developing  ways  to  ship  our  crops 
to  the  four  comers  of  the  world. 

4.  The  Governor  can  and  will  give  top  priority  to  promote 
"agricultural  opportunities"  at  banking  conventions,  county 
fairs,  industrial  meetings,  farm  conventions,  and  other  meetings 
from  Tryon  to  Chinquapin.  This  is  a  program  which  has  meaning 
for  every  family  living  in  rural  North  Carolina.  And  because 
of  that,  it  has  a  meaning  for  every  citizen  of  the  state. 

For  example,  North  Carolina  grows  only  a  quarter  of  a  million 
dollars  worth  of  aromatic  tobacco  a  year.  Yet  the  tobacco  manu- 
facturers of  North  Carolina  buy  $90  million  worth  every  year. 
North  Carolina  farmers  are  furnishing  less  than  half  the  hogs 
that  the  new  meat  processing  plant  at  Wilson  needs  and  is  ready 
to  buy.  That  plant  imports  the  rest  from  the  Midwest,  but  we 
can  grow  hogs  as  profitably  within  North  Carolina  as  any  state 
in  the  union. 

We  can  grow  economically  and  profitably  more  fruits  and 
vegetables,  more  cattle,  and  can  grow  the  feed  to  support  an 
expanded  livestock  industry. 

5.  The  Governor's  Office,  working  with  the  farm  agencies  and 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


organizations  and  with  other  economic  development  groups  and 
agencies,  can  serve  as  the  focal  point  for  all  the  programs  and 
unify  them  into  one  great  effort  to  move  North  Carolina's  agri- 
culture forward. 

We  have  the  resources  to  get  the  job  done,  but  we  need  better 
to  utilize  them. 

Finally,  the  door  to  the  Governor's  Office  is  always  open  to  the 
leaders  of  the  farm  agencies  and  the  farm  organizations  and,  in 
fact,  to  every  farmer  of  North  Carolina  who  is  working  to 
revitalize  the  agricultural  economy  of  our  state.  The  Governor's 
Office  has  enjoyed  an  excellent  working  relationship  with  the 
Commissioner  of  Agriculture  and  his  department,  with  the  North 
Carolina  State  Grange,  the  Farm  Bureau,  North  Carolina  State 
College  and  all  the  other  agencies  working  to  lift  the  level  of 
living  of  the  rural  families  of  our  state. 

So  long  as  man  must  eat,  so  long  as  man  must  clothe  himself 
against  the  weather,  so  long  as  man  enjoys  a  smoke,  there  will  be 
a  place  of  leadership  for  agriculture  in  North  Carolina. 

We  intend  to  give  farming  the  rightful  place  in  building  a 
greater  North  Carolina. 


Blue  Ridge 

July  29,  1961 

After  praising  President  Kennedy's  quest  for  peace,  Governor 
Sanford  added  that  the  honoree  of  this  occasion,  Dr.  Frank  Porter 
Graham,  was  also  a  champion  of  peace  and  freedom.  He  briefly 
reviewed  Dr.  Graham's  military  career,  his  service  to  the  cause  of 
education  in  North  Carolina,  and  his  political  career.  He 
described  Graham  as  a  radical  in  that  he  believed  and  practiced 
the  radical  belief  of  the  golden  rule;  as  a  liberal  in  that  he  worked 
for  progress;  as  a  conservative  in  that  he  believed  in  preserving 
the  customs,  traditions,  and  history  of  the  past;  and  as  a  reaction- 
ary in  that  he  believed  in  the  power  of  the  individual  as  did 
Jefferson,  Jackson,  Lincoln,  and  Wilson.  Sanford,  commenting 
on  the  fitness  of  honoring  Frank  Porter  Graham  again,  said  that 
the  tallest  monument  to  him  was  to  be  found  in  the  minds  of 
men  all  over  North  Carolina,  the  United  States,  and  the  world. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 


Mars  Hill 

August  2,  1961 

The  Governor,  in  this  address  on  education,  stressed  the  role 
of  the  teacher  in  the  formative  years  of  a  child's  growth.  He  com- 
pared the  teacher  to  an  actor  on  the  stage,  saying  many  were 
full-time  professionals  though  some,  while  paid  to  work  full  time, 
actually  put  other  interests  first  and  devoted  only  part  of  their 
time  to  teaching.  He  urged  teachers  to  analyze  their  own  attitudes 
and  make  constant  efforts  to  improve  the  quality  of  their  work. 
For  those  behind  the  scenes,  for  all  the  citizens,  the  burden  was 
heavy,  but  it  remained  the  full-time  professional  teacher  who  had 
the  direct  responsibility  of  molding  the  nation's  future.  Governor 
Sanford  said  he  had  insisted  on  salary  increases  of  22  per  cent 
because  he  felt  teachers  earned  the  increase.  As  Governor,  he  was 
going  to  require  more  than  a  22  per  cent  increase  in  teaching 
proficiency.  He  told  the  teachers  that  the  spotlight  was  on  them 
and  suggested  that  they  "raise  the  curtain  and  get  on  with  this 
high  drama  of  educating  the  boys  and  girls  of  our  state." 

Mars  Hill 
August  9,  1961 

As  he  had  done  when  he  addressed  the  classroom  teachers  a 
week  earlier,  Governor  Sanford  again  emphasized  the  role  of 
the  group  to  which  he  was  speaking  as  he  discussed  quality  educa- 
tion. "I  Am  Climbing  Jacob's  Ladder,"  the  theme  song  of  the 
conference,  was  taken  by  the  Governor  as  a  means  of  comparing 
the  job  of  the  superintendents  with  the  challenges  presented  by 
the  spiritual.  He  said  that  when  financial  support  granted  by  the 
General  Assembly  became  a  reality,  school  people  were  faced  with 
the  decision  of  how  to  get  the  job  done  and  that  there  was  no 
time  for  self-congratulation.  Again  Sanford  compared  the  educa- 
tional program  with  a  drama,  this  time  calling  the  superintend- 
ents the  directors  of  the  production.  He  called  for  them  to  value 
the  needed  sense  of  timing,  the  making  of  decisions,  and  the 
sensitiveness  to  social  change  with  the  constant  effort  toward 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


improvement.  So  as  to  bring  in  all  interested  people,  lines  of 
communication  had  to  be  kept  open,  but  the  single  most  impor- 
tant segment  of  the  superintendents'  job  was  to  help  the  teachers 
do  a  better  job.  He  urged  the  group  to  keep  up  with  events  as 
they  happened  and  evaluate  the  school  program  regularly;  he 
recommended  accreditation  of  the  schools  by  the  Southern 
Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools  as  a  ''stimulation 
for  improvement.  .  .  The  desire  to  fill  new  jobs  would  be  great, 
even  where  qualified  persons  could  not  be  found,  and  the  temp- 
tation to  lower  standards  would  have  to  be  resisted.  As  the  last 
rung  in  the  ladder,  Sanford  asked  that  the  superintendents  build 
"a  public  image  of  the  school  that  will  reflect  its  true  worth." 
In  conclusion  he  called  for  co-operation,  saying,  "As  we  all  work 
together  in  response  to  this  challenge,  I  am  proud  to  be  numbered 
among  your  company!" 



August  10,  1961 

On  numerous  occasions  during  his  administration.  Governor 
Sanford  emphasized  the  fact  that  farming  was  not  dead  in  North 
Carolina.  To  the  group  at  this  luncheon  he  said  leaders  of  agri- 
culture and  business  were  working  together.  While  North  Caro- 
lina had  some  of  the  richest  farm  land  in  the  nation,  it  also  had 
some  of  the  poorest  farms  and  the  most  underpaid  farmers.  The 
state  needed  new  industry;  it  also  neded  income  from  the  soil. 
The  Governor  reminded  the  group  that  many  problems  of  pro- 
duction had  been  solved  but  that  the  problem  of  distribution  was 
still  to  be  faced.  In  this  connection  he  mentioned  hungry  people  in 
North  Carolina  and  abroad,  recalling  the  leadership  of  Kerr  Scott 
in  the  World  Food  Bank  program,  a  program  which  had  been 
carried  further  during  the  Kennedy  administration.  Sanford  said 
that  his  administration  intended  to  place  emphasis  on  farming. 
North  Carolina's  new  Agricultural  Opportunities  Program,  with 
its  objectives  of  lifting  farm  income,  developing  marketing  and 
processing  facilities  and  services,  promoting  education  for  family 
and  community  development,  was  cited  as  proof  of  North  Caro- 
lina's stand.  With  six  out  of  every  ten  persons  in  the  state  living 
in  rural  areas,  there  were  over  190,000  farms;  the  total  agriculture 
business  was  worth  $3.5  billion  a  year.  The  Governor  promised 
that  his  administration  would  see  that  proper  consideration  was 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

given  to  rural  roads,  would  work  to  establish  farm-related  plants, 
would  promote  export  marketing  possibilities,  would  give  priority 
to  "agricultural  opportunities"  at  conventions  and  similar  gather- 
ings, and  would  see  that  the  Governor's  Office  served  as  the  focal 
point  for  all  programs.  Farming  would  be  given  a  rightful  place 
in  building  a  greater  North  Carolina. 

August  19,  1961 

[Governor  Sanford  addressed  members  of  the  Daniels  family  at  their 
reunion  at  Wanchese.  He  talked  about  the  contributions  made  by  this  par- 
ticular family  and  then  broadened  his  outlook  to  the  "good  family  of  man 
on  the  new  frontiers.  .  .  ."  The  latter  he  called  "the  one  hope  of  our  world."] 

It  is  good  for  a  Governor  of  North  Carolina  to  meet  with  one 
of  the  strong  families  which  have  been  so  long  among  the  keepers 
of  this  shore  of  brave  American  beginnings.  Probably  there 
never  was  a  time  when  we  needed  more  than  now  the  recollection 
of  men  who  dared  in  the  effort  to  establish  a  brave  new  world. 
For  after  the  centuries  that  remains  our  task  still,  and  one  as 
hedged  about  with  hazard  as  in  the  days  when  men  crossed  wide 
sea  to  an  unknown  wilderness. 

The  seas  are  narrower  now.  And  the  wilderness  we  face  all 
over  this  globe  is  one  of  man's  own  making.  Yet  the  vision  which 
prompted  the  voyage  to  this  shore  must  be  the  same  today  in 
terms  of  the  hopes  and  hungers  of  people.  I  believe  that  the 
courage  of  four  centuries  has  never  lapsed. 

Like  other  North  Carolinians,  I  have  been  aware  of  the  un- 
interrupted courage  of  men  bearing  the  Daniels  name  who 
manned  the  Coast  Guard. 

I  like  to  remember,  too,  that  when  the  very  idea  of  flight  in  the 
air  seemed  a  great  foolishness  to  many,  there  was  a  Daniels  in 
the  group  which  helped  the  Wright  brothers  break  the  ignorance 
^v  hich  kept  man  earthbound. 

Sometimes  in  this  day  of  missiles,  it  is  easy  to  wish  that  men 
had  never  left  the  ground.  Still  we  know  that  when  men  could 
cease  to  soar,  the  qualities  which  made  them  dare  the  seas  would 
be  gone,  too. 

Our  task  greater  than  mere  courage  is  to  understand  that  we 
must  face  every  wilderness,  and  to  know  that  there  is  no  shore 
anywhere  which  is  not  our  concern.  A  Daniels  gave  us  example  of 
that,  too,  and  in  days  as  threatening  almost  as  those  in  which 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


we  live  today.  Like  most  North  Carolinians,  I  am  proud  of 
Josephus  Daniels  who  in  the  years  when  World  War  II  was  in- 
evitably approaching  exemplified  the  Good  Neighbor  policy  of 
Franklin  Roosevelt  in  Latin  America.  I  like  to  think  that  it  was 
the  good  neighbor  policy,  which  has  always  been  our  pattern  in 
eastern  North  Carolina,  that  was  the  basis  of  the  quality  which 
helped  Josephus  Daniels  keep  Mexico  our  great  friend  next  door 
when  we  were  endangered  in  the  whole  world.  And  being  here 
today  helps  in  understanding  that  only  such  similar  good  neigh- 
borliness,  as  President  Kennedy  now  means  to  put  into  creative 
action,  will  keep  us  secure  in  time  of  threat  of  even  greater  war. 

I  like  to  attend  such  family  reunions  as  this  one.  They  give  us 
not  only  a  time  of  pleasure  meeting  of  families  and  friends  but 
an  opportunity,  too,  to  recall  the  good,  strong  men  who  built 
America  in  neighborliness  and  can  now  only  build  a  strong,  free 
world  in  neighborliness,  too. 

I  know  that  sometimes  such  things  as  the  foreign  aid  program 
President  Kennedy  proposes,  and  which  is  jeopardized  this  very 
week  end  by  men  failing  in  full  vision  and  understanding,  seem 
complicated,  costly,  and  distant  from  our  daily  concerns.  Actually, 
the  Kennedy  program  is  an  extension  of  the  vision  and  courage 
which  dared  to  broach  the  beaches  here  in  daring  for  a  new 
and  better  world. 

Here  on  the  oldest  American  frontier,  men  like  your  families 
and  your  fellows  should  understand  the  new  frontiers  best.  And 
in  the  reunion  of  an  honored  North  Carolina  family,  we  can 
understand  the  need  and  meaning  of  the  effort  to  build  the  family 
of  free  men  despite  savagery  at  our  doors  and  dangers  in  the 
distance  which  are  really  as  close  as  the  waves  on  our  own  shores. 

The  good  family  of  man  on  the  new  frontiers  is  the  one  hope 
of  our  world. 


Fort  Bragg 

August  25,  1961 

[A  diverse  group  of  some  300  civilians,  soldiers,  businessmen,  and  top 
military  experts  participated  in  this  two-day  seminar  meeting  in  Fort 
Bragg.  Discussions  on  the  nature  of  the  Soviet  threat  and  methods  for 
fighting  the  cold  war  were  led  by  such  proficient  men  as  Dr.  Frank  Barnett, 
Director  of  the  Institute  for  American  Strategy;  Dr.  Stefan  Possony,  George- 
town University  professor;  and  Arbor  Gray,  official  of  the  Federal  Bureau  of 
Investigation.  In  this  opening  night  address,  Governor  Sanford  expressed 
the  determined  spirit  of  this  generation,  "willing  to  work  for  peace,  but 
.  .  .  also  willing  to  fight  for  freedom."] 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

We  have,  in  recent  days,  reached  one  of  those  crises  in  history 
when  the  fate  of  the  free  world  hangs  precariously  in  the  bal- 
ance. At  this  very  hour,  the  fate  of  Berlin  rides  on  a  dictator's 
whim  and  a  democracy's  determination.  And  the  fate  of  Berlin 
is  just  as  important  to  all  of  the  free  world  in  the  summer  of 
1961  as  was  the  fate  of  the  Polish  Corridor  in  the  summer  of 

The  safety  of  the  free  world  is  endangered  in  the  jungles  of 
not-so-far-away  Laos.  And  the  outcome  of  the  Chinese  Com- 
munist aggression  in  Laos  is  as  important  to  the  free  world  in 
1961  as  was  the  outcome  of  the  Japanese  aggression  in  Man- 
churia in  1931. 

The  threat  to  the  independence  of  the  newly  free  nations  of 
Africa  is  as  grave  to  the  free  world  in  August  of  1961  as  was 
the  threat  against  Ethiopia  by  the  strutting  Mussolini  in  1937. 

[In  the  deleted  portions,  the  Governor  discussed  the  preference  Americans 
had  for  peace  rather  than  for  war,  but  he  emphasized  the  fact  that  Americans 
would  fight  if  necessary.  The  portions  omitted  were  similar  to  parts  of  the 
Governor's  address  on  the  occasion  of  the  dedication  of  the  Benson  National 
Guard  Armory.  See  pages  148-149.] 

This  seminar— composed  as  it  is  of  civilians  and  soldiers, 
representatives  of  management  and  representatives  of  labor,  big 
businessmen  and  small  businessmen— shows  the  broad  base  of 
American  strength. 

As  vitally  necessary  as  are  military  posts  like  Fort  Bragg,  I 
believe  that  the  ultimate  strength  of  America  will  be  found  in 
the  schoolyards  of  our  nation,  rather  than  on  the  parade  grounds. 
I  believe  that  what  is  going  on  in  the  classrooms  is  of  equal,  if 
not  greater,  importance  than  what  is  going  on  in  the  briefing 
rooms.  I  believe  that  the  future  of  America  will  rise  higher  from 
the  laboratories  of  the  schools  than  from  the  launching  pads  at 
Cape  Canaveral. 

America's  greatest  fortress  is  not  a  Maginot  Line,  nor  a  Sieg- 
fried Line.  America's  greatest  fortress  is  the  schoolhouse. 

This  nation's  future  will  not  be  found  at  the  end  of  the 
tunnel  to  a  fall-out  shelter,  even  though  those  shelters  are  a 
necessary  safeguard  in  a  time  of  crisis. The  nation's  future  will  be 
found  rather  at  the  end  of  an  academic  procession  at  commence- 
ment time.  Therefore,  I  believe,  it  is  as  imperative  to  strengthen 
our  educational  system  as  it  is  to  strengthen  our  defense  system. 

I  would  like  to  add  that  free  minds  at  work  in  free  schools 
are  a  far  greater  bastion  of  strength  than  the  semisecret  cells  of 
superpatriots.  It  seems  to  me  that  the  neofascistic  rantings  of  the 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries  171 

superpatriot  organization  in  vogue  at  the  moment  are  as  danger- 
ous to  our  freedoms  as  any  foreign  enemy. 

As  Mr.  Sam  Rayburn  pointed  out  in  Raleigh  a  few  months  ago, 
America  has  had  to  suffer  through  these  superpatriot  groups 
before.  Some  of  Mr.  Thomas  Jefferson's  friends  were  imprisoned 
in  the  eighteenth  century— for  trying  to  exercise  their  rights  as 
free  men.  Then  we  had  outfits  like  the  Know-Nothing  Party  in 
the  nineteenth  cenutry.  We  had  the  "American  Firsters"  around 
the  time  of  World  War  II.  As  a  veteran  of  World  War  II,  I  am 
as  suspect  of  superpatriots  of  today  as  I  was  of  the  American- 

President  Kennedy  at  his  inauguration  aptly  expressed  the 
determined  spirit  of  this  generation  of  Americans:  "Born  in  this 
century,  tempered  by  war,  disciplined  by  a  hard  and  bitter  peace, 
proud  of  our  ancient  heritage— and  unwilling  to  witness  or 
permit  the  slow  undoing  of  those  human  rights  to  which  this 
nation  has  always  been  committed." 

No  group  could  better  understand  this  determination  and  no 
group  could  be  more  ready  to  fight  to  preserve  these  national 
commitments  than  one  like  this.  There  is  no  question  about  this 
readiness  and  willingness  to  fight  and  die;  the  question  is  will  we 
also  take  the  leadership  in  defending  "our  ancient  heritage" 
without  fighting.  Will  we,  again  in  the  words  of  John  F.  Kennedy, 
"begin  anew  the  quest  for  peace,  before  the  dark  powers  of  de- 
struction unleashed  by  science  engulf  all  humanity  in  planned  or 
accidental  self-destruction?" 

It  is  a  paradox  that  fighting  is  less  difficult  for  the  democratic 
mind  to  grasp  than  is  the  "quest  for  peace."  Fighting  unleashes 
the  native  spirit,  while  the  quest  for  peace  requires  all  the  re- 
straints, and  all  the  patience,  and  all  the  understanding  with 
which  man,  unhappily,  is  not  naturally  endowed  at  birth.  That 
has  been  the  story  of  most  wars.  Patience,  understanding,  re- 
straint, not  fully  developed  in  man,  failed. 

You  know  better  than  many  that  talking  is  better  than  shooting, 
that  negotiating  is  easier  than  digging  foxholes,  and  that  debat- 
ing—however vitriolic— burns  a  man  less  than  white  phosphorous 
or  radiation. 

The  United  States  and  the  other  nations  of  the  world  have 
found  in  the  last  fifteen  years  around  the  tables  of  the  United 
Nations  that  restraint  and  patience  are  not  natural  attributes  of 
man,  but  they  know  bombast  is  better  than  bombs  and  the  insult 
of  words  is  less  disrespectful  than  the  insult  of  death. 

When  we  are  tempted  to  despair  of  the  fruitless  argument 
around  West  Ninety-second  Street,  we  might  well  remember  the 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

lethal  arguments  aroung  Bastogne,  around  Guadalcanal,  and 
around  Pusan. 

We  all  know  that  American  military  might  is  capable  of 
destroying  Soviet  cities— and  Khrushchev's  missiles  could  des- 
troy ours.  This  is  the  cold  fact  that  has  helped  keep  the  cold  war 
from  growing  too  hot.  This  is  why  we  continue  to  fight  our 
fights  around  the  conference  tables  at  the  United  Nations.  I 
firmly  believe  that  the  United  Nations,  supported  by  the  strength 
of  the  United  States  and  other  free  nations,  has  kept  us  out  of 
World  War  III. 

The  battle  of  the  free  world  is  being  fought  today  around  the 
corridors  of  the  United  Nations  and  around  the  lobbies  of  Capitol 
Hill  in  Washington,  as  well  as  around  the  Brandenburg  Gate  in 
Berlin.  The  battle  in  Washington  may  not  be  as  dramatic.  But 
in  the  long  run,  it  may  well  be  more  important  than  that  show 
of  force  in  Berlin. 

I  refer,  of  course,  to  the  battle  on  the  President's  foreign  aid 
program.  Men  of  little  vision  have  threatened  to  cripple  the 
President's  foreign  aid  program.  If  they  crippled  his  military 
preparedness  program,  they  could  hardly  do  more  damage. 

We  must  in  this  hour  of  peril  keep  our  military  guard  up. 
But  we  must  go  further.  We  must  also  keep  our  educational 
system  moving  forward.  We  must  keep  our  industrial  might  on 
the  march.  We  must  revitalize  that  great  secret  weapon  in  our 
arsenal— our  agricultural  resources. 

Finally,  I  believe,  we  must  extend  the  hand  of  help  to  the 
underdeveloped  nations.  Foreign  aid  is  costly.  But  when  you 
measure  the  cost  of  it  against  the  cost  of  war  and  against  the  cost 
of  suffering  and  against  the  cost  of  limb  and  life,  foreign  aid  is 
the  least  expensive  investment  with  the  greatest  promise  of 
return  that  America  could  make. 



August  30,  1961 

Governor  Sanford,  at  the  opening  of  a  new  school  year,  referred 
to  education  as  the  foundation  of  all  other  North  Carolina  pro- 
grams. With  supplemental  funds  appropriated  by  the  1961 
General  Assembly,  the  time  had  come  to  implement  the  quality 
education  program.  The  Governor  reminded  the  group  that 
professional  educators  could  not  do  the  job  alone,  that  much 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


reliance  would  be  placed  on  top  school  units  such  as  those  of  the 
Charlotte-Mecklenburg  area.  He  suggested  that  wasted  time  could 
not  be  afforded,  that  inefficient  teachers  and  lazy  students  and 
selfish  parents  could  not  be  tolerated.  Students  would  have  to 
desire  to  learn  if  quality  education  were  achieved.  Parents  would 
have  to  take  an  interest  in  the  work  of  their  children,  see  that 
homework  was  assigned  and  done,  and  encourage  extra  reading; 
they  would  also  need  to  seek  to  know  teachers  and  understand 
guidance  programs.  Teachers,  the  key  personnel,  would  have  to 
devote  full  time  to  teaching  and  periodic  reappraisals  of  their 
individual  attitudes  and  work.  Superintendents,  principals,  board 
members  would  have  to  know  what  needed  to  be  done;  they  were 
asked  to  inform  members  of  the  community  about  the  school 
program  and  to  help  teachers  do  a  better  job.  The  Governor 
commented  that  individual  responsibility  and  co-operative  en- 
deavor would  succeed  in  improving  the  schools. 


Bayonne^  New  Jersey 

September  6,  1961 

The  U.S.S.  "North  Carolina"  was  heading  home  to  North  Caro- 
lina, thanks  to  the  contributions  of  the  many  who  made  the 
project  possible.  Governor  Sanford  expressed  appreciation  to  those 
people  and  said  that  the  ship  would  serve  as  a  constant  reminder 
of  the  determination  of  free  men  to  fight  despotism  and  op- 
pression. The  ship,  scheduled  to  begin  its  final  voyage  near  the 
Statue  of  Liberty,  was  to  sail  past  the  origins  of  the  nation: 
Philadelphia,  Washington,  Yorktown,  Jamestown,  Roanoke  Is- 
land. The  order  of  the  day  was  peace;  Americans  were  willing  to 
work  for  peace  but  were  determined  to  fight  for  freedom. 
Governor  Sanford  called  the  ship,  headed  for  its  final  port  of 
call,  a  "memorial  to  the  men  who  dared  the  deep  for  freedom's 


Norfolk,  Virginia 

September  6,  1961 

Governor  Sanford's  address  to  the  Norfolk  area  group  of  alumni 
of  the  University  of  North  Carolina  dealt  with  the  problems  and 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

potentials  surrounding  the  rapid  growth  of  the  institution.  The 
Governor  remarked  that  North  Carolina  was  rapidly  moving  into 
the  mainstream  of  American  life,  and  part  of  the  credit  for  this 
progress  had  to  be  attributed  to  the  university.  Under  the  leader- 
ship of  President  Harry  Woodburn  Chase,  the  school  became  a 
member  of  the  Association  of  American  Universities.  To  recruit 
and  retain  good  faculty  members  had  long  been  a  goal,  but  the 
salary  scale  had  to  be  high  enough  to  hold  competent  people. 
Sanford  commented  on  criticisms  made  to  growth,  but  he  added 
that  it  was  both  undesirable  and  impossible  for  the  school  to 
stand  still.  The  advantages  of  a  large  library,  cultural  and  intel- 
lectual events,  student  self-government,  extracurricular  activities, 
and  student  publications  would  be  obvious,  but  students  needed 
also  the  advantages  of  small  classes  and  individual  attention.  To 
achieve  this  happy  combination,  the  Governor  suggested  a  system 
of  small  classes  and  laboratories  with  large  lectures  by  outstanding 
professors.  Governor  Sanford  referred  to  the  proposed  visit  of 
President  Kennedy  to  Chapel  Hill,  saying  the  President  would 
see  a  beautiful  campus,  an  institution  of  heritage  and  distinction, 
and  would  be  introduced  to  students  of  high  caliber.  Achieve- 
ments at  the  university  had  been  made  because  of  men  with  vision 
and  faith;  the  Governor  pleaded  for  continued  courage,  vision, 
and  sacrifices  on  behalf  of  the  Chapel  Hill  school. 



September  7,  1961 

In  speaking  to  the  Area  Industrial  Development  Conference 
in  Wilkesboro,  Governor  Sanford  discussed  opportunities  avail- 
able in  the  area.  He  referred  to  the  fact  that  part  of  northwestern 
North  Carolina  had  been  considered  a  distressed  area,  but  he 
spoke  of  the  potential  which  was  there.  Opportunities  and  re- 
sources made  planning  imperative.  Again  he  stressed  the  impor- 
tance of  local  citizens  taking  the  initiative,  with  the  help  of  the 
state,  to  build  a  sounder  economy  than  ever  before. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


BiLTMORE  Forest,  Asheville 
September  26,  1961 

In  introducing  Secretary  of  Agriculture  Orville  Freeman  on 
the  occasion  of  the  observance  of  the  enactment  of  the  Weeks 
Law  fifty  years  earlier,  Governor  Sanford  recalled  that  the  first 
tract  of  land  purchased  under  the  act  was  in  North  Carolina  at 
Pisgah  National  Forest.  Since  that  time  more  than  20  million 
acres  across  the  nation  had  been  acquired  under  this  legislation. 
North  Carolina's  interest  in  forestry  was  briefly  reviewed.  The 
Governor  said  that  of  the  31,267,000  acres  in  the  state,  more  than 
64  per  cent  was  occupied  by  forests.  The  value  of  the  manu- 
facture of  forestry  products  annually  exceeded  |1  billion.  North 
Carolina  furniture  factories  used  lumber,  45  per  cent  of  which 
was  produced  in  the  state.  A  wider  variety  of  trees  was  found 
in  North  Carolina  than  on  the  entire  European  continent.  In 
1960,  17.4  per  cent  of  the  state's  manufacturing  labor  force 
derived  its  livelihood  from  forestry-related  occupations.  Problems 
existed,  but  faith  in  the  land  and  in  the  people  would  be  shown 
and  forests  would  become  more  productive  in  the  years  ahead 
than  they  had  been  in  the  past. 


Chapel  Hill 

October  1,  1961 

At  the  dedication  of  a  new  headquarters  building  for  the 
Business  and  Professional  Women's  Clubs,  the  Governor  had  an 
opportunity  to  express  his  philosophy  concerning  the  vital  role 
played  by  women  in  North  Carolina.  Under  the  leadership  of 
women  such  as  those  in  this  organization,  Sanford  said  that  North 
Carolina  women  "have  moved  from  the  skillet  and  the  spinning 
wheel  to  the  drafting  board  and  the  Univac."  Though  women 
still  retained  their  rightful  place  in  the  kitchen  and  in  the  home, 
they  also  had  a  place  *'in  the  classroom,  the  salesroom,  the  business 
office,  the  laboratory,  and  the  operating  room."  The  leadership 
of  women  throughout  history  was  cited  by  references  to  Isabella 
of  Spain,  Joan  of  Arc,  and  Elizabeth  of  England;  in  North 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Carolina  history  Cornelia  Phillips  Spencer,  who  played  a  major 
role  in  the  reopening  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina  at 
Chapel  Hill  following  the  Civil  War,  was  mentioned  as  another 
example  of  leadership.  As  time  passed,  more  and  more  women 
occupied  positions  of  trust,  including  Justice  Susie  Sharp,  Repre- 
sentatives Grace  Rodenbough  and  Rachel  Davis,  and  Welfare 
Commissioner  Ellen  Winston.  Sanford  said  he  had  appointed 
more  than  100  women  to  boards,  commissions,  and  agencies.  The 
need  for  women's  idealism  along  with  their  clear  thinking  and 
their  practical  ideas  was  keenly  felt,  and  the  chief  executive 
urged  those  in  his  audience  to  lend  support  to  the  bond  issues  to 
be  voted  on  November  7.  He  told  the  women  that  they  were  "not 
clothed  in  old  lace  of  a  time  gone  by,"  and  that  he  knew  they 
would  join  "in  moving  out  to  build  a  better  North  Carolina.  .  .  ." 


Kannapolis  , 

October  3,  1961 

[With  the  passage  of  the  quality  education  program  by  the  General 
Assembly,  a  major  victory  had  been  won,  but  the  implementation  of  the 
program  was  the  responsibility  of  the  school  people  and  the  citizens  of 
North  Carolina.  Governor  Sanford  undertook  to  travel  to  all  100  counties 
to  convince  the  people  of  their  part  in  making  quality  education  a  reality. 
In  this  address  he  called  for  unified  action  from  teachers,  parents,  students, 
and  professional  administrators;  he  outlined  briefly  the  responsibility  which 
he  expected  each  group  to  assume.] 

It  is  appropriate  that  the  educational  leaders  of  this  great 
industrial  area  convene  here  today  to  map  battle  plans  in  the  war 
against  ignorance  and  to  prepare  blueprints  for  the  erection  of 
better  schools  in  a  state  where  the  weak  truly  can  grow  strong 
and  the  strong  will  grow  great. 

In  a  world  where  the  freedom,  and,  indeed,  the  very  existence 
of  man  is  threatened,  it  is  in  keeping  with  the  finest  tradition  of 
North  Carolina  and  of  America  that  our  rallying  point  should 
be  the  schoolhouse  and  not  a  military  parade  field. 

Human  liberties,  gained  over  a  period  of  thousands  of  years, 
are  at  this  moment  being  threatened  in  the  divided  streets  of 
Berlin  and  in  the  jungles  of  Laos  and  Africa.  Human  life  itself, 
evolved  over  the  span  of  tens  of  thousands  of  years,  is  imperiled. 

A  week  ago,  President  Kennedy  acutely  appraised  the  world 
crises  we  face  today:  "The  events  and  decisions  of  the  next  ten 
months,"  he  noted,  "may  well  decide  the  fate  of  man  for  the 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


next  10,000  years.  ..."  And,  the  President  continued,  "Unless 
man  can  match  his  strides  in  weaponry  and  technology  with  equal 
strides  in  social  and  political  development,  our  great  strength, 
like  that  of  the  dinosaur,  will  become  incapable  of  proper  control 
—and  man,  like  the  dinosaur,  will  decline  and  disappear." 

You  probably  noticed  that  the  period  of  time  forecast  by  the 
President  to  be  the  months  in  which  civilization,  as  we  know  it, 
will  move  forward  or  go  the  way  of  the  dinosaur  coincides  with 
this  school  year. 

President  Kennedy's  forthright  challenge  to  the  Soviets  to 
replace  the  arms  race  with  a  peace  race  makes  your  jobs  as  educa- 
tors all  the  more  vital. 

Whether  the  Soviet  and  Chinese  Communists  will  accept  that 
challenge  will  be  determined  by  Moscow  and  Peiping.  But  what- 
ever their  answer,  your  job  and  mine  this  school  year  is  the 

For,  put  in  its  bleakest  terms,  education  is  survival.  If  the 
Communists  insist  on  continuing  the  arms  race  and  should  they 
cross  that  narrow  line  between  this  cold  war  and  a  hot  war, 
education  will  constitute  one  of  the  greatest  weapons  in  our 
arsenal  of  defense. 

I  strongly  believe  that  what  is  happening  in  the  classrooms  in 
North  Carolina  today  will  ultimately  be  more  important  to  man- 
kind than  what  is  happening  in  the  briefing  rooms  at  Seymour- 
Johnson  Air  Base.  And  what  is  happening  in  the  laboratories  of 
the  schools  of  this  district  and  this  state  eventually  will  have  a 
greater  bearing  on  our  future  than  what  is  happening  on  the 
launching  pads  at  Cape  Canaveral.  The  schoolyard  is  as  vital  to 
our  defense  as  the  military  parade  fields  at  Fort  Bragg  and  Camp 

If,  in  a  moment  of  sanity  at  the  Kremlin,  the  Communists 
should  accept  the  President's  challenge  and  offer  for  a  peace 
race,  then  our  schools  will  set  the  pace  for  a  better  world. 

This  decision  of  a  peace  race  or  an  arms  race  is  not  one  that 
we  can  resolve  here  in  Kannapolis.  But  you  and  I  can  play  our 
part.  Here  in  our  own  small  part  of  the  free  world,  we  can  do  no 
less  than  seek  the  best  as  we  prepare  to  do  our  part  in  defending 
America  and  the  free  world. 

Education  is  the  foundation  rock  on  which  North  Carolina, 
America,  and  free  nations  everywhere  must  build. 

Here  in  the  South  Piedmont  and  here  in  North  Carolina,  we 
must  adequately  educate  the  scientists,  the  statesmen,  and  the 
citizenry  who  will  fully  understand  and  who  are  equipped  to 
defend  and  promote  the  ideals  of  our  dynamic  democracy  of 
the  twentieth  century. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

If  you  call  the  roll  of  individual  goals,  or  district  goals,  or 
state,  national,  or  international  goals,  you  will  return  to  one 
ringing  conclusion:  The  way  to  all  these  objectives  is  education! 

What  is  the  best  device  for  increasing  economic  skills  so  the 
students  of  today  can  make  better  livings  tomorrow?  Education! 

What  is  the  best  method  for  picking  up  the  per  capita  income 
of  this  district  and  this  state?  Education! 

What  is  the  fundamental  for  military  defense  in  an  age  of 
space  and  rocket  races?  Education! 

What  is  the  hope  for  developing  statesmen  and  leaders  and  a 
comprehending  citizenry?  Education. 

And  so  it  goes.  Indeed,  education  of  our  boys  and  girls  is  the 
most  compelling  single  ambition  and  the  most  promising  hope 
in  the  lives  of  the  people  of  this  district,  state,  and  nation. 

Because  of  the  vital  role  education  plays  in  national  defense, 
because  of  the  integral  part  education  exerts  in  economic  develop- 
ment for  both  individual  citizens  and  the  state  and  nation,  because 
all  our  goals  and  all  of  our  hopes  for  North  Carolina  rest  on  the 
rock  of  education,  this  school  year  may  well  be  the  most  important 
in  our  lifetime. 

Another  compelling  reason  why  this  school  year  is  so  important 
is  that  we  have  now  reached  in  North  Carolina  the  time  for 
action  in  implementing  the  quality  education  program  for  which 
so  many  have  struggled  so  long  against  so  many  obstacles. 

The  people  have  voiced  approval  of  bold  and  giant  strides.  The 
elected  representatives  of  the  people  in  the  General  Assembly  have 
provided  the  money  requested  by  the  State  Board  of  Education. 

Now  it  is  your  job  as  educators  to  carry  out  this  mandate  and 
to  prove  that  the  investment  in  quality  education  is  an  invest- 
ment that  will  net  our  citizens  excellent  returns. 

We  have  reached  in  North  Carolina  a  time  for  action.  We 
cannot  afford  the  luxury  of  wasted  time  or  ineffective  teachers  or 
lazy  students  or  selfish  parents.  Nor  can  we  afford  to  use  our  schools 
to  provide  a  winter  resort  for  students,  a  baby-sitting  nursery  for 
parents,  a  Roman  holiday  entertainment  spectacle  for  the  public, 
and  for  teachers  a  part-time  way  to  make  a  full-time  salary. 

I  recognize  that  achieving  quality  education  cannot  be  accom- 
plished solely  by  educators.  It  is  going  to  require  the  united 
efforts  of  us  all.  The  state  administration  will  do  its  part.  This 
rally  here  today  is  one  of  at  least  100  that  are  being  scheduled  in 
each  of  the  counties  of  North  Carolina.  Moreover,  the  Governor's 
Office  is  working  closely  with  committees  that  are  seeking  solutions 
to  the  problems  facing  you,  the  educators. 

Just  last  Friday,  I  had  the  privilege  of  discussing  three  of  the 
major  school  problems  with  three  separate  committees:  the  Stay 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


In  School  Committee,  the  Committee  on  Education  Beyond  the 
High  School,  and  the  leaders  of  the  Curriculum  Study. 

We  must  look  to  students,  parents,  other  citizens,  school  boards, 
teachers,  principals,  superintendents,  and  all  people  connected 
with  the  schools.  Where  does  each  of  them  fit  into  the  pattern  of 
a  program  to  make  our  schools  second  to  none? 

What  has  the  student  to  do  with  achieving  quality  education? 

I  say  to  students  that  quality  education  is  not  something  that 
you  get  out  of  a  box,  ready-mixed.  It  is  not  something  that  is  going 
to  be  given  to  you.  It  cannot  be  said  to  students:  "Here  it  is.  Now 
come  and  pick  it  up."  Quality  education  stems  from  the  fact  that 
you  have  earnest  students  who  want  to  learn.  Unless  there  is  a 
desire  on  the  part  of  the  student  to  learn  and  to  take  advantage 
of  the  opportunities  and  the  teaching  that  we  hope  to  continue  to 
move  up  in  quality,  then  we  are  not  going  to  have  any  quality 

Unless  students  work  at  it,  unless  they  want  to  learn,  there'll 
be  no  quality  education  for  them.  If  they  do  want  to  learn,  if  they 
are  sincerely  trying  to  prepare  for  their  opportunities  in  life,  then 
we  hope  to  improve  the  chances  of  their  being  properly  prepared. 
I  am  sure  that  any  student  now  going  back  can  make  a  great 
contribution  to  his  own  future,  realizing  that  this  is  not  something 
to  be  handed  to  him,  but  something  that  he  must  want  and  for 
which  he  must  work. 

What  have  the  parents  to  do  with  quality  education? 

First,  they  should  take  a  direct  and  daily  interest  in  the  school- 
work  of  their  children.  Unless  the  parents  are  willing  to  insist 
that  homework  be  assigned  and  that  homework  be  done,  unless 
the  parents  encourage  extra  reading  and  study  from  time  to  time, 
unless  the  parents  concern  themselves  with  the  student  and  the 
school,  we  will  not  make  much  progress. 

I  would  like  to  see  every  local  school  and  every  local  PTA  make 
a  major  effort  to  get  parents  and  teachers  to  know  each  other 
better.  Somehow,  we  tend  to  distrust  people  we  do  not  know.  It 
is  tragic  when  parents  and  teachers  distrust  each  other.  I  would 
like  to  see  the  major  portion  of  each  PTA  meeting  given  over 
to  getting  parents  and  teachers  better  acquainted  with  each  other 
and  better  acquainted  with  the  program  in  the  public  school 
designed  to  provide  quality  education  for  the  children  in  the 
schools.  This  would  mean  that  routine  business  would  be  handled 
by  giving  out  mimeographed  bulletins.  Things  like  the  minutes 
of  the  last  meeting,  committee  reports,  budget  information,  and 
announcements  could  be  handled  in  a  monthly  PTA  newsletter. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

This  getting  acquainted  and  better  understanding  would  be  an 
extension  of  the  school's  guidance  program.  Each  child  needs  two 
advocates,  one  in  the  home  and  one  in  the  school.  Certainly,  any 
intelligent  effort  at  counseling  can  be  much  more  effective  if  the 
home  and  the  school  pool  their  knowledge  about  and  concern  for 
the  welfare  of  the  child. 

There  is  another  thing  it  would  do.  It  would  make  parents 
understand  better  and  appreciate  more  the  educational  opportu- 
nities the  school  offers  and  it  will  help  teachers  understand  better 
and  be  more  sympathetic  toward  the  needs  of  individual  children. 

If  we  are  going  to  promote  united  efforts  to  improve  education, 
we  must  first  agree  on  what  the  job  of  the  school  should  be.  The 
school's  job  is  an  educational  job  and  its  primary  responsibility  is 
to  provide  for  intellectual  development.  It  shares  with  other 
agencies  like  the  home  and  the  church  responsibility  for  health 
and  citizenship  and  home  membership.  We  cannot,  however,  give 
the  school  such  a  large  part  of  these  responsibilities  that  it  cannot 
accomplish  its  major  job,  the  promotion  of  intellectual  develop- 
ment. Sometimes  we  parents  are  at  fault.  There  are  so  many  good 
things  we  want  for  our  children  and  the  school  is  such  a  convenient 
place  to  dump  these  responsibilities.  We  must  redouble  our  efforts 
to  educate  the  public  to  expect  a  quality  educational  effort  from 
the  school  but  not  to  expect  the  school  to  accomplish  everything 
for  our  children.  We  are  going  to  have  to  be  willing  to  let  the 
school  give  up  some  of  the  outside  jobs  we  now  expect  it  to  assume. 

What  can  the  teachers  do? 

The  classroom  teacher  is  the  key,  the  on-stage  actor  in  the  drama 
of  quality  education.  I  want  you  to  know  that  I  fully  recognize 
this  fact.  All  that  has  been  done  in  the  General  Assembly,  by  the 
State  Board  of  Education,  by  school  officials  and  local  boards,  and 
by  the  Governor's  Office  has  merely  served  to  set  the  stage.  The 
play  is  yet  to  be  given.  And  on  the  teachers'  performance  in  the 
classrooms  of  North  Carolina  will  depend  the  success  of  our 

Success  is  the  product  of  a  united  effort  by  many  people.  With- 
out this  united  effort,  all  else  may  fail.  But  the  success  of  the 
teacher  depends  heavily  on  his  own  ability  and  effort.  It  is  toward 
following  this  united  effort  with  personal  effort  that  I  want  to 
urge  all  teachers  with  all  the  earnestness  at  my  command. 

The  new  day  is  dawning  in  North  Carolina.  The  stage  is  set. 
The  props  that  we  asked  for  have  been  provided.  The  audience  is 
waiting,  expectantly,  for  this  new  day  in  education,  this  program 
of  quality  education  for  which  they  have  bought  their  tickets. 
They  have  been  sold  on  the  advertising.  Now  they  want  to  see  the 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


There  are  many  teachers  who  have  parts  in  this  play,  nearly 
40,000  of  them.  Most  are  full-time  professional  people  who  give 
to  teaching  their  full  measure  of  devotion.  They  even  give  of  their 
own  time  in  the  summer  and  at  other  times  to  becoming  better 
prepared,  professionally. 

There  are  others  who  are  part-time  teachers  with  two  jobs  or 
divided  loyalties.  While  paid  for  full-time  teaching,  they  do  not 
give  their  full  measure  of  devotion  to  teaching. 

I  am  convinced  that  quality  education  will  not  be  achieved  by 
depending  on  part-time  teachers. 

The  success  of  our  venture  will  depend  on  devoted,  full-time 
teachers,  and  enough  of  them  to  play  all  the  key  roles.  It  will 
depend  on  an  effective  curriculum,  on  good  books  and  enough  of 
them,  on  strong  leadership  and  direction,  on  all  the  props  that 
help  the  teacher  do  a  good  job  in  the  classroom. 

But  I  emphasize  again  that  there  will  be  no  quality  education 
across  North  Carolina  unless  individual  teachers  clearly  under- 
stand that  they  must  deliver  quality  education  in  the  classrooms. 

I  recommend,  first,  that  every  individual  teacher  at  the  begin- 
ning of  school  engage  in  careful  self-examination.  I  would  suggest 
these  eight  questions: 

How  can  I  do  a  better  job? 

What  are  my  shortcomings  and  how  can  I  overcome  them? 
How  can  I  reach  every  child  and  bring  out  the  best  within  him? 
Have  I  been  lazy  at  times,  or  indifferent,  or  unconcerned? 
And  don't  just  ask  these  questions.  Answer  them! 
Am  I  taking  every  opportunity  to  improve  my  professional 

Do  I  realize  that  this  child's  future  is  in  my  hands,  and  my 
failure  now  will  mar  him  in  some  degree  for  life? 

Have  I  set  high  standards  for  myself  which  I  am  willing  to 

Am  I  living  up  to  the  severe  challenge  of  my  noble  calling? 

I  recommend  to  teachers  that  they  write  these  questions  down, 
add  others  of  their  own,  and  paste  them  on  their  mirrors  for  review 
each  morning.  There  is  no  end  to  improvement. 

No  professional  person  advances  or  succeeds  without  daily  self- 
examination  and  constant  effort  at  improvement.  I  know  this  is 
true  of  the  legal  profession,  and  I  am  sure  it  is  true  of  the  teaching 

What  can  principals,  superintendents,  and  boards  of  education 

Principals,  superintendents,  members  of  boards  of  education, 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

and  school  committees  must  move  together  if  we  are  going  to  have 
quality  education. 

In  terms  of  leadership,  superintendents  are  the  key  people,  and 
principals  are  their  field  lieutenants.  These  are  the  executive 
officers  of  the  most  important  business  in  North  Carolina. 

To  give  effective  leadership,  superintendents  and  principals 
must  either  know  themselves  what  needs  to  be  done  or  they  must 
be  able  to  use  the  knowledge  of  experts  in  an  effective  way.  They 
must  lead  out  with  ideas  and  provide  guidance  in  giving  con- 
structive direction  to  change— or  at  least  not  stand  in  the  way  of 
improvement.  There  is  no  set  pattern.  It  lakes  daily  decisions, 
constant  intelligence,  positive  determination  to  find  ways  every 
day  to  make  their  schools  better.  They  must  involve  in  school 
improvement  all  of  the  people  concerned.  This  means  students 
and  parents  as  well  as  teachers.  It  means  citizens  who  have  no 
children  in  school,  as  well  as  school  board  and  school  committee 
members.  This  means  leadership,  and  it  will  not  be  achieved 
by  the  dictator  who  doesn't  want  any  opinion  expressed  but  his 
own.  It  will  not  be  reached  by  the  principal  or  superintendent 
who  is  afraid  to  let  the  lay  public  in  the  school  for  fear  they  will 
find  out  what  is  going  on. 

It  will  require  that  lines  of  communication  be  kept  open.  The 
school  board,  the  PTA,  and  the  public  in  general  must  be  kept 
informed  and  must  have  an  open  channel  to  make  suggestions. 

The  school  executive  must  be  able  to  inform  members  of  the 
community  in  such  a  way  as  to  raise  high  the  level  of  the  kind 
of  education  they  expect.  He  must  not  be  afraid  to  tell  the  truth 
about  the  schools,  even  the  unpleasant  truth.  Citizens  cannot  be 
left  behind  while  the  professional  school  man  runs  the  schools. 
He  must  be  able  and  willing  to  present  a  point  clearly  and 
forcibly  through  contacts  with  his  board  and  with  leaders  in  the 

It  must  be  remembered  that  superintendents,  principals,  and 
their  staffs  exist  solely  to  make  more  effective  the  instructional 
program.  They  must  remember  that  their  job  is  to  help  the 
teacher  do  a  better  job,  and  not  to  think  up  more  ways  to  dis- 
sipate the  teacher's  time  and  energy  attending  more  meetings 
and  making  out  more  reports.  I  sincerely  hope  that  the  new 
assistant  superintendents  and  supervisors  across  the  state  assigned 
to  instruction  and  curriculum  will  provide  for  teachers  the  help 
they  do  not  have  time  to  provide  for  themselves  rather  than  to 
demand  more  of  the  teachers'  time  and  energy  and  thus  take  time 
away  from  the  students. 

School  boards  and  committees  have  the  job  of  knowing  what 
is  going  on  and  working  for  improvement.  They  make  and 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


support  sound  policy.  They  make  and  support  the  essential 
decisions  which  will  lead  to  improvement. 

Still  another  important  characteristic  is  the  election  to  school 
boards  and  school  committee  membership  of  well-qualified  people 
who  are  dedicated  and  informed  in  the  services  that  they  render. 
I  cannot  overemphasize  the  importance  of  this.  Real  unity  in  any 
school  community  cannot  be  achieved  without  united,  dedicated 
board  and  committee  members  who  put  child  welfare  first,  last, 
and  always! 

I  am  encouraged  to  know  that  the  State  Department  of  Public 
Instruction  is  actively  engaged  in  strengthening  the  state  ac- 
creditation policies  and  procedures.  As  soon  as  possible,  every 
school  should  be  re-evaluated.  Much  of  the  value  of  accredita- 
tion will  lie  in  the  stimulation  for  improvement  that  will  come 
to  the  local  school.  This  is  the  basic  purpose  and  the  most  im- 
portant outcome  of  evaluation. 

North  Carolina  is  seeking  a  new  curriculum,  a  curriculum 
with  power— "power  in  itself  to  challenge  the  latent  germ  of 
genius,  great  or  small,  classical  or  modern,  academic  or  techni- 
cal, that  every  educable  human  being  has  within  him  in  some 
degree."  It  is  only  in  the  light  of  this  curriculum  study  that  we 
are  investing  another  |100  million  toward  the  achievement  of 
this  goal.  We  await  results  with  hope  and  with  confidence,  aware 
that  this  is  a  never-ending  task. 

The  duty  of  improving  the  schools  and  thereby  the  future  of 
North  Carolina  is  laid  upon  the  shoulders  of  every  citizen  of 
the  state. 

The  state  administration  is  doing  all  it  can;  the  school  leaders 
and  the  teachers  will  exceed  all  that  is  expected  of  them.  I  call 
on  students  and  parents  to  take  seriously  their  part.  In  fact,  we 
need  the  help  of  everybody  if  we  are  to  make  our  schools  and 
our  opportunities  second  to  none. 

As  James  Bryant  Conant  put  it:  "The  road  to  better  schools 
will  be  paved  by  the  collective  action  of  the  local  citizenry.  The 
responsibility  for  the  sorely  needed  upgrading  of  our  schools 
cannot  be  passed  to  the  state  legislatures  or  to  Congress.  The 
responsibility  rests  on  every  citizen  in  the  land." 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 



October  5,  1961 

[This  convention  was  the  first  state-wide  meeting  of  its  kind  to  be  staged 
by  Democratic  women  of  North  Carolina.  Governor  Sanford,  who  in  his 
first  year  of  office  had  filled  some  100  state  positions  of  responsibility  with 
women,  was  well  qualified  to  speak  on  women's  role  in  government.  He 
called  for  support  from  the  women  in  the  November  7  bond  election.] 

It  is  a  happy  privilege  to  participate  with  you  in  this  conven- 
tion of  Democratic  women  of  North  Carolina. 

I  see  here  tonight  the  leaders  who  left  your  flower  gardens  to 
do  the  spade  work  for  the  victory  the  Democratic  party  achieved 
in  North  Carolina  last  November  8.  You  are  the  ones  who  left 
your  cookstoves  to  stoke  the  fires  that  produced  the  steam  that 
made  possible  the  majorities  for  president  and  governor  and  the 
other  offices.  You  took  the  needle  from  your  sewing  basket  and 
stuck  it  into  the  over-inflated  balloon  of  our  opposition. 

In  short,  you  blazed  the  trail  in  a  new  day  to  the  New  Fron- 

Your  work  of  1960  surpassed  that  of  any  women's  group  in 
any  campaign  since  the  days  of  the  suffragettes. 

Since  that  day  when  women  reached  out  and  grasped  the 
ballot,  North  Carolina  and  American  politics  have  improved. 
The  domination  of  special  interest  groups  and  the  control  of 
machine  bosses  have  diminished  in  direct  proportion  to  the  ac- 
tivity of  women  Democrats. 

In  forty  short  years,  you  have  moved  from  the  disenfranchised 
who  was  supposed  to  stay  in  her  place  in  the  kitchen  to  positions 
of  trust  and  leadership  in  practically  every  department  and  agen- 
cy of  local,  state,  national,  and  international  government.  All  the 
citizens— men,  women,  boys  and  girls— have  been  the  beneficiaries. 

In  an  age  that  tends  to  be  cynical,  women  Democrats  have 
brought  idealism  to  government.  You  also  have  brought  integ- 
rity and  ability.  When  some  of  the  male  leaders  have  been 
tempted  to  close  their  minds  on  various  projects,  you  have  been 
there  to  ask  your  sharp  question  of  "Why  not?"  When  some  of 
the  local,  state,  and  national  agencies  threatened  to  get  into  ruts, 
you  have  manned  the  bulldozers  of  political  action  and  filled  in 
those  ruts. 

It  has  been  my  happy  privilege  to  fill  some  100  of  the  most 
important  positions  of  trust  in  state  government  with  women.  I 
will  appoint  many  more  before  this  administration  is  over. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


I  am  here  to  admit,  to  acknowledge,  and  to  testify  to  the  fact 
that  this  administration  could  not  have  been  inaugurated  without 
your  great  help,  and  it  could  not  have  achieved  the  goals  of 
quality  education  that  we  have  thus  far  achieved  for  the  children 
of  North  Carolina  without  you,  and  it  will  of  necessity  rely 
heavily  on  you  for  the  next  three  years  and  three  months. 

[At  this  point  in  the  address,  Governor  Sanford  cited  thirty  or  forty 
women  appointed  to  various  boards,  commissions,  and  committees  during 
his  administration.  See  the  list  of  appointments  in  the  Appendix  to  this 

It  is  easy  to  see  from  this  list,  and  I  could  go  on  reading  it  until 
midnight,  that  women  are  occupying  more  positions  of  trust  in 
North  Carolina's  governmental  life  than  ever  before. 

Susie  Sharp  of  Reidsville^^  is  one  of  North  Carolina's  outstand- 
ing jurists.  Grace  Rodenbough  of  Stokes  County®^  and  Rachel 
Davis  of  Lenoir  County^-^  are  leading  legislators.  Dr.  Ellen 
Winston'^^  is  one  of  the  most  capable  administrators  in  state 

That  precedent  goes  back  through  the  history  of  our  state, 
nation,  and  world.  In  North  Carolina,  striking  examples  of  the 
leadership  of  women  through  the  ages  are  pointed  up  in  our 
history  books  by  the  ringing  of  the  bell  at  Chapel  Hill  by  Cor- 
nelia Phillips  Spencer  to  reopen  our  university  after  the  Civil 
War  had  closed  it.  And  you  know  of  the  way  Dorothea  Dix  came 
into  North  Carolina  and  turned  the  bright  spotlight  of  public 
attention  on  the  "snakepits"  in  which  persons  suffering  mental 
illnesses  had  been  cast. 

But  what  we  are  concerned  with  primarily  tonight  is  not  the 
past  but  the  future. 

The  future  of  this  state  is  bound  up  with  organizations  like 
the  Democratic  Women  of  North  Carolina.  I  don't  have  to  tell 
this  organization  the  progress  that  North  Carolina  has  achieved 

»3  Susie  Marshall  Sharp  (1907-  )  ,  lawyer,  1929-1949,  from  Reidsville;  Judge 
of  Superior  Court,  1949-1962;  first  woman  to  be  appointed  Associate  Justice  of 
State  Supreme  Court,  March,  1962;  re-elected  in  own  right  on  November  6,  1962. 
North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  517. 

^  Grace  Taylor  Rodenbough  (1896-  ),  educator,  homemaker,  civic  and  cul- 
tural leader  from  Walnut  Cove;  member  of  legislature  since  1953.  Powell,  North 
Carolina  Lives,  1058-1059. 

^  Rachel  Darden  Davis  III  (1905-  ) ,  physician  and  farmer  from  Lenoir 
County;  member  of  state  legislature,  1959-1963.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1963,  566. 

^  Ellen  Black  Winston  (1903-  )  ,  author,  professor,  and  public  servant  from 
Raleigh;  Commissioner  of  State  Board  of  Public  Welfare,  1944-1961;  appointed 
1961  as  United  States  Welfare  Commissioner.  North  Carolina  Manual,  1961,  434- 
436;  News  and  Observer,  December  20,  1962. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

under  the  Democratic  party— the  progress  in  education,  in  good 
roads,  in  mental  hospitals,  in  the  arts  and  cultural  activities,  and 
in  all  the  many  other  activities  of  state  government. 

And  I  don't  have  to  reiterate  the  part  women  of  North  Caro- 
lina have  played  in  the  Democratic  party. 

I  trust  that  as  citizens  first,  women  second,  and  Democrats 
third,  you  will  assume  as  one  of  your  major  projects  in  these 
next  thirty-three  days  the  adoption  of  the  bond  issues. 

Every  one  of  the  issues  has  been  carefully  scrutinized,  first  by 
college  administrators  and  trustees  and  the  agency  heads,  then 
by  the  Advisory  Budget  Commission  of  1960,  then  by  the  appro- 
priations subcommittees  and  full  committees  in  both  the  State 
House  of  Representatives  and  the  State  Senate. 

Now  these  ten  bond  issues  are  up  to  the  voters.  Every  cent 
of  the  161,665,000  proposed  in  these  issues  is  needed:  it  is  need- 
ed so  your  children  and  mine  will  have  classroom  space  when 
they  go  to  college;  it  is  needed  for  the  treatment  and  rehabili- 
tation of  the  mentally  ill;  it  is  needed  to  develop  our  ports  so 
they  can  boost  the  economy  of  North  Carolina;  it  is  needed  for 
the  training  schools  so  that  we  can  help  delinquent  children 
become  self-respecting  and  self-supporting  adults;  it  is  needed 
for  agricultural  research  stations  so  that  we  may  reinvigorate  our 
farm  economy;  it  is  needed  for  protecting  and  preserving  our 
historical  assets;  it  is  needed  to  conserve  and  develop  our  rich 
forest  potential  and  our  park  system;  it  is  needed  for  working 
space  for  state  employees  at  the  state  capital. 

In  short,  these  ten  bond  issues  are  needed  for  the  future  of 
North  Carolina. 

North  Carolina  has  never  trembled  at  the  future.  North  Caro- 
lina has  never  fainted  at  a  challenge.  North  Carolina  has  never 
shirked  her  duty  to  her  posterity. 

I  don't  believe  North  Carolina's  women,  and  men,  intend  to 
tremble  or  faint  or  shirk  now. 

I  believe  you  and  all  the  citizens  of  the  state  will  vote  "yes" 
on  November  7. 

I  am  counting  on  your  help. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 




October  6,  1961 

The  Governor  began  by  commenting  that  approximately  44 
per  cent  of  all  manufacturing  employees  in  North  Carolina  were 
in  the  textile  industry,  a  fact  which  proved  that  the  hopes  and 
dreams  of  a  large  segment  of  the  population  lay  with  the  busi- 
ness. Sanford  said  that  state  government  had  assured  its  support 
to  textile  leaders  when  he  urged  adoption  of  a  resolution  at  the 
Southern  Governors'  Conference  calling  for  federal  action  to 
strengthen  the  position  of  the  American  textile  industry.  The 
resolution  called  for  help  in  preventing  textile  imports  from 
weakening  the  industry's  economic  strength.  The  pessimism  of 
those  who  prophesied  doom  for  the  industry  was  largely  unjus- 
tifiable, for  new  population  would  create  new  demand,  but 
research  was  also  a  key  factor.  The  Research  Triangle  was  cited 
as  a  symbol  of  the  state's  dedication  to  research;  the  textile 
enterprise  would  have  to  follow  suit.  The  Governor  urged  an 
interest  in  insuring  the  development  of  quality  cotton  within 
North  Carolina,  saying  this  was  a  joint  responsibility  of  the 
textile  industry  and  such  groups  as  the  North  Carolina  Cotton 
Growers  Cooperative  Association  and  the  Farmers  Cooperative 
Exchange.  Governor  Sanford  encouraged  the  group  to  face  the 
challenges  and  take  advantage  of  the  opportunities  in  North 



October  11,  1961 

The  future  of  North  Carolina  and  the  part  the  medical  pro- 
fession would  play  in  that  future  demanded  great  responsibility 
of  each  member  of  the  medical  society.  Calling  on  the  member- 
ship to  assume  positions  of  leadership  in  civic  affairs,  the  Gov- 
ernor particularly  urged  support  of  the  bond  election  to  be  held 
on  November  7,  1961.  He  explained  ways  in  which  the  money 
would  be  spent.  Under  essential  capital  improvements,  a  variety 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

of  programs  across  the  state  would  progress,  including  expansion 
of  the  North  Carolina  Health  Center  in  Chapel  Hill.  The  needs 
of  mental  health  programs  would  also  be  covered,  and  mental 
institutions  would  reap  benefits  by  a  favorable  vote  on  the  bonds. 
Funds  would  be  made  available  for  participation,  by  the  Medi- 
cal Care  Commission,  in  local  hospital  construction.  Other  is- 
sues, while  of  less  direct  concern  to  the  medical  profession,  would 
benefit  North  Carolina;  these,  too,  deserved  and  needed  the 
support  of  each  member  of  the  medical  society. 



October  14,  1961 

Governor  Sanford  turned  his  attention  westward  to  Swannanoa 
and  to  the  newest  facility  for  combating  juvenile  delinquency. 
Speaking  of  the  new  center,  he  said  the  state  would  "be  richly 
rewarded  for  .  .  .  [its]  investment  each  time  a  child  finds  love 
and  understanding  and  real  purpose  in  a  life  once  clouded  w^ith 
confusion,  antagonism,  fear,  and,  in  many  instances,  hopeless- 
ness." He  spoke  of  the  rapid  progress  made  in  the  field  of  youth 
rehabilitation.  That  responsibility  had  been  accepted  and  sup- 
ported by  the  majority  of  citizens  was  evidenced  by  the  seven 
correction  and  training  facilities  maintained  by  the  state.  The 
Governor  called  attention  to  a  national  study  which  showed  the 
programs  of  North  Carolina  and  Florida  to  be  the  best  in  the 
Southeast  and  among  the  best  in  the  nation.  He  thanked  the 
dedicated  persons  who  actually  administered  the  programs,  add- 
ing that  the  increase  in  juvenile  delinquency  and  violence  of 
juvenile  crimes  meant  a  greater  challenge  of  working  with  these 
young  people.  The  Governor  said  that  the  dedication  of  this 
facility  was  onlv  the  beginning;  he  expressed  hope  that  this  cere- 
mony would  be  used  as  a  "source  of  inspiration  for  the  battles 
yet  to  be  fought." 

Lexington,  Kentucky 
October  14,  1961 

In  an  address  in  Kentucky,  Sanford  spoke  of  the  strong  ties 
between  Kentucky  and  North  Carolina.  He  referred  to  the  1949 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


Jefferson-Jackson  Day  Dinner  in  Raleigh,  while  he  was  serving 
as  president  of  the  Young  Democratic  Clubs  of  North  Carolina, 
at  which  Kentucky's  Alben  W.  Barkley  spoke.  Barkley  attracted 
an  overflow  crowd  to  hear  him  trace  the  history  of  the  Demo- 
cratic party,  a  history  which  Sanford  told  the  group  was  as  vital 
as  ever,  with  the  addition  of  a  chapter  on  the  New  Frontier.  The 
principles  of  the  Democratic  party  were  unchanged.  Sanford 
described  the  party  as  one  willing  to  "use  a  round  wheel  when 
it  is  proved  that  a  round  wheel  will  carry  the  needs  of  the  people 
better  than  a  square  wheel,"  one  that  believed  in  free  enter- 
prise, that  believed  in  the  responsibility  of  a  prosperous  nation 
to  help  the  indigent,  that  believed  in  reinvigorating  the  farms 
and  in  educating  the  people.  The  Governor  observed  that  the 
Democratic  party  was  the  one  that  "votes  yes  to  the  future." 
To  further  his  support  of  the  party  and  its  principles,  he  cited 
goals  and  achievements  made  in  Kentucky  and  in  North  Caro- 
lina under  Democratic  administrations,  mentioning  specifically 
education,  highways,  and  agriculture.  He  praised  Governor  Bert 
T.  Combs  for  his  leadership  in  Kentucky.  Calling  the  Demo- 
cratic party's  program  in  North  Carolina  and  Kentucky  and  in 
all  America  "adventurous  and  .  .  .  more  governed  by  hopes  than 
fears,"  Sanford  remembered  that  the  party  had  led  the  country 
through  nearly  every  difficult  period  in  its  history,  and  that 
history  had  made  "clear  the  wisdom  of  most  of  the  startling  re- 
forms proposed  by  the  Democrats  over  the  years."  He  said  that 
"history  almost  forces  one  to  be  a  Democrat.  .  .  ."  Sanford  ended 
his  address  by  remarking  that  the  Democratic  party  was  willing 
to  help  people  and  willing  "to  take  the  courageous  steps  that 
today's  changing  world  requires." 



October  16,  1961 

This  gubernatorial  speech  was  a  ringing  invitation  to  North 
Carolinians  and  to  out-of-state  visitors  to  attend  the  State  Fair. 
The  Governor  commented  that  anyone  who  went  to  the  fair 
would  see  North  Carolina  on  display,  that  agriculture  would  be 
emphasized  because  North  Carolina  was  an  agricultural  state 
with  a  future  closely  associated  with  farming.  The  fair  provided 
abundant  evidence  to  support  faith  in  the  future  of  North 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Carolina  agriculture.  He  added  that  agriculture  and  industry 
complemented  each  other  and  that  evidence  of  this  was  shown 
by  the  Trade  Fair  in  Charlotte.  The  State  Fair  stood  as  a  symbol 
of  what  North  Carolina  had  become  and  what  it  could  do.  Gov- 
ernor Sanford  closed  with  a  commendation  to  Commissioner 
L.  Y.  Ballentine  of  the  State  Department  of  Agriculture,  the  fair 
staff,  and  the  exhibitors. 


Chapel  Hill 

November  1,  1961 

North  Carolina,  in  seeking  to  provide  more  jobs  at  higher 
wages,  had  made  great  strides  in  economic  development,  but  since 
Governor  Sanford  chose  to  talk  about  "hard  facts  and  hard  work," 
he  emphasized  the  goals  yet  to  be  won  rather  than  past  accom- 
plishments. He  discussed  the  problem  of  the  migration  of  Tar 
Heel  workers  to  other  regions  for  greater  opportunities,  for  ex- 
ample, saying  that  statistics  showed  that  the  state  would  have  to 
work  hard  to  overcome  obstacles.  He  suggested  that  the  citizenry 
was  intelligent  and  productive,  and  that  conferences  such  as  the 
one  held  in  Chapel  Hill  could  help  work  out  solutions  to  prob- 
lems in  the  economy.  Because  of  the  economic  differences  in 
various  sections  of  the  state,  programs  for  area  development  were 
needed.  The  Governor  said  that  local  governments  could  do  a 
great  deal  independently,  but  that  some  projects  required  co- 
operation between  localities.  He  concluded  with  a  commendation 
for  this  conference,  which  he  called  "a  forum  for  North  Carolina's 



November  2,  1961 

Governor  Sanford  again  called  for  self-evaluation  by  communi- 
ties seeking  new  industry.  He  reminded  the  group  that  a  com- 
munity as  a  potential  industrial  site  would  have  planned  for  its 
future  needs,  shaped  a  budget  to  finance  those  needs,  and  ex- 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


hibited  a  progressive  attitude.  Industries  expected  to  pay  their 
share,  but  they  wanted  high-quality  services  in  return.  The  Gov- 
ernor discussed  various  factors  which  had  to  be  considered  by 
communities.  After  he  talked  about  labor,  and  the  asset  of  in- 
dustrial education  centers;  natural  assets,  such  as  water  and  agra- 
rian resources;  and  a  good  highway  system,  Governor  Sanford 
stressed  the  need  for  long-term  planning.  He  cited  the  Western 
North  Carolina  Regional  Planning  Commission  as  a  good  ex- 
ample of  a  group  serving  seventeen  counties  and  their  municipali- 
ties. To  bring  to  fruition  the  benefits  of  the  multifaceted  economy 
of  North  Carolina  would  require  hard  work,  co-operation,  money, 
time,  and  adequate  community  services.  Sanford  summed  up  his 
idea  by  saying  that  "more  goes  into  economic  development  than 
industrial  development  and  .  .  .  more  goes  into  industrial  develop- 
ment than  merely  seeking  an  industry."  He  expressed  confidence 
in  this  group  and  in  the  citizens  of  the  state  in  their  ability  to 
do  the  job. 


^  New  York,  New  York 

November  6,  1961 

First  Citizens,  Wachovia,  North  Carolina  National,  First  Union 
National,  and  Branch  banks  sponsored  a  meeting  in  New  York 
at  which  Governor  Sanford  spoke.  He  discussed  the  significance  of 
banks  in  the  continuing  progress  of  North  Carolina,  commenting 
on  their  role  in  such  programs  as  traffic  safety,  industrial  develop- 
ment, and  improved  schools.  Citizens  were  soon  to  vote  on  a  $61.5 
million  bond  issue,  and  North  Carolina  was  aware  of  its  AAA 
bonds,  expecting  a  ready  market  for  them,  but  the  Governor 
asked  the  bankers  to  consider  the  state  on  its  own  merits  rather 
than  merely  on  its  financial  standing.  He  reminded  the  audience 
of  North  Carolina's  good  race  relations,  of  its  improved  public 
school  system,  of  its  cultural  programs  and  institutions,  of  its 
road  system,  of  its  agricultural  achievements,  and  of  its  desire  for 
new  industries  and  promotion  of  established  businesses.  Sanford 
asked  the  bankers  to  judge  North  Carolina  "on  the  basis  of  its 
sound  sense  of  responsibility,  on  its  dynamic,  aggressive  spirit  and 
growth,  and  on  its  integrity  and  character."  He  expressed  the 
opinion  that  the  bankers  would  find  a  state  "which  has  in  fact 
made  its  way  to  the  mainstream  of  America." 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 


Elizabeth  City 

November  7,  1961 

Governor  Sanford,  at  the  dedication  of  the  College  of  the  Albe- 
marle, called  education  "vital  ...  to  the  national  defense  as  well 
as  to  the  promotion  of  a  better  life  for  our  people."  He  urged 
North  Carolina  to  provide  educational  opportunities  appropriate 
for  each  individual  throughout  his  life.  Reminding  the  audience 
that  the  southern  region  had  to  catch  up,  Sanford  said  that  North 
Carolina  had  embarked  on  an  exciting  crusade  to  improve  edu- 
cational opportunities.  He  prophesied  that  the  College  of  the 
Albemarle  would  become  increasingly  important  and  that  the 
new  college  would  carry  people  on  the  eastern  seaboard  "to  a 
future  bright  with  promise." 


Chapel  Hill 

November  8,  1961 

Addressing  the  Delegate  Assembly  of  the  North  Carolina  School 
Boards  Association,  Governor  Sanford  stressed  the  responsibility 
of  the  group  which  had  broad  legal  powers  and  which  represented 
"a  powerful  moral  force."  The  fact  that  the  people  had  the  ulti- 
mate responsibility  for  government  in  the  United  States,  includ- 
ing the  responsibility  for  education,  resulted  in  the  American 
system  of  lay  boards  of  education.  The  boards  worked  as  a  part- 
nership with  the  State  Board  of  Education  and  also  with  local 
citizens  to  carry  out  the  job  of  educating  children.  Not  being 
fiscally  independent  in  this  state,  the  boards  had  to  co-operate 
with  the  boards  of  county  commissioners  who  had  the  taxing 
authority.  It  was  the  duty  of  the  school  boards  to  present  the 
needs  of  the  schools  to  the  commissioners  and  to  the  legislators  to 
assure  adequate  support  for  the  public  schools.  Keeping  those 
groups  and  the  citizens  as  a  whole  informed  was  one  of  the  chief 
functions  of  the  school  board  members.  The  Governor  stressed 
the  importance  of  teamwork,  which  involved  teachers,  students, 
parents,  and  members  of  the  boards.  The  members  were  respon- 
sible for  setting  the  tone  for  the  educational  program  and  for 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


establishing  local  policies.  Each  school  board  was  called  on  to 
"survey  all  school  needs  and  chart  a  long-range  plan  for  school 
improvement."  Governor  Sanford  called  education  the  chief  con- 
cern of  the  people  of  North  Carolina;  he  told  the  board  members 
that  they  were  leaders  and  he  expressed  his  trust  in  their  ability 
and  willingness  to  meet  their  responsibilities. 


Chapel  Hill 

November  8,  1961 

Governor  Sanford  commended  those  who  had  a  role  in  develop- 
ing the  growth  of  the  School  of  Nursing,  a  school  which  had 
brought  credit  to  the  University  of  North  Carolina  and  to  the 
state.  He  pointed  out  the  need  for  sound  preparation  in  social, 
psychological,  and  public  health  fields  as  well  as  the  need  of 
nurses  for  qualities  of  leadership,  citizenship,  and  social  develop- 
ment along  with  professional  training.  The  increase  in  population 
would  mean  an  expansion  of  health  services.  The  fact  that  the 
South's  ratio  of  nurses  to  the  population  was  the  lowest  in  the 
country  was  a  matter  of  grave  concern.  Sanford  reminded  the 
group  of  the  facilities  for  training  available  in  North  Carolina. 
He  then  discussed  the  School  of  Nursing  in  particular  and  de- 
scribed attainments  of  this  school.  He  congratulated  the  school 
on  the  fine  record  of  its  first  ten  years  and  suggested  that  this 
record  "serve  as  an  inspiration  .  .  .  [for]  the  tasks  of  the  years 



November  16,  1961 

Sanford  reminded  persons  attending  the  Resource-Use  Edu- 
cation Conference  that  as  resources  were  being  depleted  rapidly 
and  demands  on  those  resources  increasing,  man's  relationship 
to  his  natural  environment  was  jeopardized.  Indecision,  irrespon- 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

sibility,  and  a  lack  of  vision  meant  that  people  were  denying 
themselves  a  wonderful  bounty  and  imposing  on  future  genera- 
tions the  prospect  of  a  struggle  for  survival.  A  new,  positive  ap- 
proach to  the  matter  of  resource-use  would  have  to  be  developed. 
He  urged  people  to  educate  themselves  in  the  complex  field  of 
resource-use  and  conservation,  defined  as  "an  effort  to  maintain 
and  replenish  the  supply  of  resources  we  now  need  and  use." 
People  being  the  most  important  resource,  the  Governor  urged 
that  no  effort  be  spared  to  develop  the  physical,  mental,  and  moral 
capabilities  of  rising  generations.  He  called  this  a  great  challenge, 
saying  that  success  in  meeting  the  challenge  would  mean  that 
future  generations  would  enjoy  the  greatest  prosperity  in  the 
history  of  man.  He  credited  this  group  with  working  to  meet 
that  challenge. 



November  16,  1961 

Governor  Sanford  began  by  reminding  North  Carolinians  of 
their  "long  and  honorable  record  in  the  field  of  soil  and  water 
conservation."  The  oldest  conservation  district  in  America,  the 
Brown  Creek  Soil  and  Water  Conservation  District  in  Anson 
County,  was  organized  in  1937.  The  northeastern  districts  were 
founded  in  1942.  The  Governor  reviewed  accomplishments  and 
explained  the  significance  of  the  program.  He  reminded  the 
group  that  the  state  realized  its  responsibility  in  the  field  though 
soil  and  water  conservation  district  programs  were  in  local  hands. 
In  closing,  Sanford  emphasized  North  Carolina's  responsibility 
of  using  natural  resources,  not  abusing  them. 



November  21,  1961 

[Two  weeks  after  the  defeat  of  the  state-wide  bond  proposals.  Governor 
Sanford  took  the  opportunity  to  discuss  needs  of  the  state  and  to  interpret 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


the  political  situation.  He  had  received  innumerable  letters  from  North 
Carolinians  who  expressed  their  feelings  on  the  bond  situation  after  the 
election  had  been  held.  One  woman  wrote,  "Don't  blame  yourself  for  the 
outcome  of  the  bond  issue.  You  worked  hard  and  sincerely  for  what  you 
believed  to  be  for  the  best  interest  of  North  Carolina.  You  gave  the  issue 
your  best  effort.  If  you  want  my  autopsy  report,  the  timing  was  bad,  and 
too  many  issues  for  one  swallow— one  spoonful  of  castor  oil  could  be  swal- 
lowed before  you  know  it  (tax  in  this  case)  but  you  would  know  it  before  you 
had  downed  ten.  .  .  .  Well,  I  pulled  all  ten  of  the  'for'  levers— I  lost— so 
did  you,  and  the  State,  but  at  least  we  live  in  a  State  that  we  can  say  what 
we  want  to,  without  fear  of  reprisal— your  popularity  is  probably  at  its 
lowest  ebb  right  now,  but  in  six  months  it  will  be  up  again,  and  eventually 
you  will  have  been  one  of  N.  Carolina's  great  governors."  On  the  other 
side  of  the  ledger,  one  person  attached  a  newspaper  clipping  in  which  the 
Governor  expressed  concern  because  of  lack  of  facilities  which  would  have 
been  provided  had  the  bond  issue  passed.  Commenting  on  the  news  item, 
the  citizen  wrote,  "But  he  evidently  does  not  worry  about  the  thousands  of 
children  who  go  to  bed  hungry  every  night  as  a  result  of  his  Food  Tax, 
while  HE  gads  around  six  days  out  of  every  week  in  a  $200,000.00  airplane,  'sic 
SEMPER  TYRANNis.'  "The  Govcmor  received  a  cash-register  tape  showing  a 
tax  of  64  cents;  on  the  back  were  the  words,  "This  is  one  good  reason  I  am 
going  to  do  all  I  can  to  help  defeat  any  bond  or  taxes  you  try  to  get  passed." 
On  November  10,  1961,  the  Governor  received  the  following  communication 
which  also  brought  in  the  matter  of  the  state's  plane,  the  "Kitty  Hawk," 
which  was  used  by  the  Governor  and  by  other  state  officials: 



GO  GO  go! 


RIDE,  RIDE,  ride! 








Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 


While  this  writer  failed  to  mention  the  bond  issue  specifically,  the  person 
obviously  wrote  to  express  his  personal  opinion  of  the  Governor  and  his 
program  in  the  wake  of  the  bond  defeat.  In  his  address  to  the  Farm  Bureau 
Federation,  Governor  Sanford  went  into  considerable  detail  as  he  elaborated 
on  his  feelings  of  concern  for  the  future  of  North  Carolina.] 

I  want  to  talk  to  you  a  little  this  morning  from  the  heart  be- 
cause I  want  to  touch  on  this  theme  that  you  have  for  this  pro- 
gram, "Moving  Ahead  Together  in  '62."  True,  you  furnished  a 
great  part  of  the  agricultural  leadership  in  the  past.  But  more 
important  than  that,  you  must  continue  your  leadership  in  all 
segments  of  the  forward  march  of  North  Carolina. 

We  are  at  a  time  of  peril  in  America.  We  are  at  a  time  of  oppor- 
tunity in  the  South.  And  that  combination  of  moving  into  our 
opportunities  in  the  South  can  help  furnish  the  kind  of  leader- 
ship which  will  enable  America  to  remove  the  peril. 

I  know  of  no  time,  looking  back  over  the  broad  sweep  of  the 
history  of  America,  when  this  nation  faced  greater  difficulty,  in- 
cluding the  time  of  the  Revolutionary  War.  Never  before  has 
the  very  existence  of  mankind  been  threatened  as  it  is  threatened 
today.  Never  before  has  such  a  severe  challenge  been  faced  by 
free  people  to  live  up  to  the  demands  and  the  responsibilities  of 
making  democratic  government  strong  and  making  it  work. 

President  Kennedy  has  asked  the  question  and  sounded  the 
call  to  duty  in  asking  the  American  people:  Do  we  have  the  skill, 
the  nerve,  and  the  will  as  a  free  people  to  make  democracy  strong 
enough,  to  improve  our  leadership  to  the  degree  where  we  can 
indeed  save  mankind,  save  the  free  world,  and  save  American 

In  our  own  part  of  the  free  world,  are  we  going  to  do  our  part 
to  develop  the  scientists,  to  develop  the  statesmen,  and  to  develop 
the  informed  citizenry  which  America  needs? 

It  cannot  be  done  on  any  other  level.  We  cannot  look  to  Wash- 
ington for  it  and  should  not  look  to  Washington  for  it.  We  can- 
not look  to  the  United  Nations  for  it,  as  important  as  is  the  UN 
to  world  peace. 

What  is  done  to  develop  the  kind  of  citizens  who  can  make 
democracy  carry  through  under  the  greatest  strains  must  be  done 
right  here  in  North  Carolina,  by  us,  by  you.  You  can  furnish 
the  kind  of  leadership  that  we  need.  You  can  furnish  the  kind  of 
leadership  that  the  free  world  must  have.  You  already  have  fur- 
nished that  leadership,  and  I  come  before  you  today  to  express 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


my  thanks  and  the  thanks  of  a  grateful  state  for  the  part  that  you 
played  as  an  organization,  in  setting  the  tone,  in  sounding  the 
call  to  arms,  for  the  people  of  North  Carolina  to  mobilize  their 
forces  and  their  resources  to  do  something  about  education.  We 
stand  now  in  a  position  of  leadership  across  the  nation  in  terms 
of  what  we  are  attempting  to  do  to  prepare  free  men  and  women 
for  leadership. 

I  think  that  you  may  take  great  pride  in  the  fact  that  during 
the  days  when  there  were  many  doubtful  people,  and  during  the 
days  when  many  people  wondered  whether  we  were  attempting 
to  do  too  much,  and  during  the  days  when  people  of  little  faith 
did  not  quite  have  the  courage  to  do  the  things  that  must  be  done 
if  we  are  to  meet  this  test  of  leadership,  this  organization  re- 
sponded. And  this  organization  cast  its  vote  and  its  lot  with  the 
education  of  the  young  people  of  the  state. 

Now  out  of  that  vote,  out  of  that  determination  have  come 
many  things,  some  negative  and  most  positive.  All  across  North 
Carolina  right  now,  in  every  local  community,  almost  without 
exception,  people  are  moving  toward  the  improvement  of  educa- 
tional opportunities  with  a  new  morale  and  with  a  new  vigor,  I 
believe,  the  like  of  which  has  never  been  seen  in  North  Carolina 

People  are  determined  that  we  can  do  the  job.  People  are 
proud  of  the  fact  that  North  Carolina  sees  this  as  a  great  mission 
and  that  we  are  going  to  do  something  to  prepare  the  young  peo- 
ple in  this  state  who  will  make  the  state  even  greater  than  it  has 

I  thank  you  for  what  you  have  done  because  North  Carolina, 
indeed,  is  on  the  move  and  will,  with  your  leadership,  continue 
to  be  on  the  move  going  forward  together  in  1962  and  in  all  the 
years  to  come. 

Some  bad  things  came  out  of  the  decision,  as  inevitably  they 
must.  First  of  all,  we  knew  that  if  we  were  going  to  do  something 
about  schools  and  public  education  we  had  to  start  with  the 
fundamental  problem.  The  fundamental  problem  is  this:  Just 
this  morning  I  was  reading  an  advanced  report  that  will  be  made 
the  last  of  this  month  to  the  Southern  Governors  concerning  the 
problems  of  education  in  our  region.  One  set  of  statistics  caught 
my  attention.  We  have  known  it,  but  here  it  is.  This  whole  re- 
gion of  sixteen  states  needs  around  55,000  to  60,000  new  teachers 
each  year.  We  in  the  region  are  producing  now  around  40,000 
teachers.  That  is,  we  are  graduating  40,000  and  all  of  them  do 
not  go  into  teaching. 

The  fundamental  need  was  to  attract  the  attention  of  out- 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

standing  students  in  high  school  and  in  college  and  direct  their 
interests  toward  the  teaching  profession.  In  other  words,  our 
fundamental  need  was  to  get  better  people  in  adequate  numbers 
to  come  into  the  teaching  profession  and  keep  them  there  once 
they  became  good  teachers. 

That  was  the  fundamental  need.  The  fundamental  way  to  go 
about  it,  we  thought,  and  you  agreed,  was  to  make  the  teaching 
profession  more  attractive,  to  give  it  a  high  level  of  dignity  on 
the  local  level,  to  make  it  the  kind  of  thing  that  a  young  person 
would  seek  with  pride  and  seek  with  the  satisfaction  of  knowing 
that  he  not  only  would  fulfill  the  desire  to  have  a  vital  role  in 
his  generation,  in  his  time,  in  his  state  and  country,  but  also 
where  he  could  be  adequately  compensated  and  could  adequate- 
ly provide  for  his  family. 

So  the  first  need,  among  many,  many  needs  all  of  which  are 
not  yet  met,  was  to  increase  the  attractiveness  of  the  teaching 
profession.  Now  that  can  be  done  by  you  locally  in  many  ways. 
It  can  be  done  by  more  adequate  facilities.  It  can  be  done  by 
just  an  attitude  toward  the  teaching  profession  which  cast  it, 
cast  the  teaching  profession  in  the  important  role  that  it  does 
occupy  in  the  future  of  the  country. 

It  could  also  be  done  on  the  state  level  by  increased  financial 
support.  So  as  we  analyzed  and  studied  and  thought  about  the 
needs  of  education,  one  of  the  many  things  that  had  to  be  done 
was  an  increased  level  of  financial  support  for  the  teaching  pro- 
fession to  reverse  this  downward  trend  where  less  and  less  teach- 
ers were  coming  and  start  it  moving  upward  so  that  we  would 
have  tomorrow  and  in  1962,  1965,  and  1970  an  adequate  num- 
ber of  teachers— well-qualified,  confident  teachers  to  do  the  job 
that  must  be  done. 

In  order  to  reverse  that  trend,  the  General  Assembly  of  North 
Carolina  took  the  greatest  forward  step  that  has  ever  been  taken 
by  a  General  Assembly  in  the  history  of  North  Carolina.  They 
voted  the  appropriations.  They  provided  the  foundation  on 
which  you  locally  can  build  a  better  school  system.  They  did 
their  job.  And  in  doing  their  job,  it  was  necessary  to  find  addi- 
tional money. 

Now,  that  ought  not  to  surprise  anybody.  It  ought  to  be  per- 
fectly obvious  that  if  you  are  going  to  expand  a  business  opera- 
tion, you  must  pay  for  it.  If  you  are  going  to  increase  your  stand- 
ard of  living  at  home,  you  must  pay  for  it.  If  you  are  going  to 
extend  your  farming  operations,  you  must  make  additional  in- 
vestments. So  this  General  Assembly,  knowing  that  it  must  make 
an  additional  investment,  faced  up  to  the  job  and  made  that 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


additional  investment  in  face  of  much  opposition  and  much 
criticism  and  a  degree  of  unpopularity.  It  was  a  painful  deci- 
sion because  I  knew  it  would  evoke  bitter  criticism  from  many 
places  across  the  state.  It  was  a  painful  decision  because  I  was 
disturbed  at  one  time  that  we  could  not  muster  enough  support 
to  get  it  across,  and  if  we  didn't,  of  course,  the  whole  concept  of 
the  future  greatness  of  North  Carolina's  educational  system  and 
the  future  of  North  Carolina  as  based  on  education  would  fall 

But  I  made  that  decision  knowing  that  there  would  be  many 
months  of  unpopularity.  I  made  that  decision  knowing  that  it 
could  not  be  a  popular  decision.  I  made  that  decision  knowing 
that  there  would  be  many  people  who  would  insist  that  we  had 
done  wrong  by  the  people  of  the  state.  But  I  made  it,  and  the 
General  Assembly  made  the  decision  on  the  firm  understanding 
that  we  did  not  come  to  office  merely  to  seek  popularity.  If  that 
had  been  the  only  mission  in  seeking  office,  then  it  wouldn't 
have  been  worth  the  effort.  If  that  had  been  our  only  guiding 
light,  then  we  would  not  have  been  worthy  of  the  high  office. 

And,  therefore,  we  decided  that  we  would  face  the  lack  of 
popularity  and  take  it  in  our  stride,  confident  in  the  long  run 
that  the  people  of  North  Carolina  would  realize  that  this  indeed 
was  the  only  step  and  this  indeed  had  to  be  done  if  North  Caro- 
lina was  to  build  to  its  future  greatness.  So  we  did  take  it. 

The  General  Assembly,  with  great  courage,  did  pass  it,  and 
to  your  eternal  credit  this  organization  endorsed  and  supported 
it  from  the  very  beginning;  I  admire  your  courage  and  appre- 
ciate it. 

The  General  Assembly  also  submitted  a  bond  issue.  I  am  hum- 
ble enough  to  recognize  that  my  own  position  and  my  lack  of 
popularity  growing  out  of  some  difficult  decisions  might  very 
well  have  had  something  to  do  with  the  failure  of  those  bond 
issues.  I  think,  also,  that  there  were  many  other  things  that  en- 

But  let's  conclude  for  a  moment  that  some  people  decided 
that  this  would  be  a  good  opportunity  to  get  even  with  the  Gov- 
ernor for  things  that  he  has  done  that  they  didn't  like. 

Now  I  have  said  before,  and  I  reiterate  here,  that  I  do  not 
believe  many  North  Carolinians  would  vote  on  the  bond  issue 
and  the  future  needs  of  the  state  for  such  a  shallow  reason.  I  do 
not  believe  that  they  did. 

But  right  now  those  people  who  would  make  political  advan- 
tage out  of  North  Carolina's  failure  to  provide  these  things  are 
making  political  sport  in  saying  that  this  was  because  the  people 



Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

of  North  Carolina  did  not  like  what  had  been  done  in  this  ad- 
ministration in  the  past,  particularly  as  far  as  the  sales  tax  is 

They  have  come  up  with  all  kinds  of  letters  to  the  editors 
and  all  kinds  of  gossip  back  and  forth  in  order  to  take  political 
advantage  against  the  future  needs  of  North  Carolina. 

Now  what  happens  to  me  and  what  happens  to  any  popular- 
ity that  in  this  office  I  might  have  is  unimportant.  But  what 
happens  to  the  future  of  North  Carolina,  a  decision  for  you  to 
make  and  leaders  like  you  across  the  state,  is  extremely  impor- 
tant. And  I  would  hope  that  we  could  clear  aside,  with  your 
leadership  and  with  your  talking  to  other  people,  any  partisan 
look,  any  narrow  look  at  the  future  needs  of  North  Carolina, 
and  that  we  could  measure  those  needs  and  those  requirements 
now  against  the  future  greatness  of  North  Carolina  and  not 
against  some  petty  dislike  of  the  moment. 

I  have  seen  letters  to  the  editor  here  in  recent  weeks  that  have 
complained  bitterly  about  the  food  and  medicine  tax  and  cited 
that  as  the  chief  cause  without  bothering  to  look  at  the  fact  that 
the  legislature  did  not  put  any  tax  on  medicine.  But  hardly  a 
day  passes  that  a  letter  to  the  editor  doesn't  complain  about  the 
tax  that  was  not  put  on.  Hardly  a  day  passes  that  they  do  not 
complain  about  some  other  part  of  the  state  government.  Hardly 
a  day  passes,  and  I  might  as  well  mention  this  to  you,  that  they 
do  not  complain  about  the  airplane  the  state  owns,  which  is 
primarily  used  for  the  economic  development  of  North  Carolina. 

While  the  insidious  Republican  leadership— and  I  speak  of 
the  Republican  leadership,  not  of  the  many  Republican  mem- 
bers who  did  work  and  work  enthusiastically  for  the  passage  of 
these  bonds— the  insidious  Republican  leadership  walked  down 
Front  Street  publicly  announcing  that  they  favored  the  building 
of  educational  and  institutional  buildings,  that  they  favored  the 
mental  hospitals  and  meeting  this  humane  need  of  the  state,  and 
at  the  same  time  they  circulated  on  the  back  street  literature 
which  was  misleading,  which  was  false,  and  which  gave  an  en- 
tirely different  picture  in  opposition  to  the  very  things  that  this 
same  leadership  was  proclaiming  on  Front  Street. 

I  think  that  is  carrying  politics  too  far.  I  think  that  is  taking 
advantage  of  a  partisan  position  attempting  to  damage  your 
opposition  in  a  way  that  doesn't  really  damage  the  opposition, 
but  indeed,  damages  the  opportunities  of  every  child  and  every 
person  in  North  Carolina. 

North  Carolina  has  had  too  bright  a  history.  North  Carolina 
has  too  great  an  opportunity  to  let  that  opportunity  go  down  in 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


a  mass  of  personal  petty  politics.  And  I  hope  that  we  can  rise 
above  it.  I  hope  that  we  can  see  beyond  it,  and  where  I  am  at 
fault  I  earnestly  promise  to  do  my  best  to  correct  the  bad  situ- 

We  are  attempting  to  meet  the  needs.  We  are  attempting  to 
meet  the  responsibility,  and  I  need  your  help  if  we  are  going 
to  be  able  to  be  successful.  In  North  Carolina  right  now  if  we 
do  not  do  something  immediately  to  provide  opportunities  in 
the  colleges  and  universities  across  the  state,  if  we  do  not  do  some- 
thing right  now  to  provide  dormitory  space,  the  cafeteria  space, 
and  classroom  space,  then  your  sons  and  daughters  and  your 
grandsons  and  granddaughters  are  not  going  to  be  admitted  to 
college  opportunities  because  in  this  state  we  simply  will  not 
have  enough  facilities  to  provide  for  them. 

And  right  now,  in  this  state,  we  have  young  boys  and  girls 
who  have  strayed  from  the  proper  paths,  who  are  in  the  juris- 
diction of  the  juvenile  authorities,  and  who  cannot  be  admitted 
to  our  correctional  homes  because  we  simply  do  not  have  enough 

If  you  are  going  to  do  something  about  that,  we  are  going  to 
need  your  help  and  your  understanding  and  your  leadership. 

And  we  have  in  this  state  crippled  children  with  defective 
minds,  with  mental  illnesses  who  are  still  on  waiting  lists,  and 
next  year  the  waiting  lists  will  be  even  greater,  the  following 
year  even  greater  because  somebody  measured  the  immediate 
situation  against  the  future  needs  and  because  we  did  not  live 
up  to  the  responsibility  to  understand  something  about  these 

Now,  I  don't  mean  to  be  critical  of  the  people  who  voted 
against  the  bond  issue.  I  am  critical  of  myself,  and  I  am  critical 
of  other  people  in  this  state  charged  with  the  responsibility  of 
explaining  these  things  because  we  did  not  do  an  adequate  job. 

But  North  Carolina  cannot  wait  to  build  its  colleges.  North 
Carolina  cannot  wait  to  build  its  mental  institutions.  North 
Carolina  must  move  now  in  this  respect  if  it  is  to  live  up  to  its 
great  tradition  and  if  it  is  to  provide  for  its  bright  tomorrow. 

In  North  Carolina  over  the  years,  in  the  darkest  times,  the 
people  have  risen  up  and  the  people  have  always  exhibited  a 
spirit  of  moving  forward. 

North  Carolina  stands  in  the  forefront  of  the  South  right 
now.  It  stands  in  the  forefront  of  the  South  for  many  reasons, 
going  back  to  the  same  spirit  of  North  Carolinians  who  had 
faith  in  the  future,  who  had  vision  to  build  and  courage  to  do 
those  things  now  which  might  seem  unpopular  but  which  are 
essential  to  the  future  of  the  state. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

After  the  Civil  War,  when  everything  was  torn  all  apart  and 
the  pieces  were  strewed  around,  North  Carolina  was  the  first 
in  the  South  to  pick  up  the  call,  to  challenge  greatness,  to  do 
something  about  it. 

Governor  Aycock  put  our  faith  in  education.  Our  faith  has 
been  in  education  ever  since  that  day.  Our  faith  has  been  well 
rewarded  because  North  Carolina  has  marched  to  the  forefront 
of  the  South.  The  time  has  come  when  the  South  can  move 
to  the  forefront  of  the  nation.  The  time  has  come. 

Now  we  are  celebrating  the  one  hundredth  anniversary  of  the 
Civil  War.  To  my  way  of  thinking  that  centennial  marks  the 
end  of  our  being  here  in  a  little  segment  behind  in  so  many 
ways,  economically,  socially,  and  educationally,  to  other  parts 
of  the  country.  That  marks  the  time  for  moving  forward.  The 
war  is  over.  It  has  been  over  one  hundred  years.  We  have  built 
back.  We  have  built  back  to  a  position  of  leadership  in  the 

The  time  has  come  for  North  Carolina  to  move  and  to  seek 
a  position  of  leadership  in  the  nation.  It  is  not  good  enough  for 
our  boys  and  girls  to  have  the  best  education  in  the  South.  We 
should  see  that  that  opportunity  is  the  best  in  the  nation. 

We  can  do  it!  We've  got  the  people.  We've  got  the  spirit. 
We've  got  the  resources.  I  am  sure  that  we've  got  the  courage 
and  the  vision,  and  I  know  that  we  can  do  it  with  people  like 
you  and  if  particularly  you  will  assume  this  leadership. 

We  need  your  help.  We  must  have  it.  And  with  it  there  indeed 
will  be  no  holding  us  back  as  we  go  forward  together  in  1962. 

Thank  you. 



November  27,  1961 

[Near  the  end  of  his  first  year  in  office,  the  Governor  reviewed  the  accom- 
plishments and  the  disappointments  of  his  administration  in  a  thirty-minute 
report  to  the  people.  In  his  concluding  minutes  he  elaborated  on  his  deci- 
sion not  to  call  a  special  session  of  the  General  Assembly  to  consider  a 
new  bond  issue.] 

I  welcome  the  occasion  at  the  beginning  of  the  Christmas  sea- 
son, and  at  the  end  of  a  year's  work,  to  talk  about  the  forward 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


steps  taken  by  the  state  of  North  Carolina.  This  is  not,  and 
should  not  be,  a  time  for  false  pride  and  boasting,  but  rather 
a  point  in  the  course  of  the  administration  when  we  can  meas- 
ure what  has  been  accomplished  against  the  opportunities  of 
what  can  be  done. 

After  the  Civil  War,  when  life  was  bleak,  the  future  dim, 
and  all  things  in  the  South  were  torn  apart,  North  Carolina  was 
the  first  to  sound  the  bugle  to  start  the  march  to  greatness  and 

Governor  Aycock  put  our  faith  in  education.  Our  faith  has 
been  in  education  ever  since.  Our  faith  has  been  well  rewarded, 
for  it  enabled  North  Carolina  to  build  back  from  the  ashes  of 
war  to  new  and  greater  opportunities.  Never  before  have  our 
opportunities  been  as  promising  as  they  are  today. 

I  want  to  call  the  roll  of  some  of  the  progress  made  in  North 
Carolina  in  the  past  year  pointing  to  some  continuing  oppor- 

In  industrial  development  and  expansion,  North  Carolina  is 
continuing  to  make  dramatic  headway.  This  year,  North  Caro- 
lina led  the  South,  and  the  South  led  the  nation,  in  the  per- 
centage of  industrial  expansion.  We  are  going  full-speed  to 
continue  to  seek  the  right  kind  of  new  industry  to  provide  the 
right  kind  of  jobs. 

What  does  this  mean?  It  means  that  23,000  of  you  watching 
or  listening  tonight  will  go  to  work  again  tomorrow  morning 
in  a  job  which  wasn't  even  in  existence  January  1.  It  means  that 
the  23,000  of  you  will  earn  $80  million  this  year  in  those  jobs. 
This  has  been  done  with  work  and  seeing  many  people  and  go- 
ing many  places.  The  work  continues.  We  have  a  working  team 
in  Raleigh  which  is  working  with  people  across  the  state. 

A  further  way  to  illustrate  it  is  to  note  that  each  week  since 
this  administration  has  been  in  office  515  new  jobs  have  been 
created  for  the  jobless  from  new  and  expanded  industry. 

Let  me  say  this  to  textile  workers  across  North  Carolina.  I 
know  personally  many  of  you  who  are  now  listening  to  this 
program.  I  know  how  important  your  jobs  are  to  you,  and  let 
me  tell  you  that  they  are  extremely  important  to  the  whole  state. 

I  couldn't  report  this  to  you  before,  but  I  have  made  several 
trips  to  help  protect  your  jobs.  You  can't  expect  increased  wages 
if  you  are  dragged  down  by  low-wage  countries,  and  this  unfair 
competition  has  already  cost  us  too  many  jobs.  Just  last  week 
the  White  House  took  the  first  real  action  to  protect  your  jobs 
that  has  been  taken  in  ten  years,  and  I  am  sure  they  are  going  to 
follow  through  in  other  ways. 

In  the  Budget  Division,  this  administration  has  taken  deter- 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

mined  steps  for  economy.  One  of  the  reasons  is  that  in  this  time 
when  so  much  of  the  national  resource  must  go  to  national  de- 
fense, I  am  determined  that  we  are  going  to  do  everything  pos- 
sible to  demonstrate  that  new  ways  of  economy  can  be  found  in 
all  levels  of  government.  We  have  tightened  our  budget  control. 
We  have  smashed  the  racket  of  price-fixing  in  bidding  for  state 
business.  We  are  carefully  examining  every  phase  of  the  opera- 
tion of  government  with  a  view  to  saving  money. 

In  the  Prison  Department,  we  are  doing  some  new  things  in 
new  ways.  The  first  purpose  of  a  prison  is  a  place  of  punishment, 
but  there  is  a  secondary  purpose.  You  who  have  friends  or 
relatives  or  loved  ones  in  prison  can  readily  understand  that 
these  people  are  in  need  of  rehabilitation.  We  are  attempting  to 
help  every  prisoner  help  himself  through  training  and  study  and 
a  change  in  attitude.  It  saves  money  for  the  state;  it  helps  the 
prisoner  to  find  his  way  to  a  proper  and  rewarding  life. 

I  have  been  particularly  interested  in  the  alcoholic  rehabilita- 
tion program.  We  have  provided  the  means  for  those  who  feel 
the  desire  to  stop  drinking,  and  in  most  of  the  prison  camps, 
and  ultimately  we  hope  in  all  the  camps,  we  will  have  a  group 
of  Alcoholics  Anonymous.  In  the  brief  time  we  have  been  carry- 
ing on  this  program,  we  can  already  measure  great  success  in 
lives  redeemed.  Incidentally,  75  per  cent  of  the  people  in  prison 
are  there  because  of  some  connection  with  whisky. 

We  have  concentrated  the  greatest  single  effort  this  year  on  the 
public  schools  because  this  was  the  greatest  single  need.  If  we 
are  to  build  properly  for  the  future  of  North  Carolina,  if  we  are 
to  have  industrial,  agricultural,  economic,  social,  individual 
growth  and  advancement,  then  our  schools  must  be  second  to 

Our  challenge  is  to  give  our  children  the  best  opportunities. 
This  does  not  mean  that  we  expect  every  one  of  our  children  to 
be  a  college  scholar.  It  means  that  our  projected  program  antici- 
pates the  needs  of  the  retarded  child,  gives  the  average  child  a 
wider  choice,  and  provides  the  very  talented  child  some  extra 

The  General  Assembly  had  the  vision  to  vote  for  a  program 
of  school  improvement  for  your  children.  The  General  Assembly 
had  the  courage  to  vote  the  taxes  from  the  only  adequate  source. 

Let  me  say  this  to  the  mothers  of  children:  I  share  with  you 
a  desire  to  give  your  child  the  best  opportunities  in  life.  But  we 
cannot  improve  our  schools  by  just  talking  about  it.  You  and  I 
are  doing  something  about  it,  and  when  you  pay  15  cents  on  a 
$5.00  basket  of  groceries,  you  may  do  so  with  confidence  that  you 
are  broadening  the  horizons  for  your  child  and  all  children. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


What  has  been  done  in  agriculture?  There  are  so  many  op- 
portunities in  agriculture,  which  is  the  backbone  of  the  economy 
of  North  Carolina,  that  I  could  take  the  entire  period  talking 
about  what  can  be  done  and  what  is  being  done  to  improve  farm 
income  across  the  state.  Let  me  say  to  the  farmers,  improvement 
of  farm  income  has  more  far-reaching  effect  on  the  economy  of 
this  state  than  any  other  single  segment  of  income.  All  of  our 
ideas  for  the  improvement  of  farm  income  have  been  tied  up 
now  in  one  program  known  as  "Agricultural  Opportunities." 
In  this  way  each  county  has  been  challenged  to  define  the  ways 
in  which  it  might  add  to  its  income,  joining  with  other  counties 
across  the  state  in  a  massive  effort  to  lift  the  farm  economy.  In 
co-operation  with  Mr.  L.  Y.  Ballentine  of  the  Department  of 
Agriculture  and  Dean  Brooks  James,  the  School  of  Agriculture, 
and  the  Extension  Service  at  State  College,  and  with  other  re- 
lated agencies  and  organizations,  I  am  satisfied  that  the  state 
has  a  vigorous  program  and  will  continue  to  do  its  share  to 
promote  those  things  which  will  bring  more  money  to  the  farmers 
and  through  the  farmers  to  the  entire  state. 

In  meeting  our  responsibility  for  helping  children  who  have 
managed  to  get  in  trouble,  the  state  is  broadening  the  scope  of 
its  responsibility  in  the  correction  of  the  wayward  child,  having 
just  opened  a  new  evaluation  center  at  Swannanoa  for  determin- 
ing the  cause  of  delinquency  and  helping  set  straight  those  chil- 
dren who  come  into  the  state  system  for  correctional  training. 

In  highway  construction,  we  have  stepped  up  farm-to-market 
road  program  construction,  without  cutting  down  our  primary 
program.  This  was  done  by  stopping  diversion  from  the  high- 
way fund. 

You  who  live  on  a  muddy  and  dusty  road,  or  have  children 
riding  in  school  buses  on  narrow  roads  and  treacherous  bridges 
are  not  forgotten.  We  promised  to  put  the  Highway  Commission 
closer  to  the  people,  and  you  probably  have  already  seen  a  high- 
way commissioner  for  the  first  time  in  many  years.  They  have 
been  out  riding  the  roads  and  talking  to  delegations.  This 
couldn't  be  started  until  July  so  we  are  just  getting  cranked  up. 
But  we  still  have  more  than  three  years  to  go  and  you  will  wit- 
ness a  lot  of  improvement  during  that  time. 

When  I  came  to  office,  I  was  determined  to  do  something  about 
the  terrible  slaughter  on  our  highways.  The  loss  of  life,  the 
injuries  to  thousands  of  people,  and  the  extensive  property 
damage  are  inexcusable.  We  are  going  to  apply  the  best  energy 
and  determination  we  possess  to  reducing  this  awful  loss.  In  addi- 
tion to  carrying  on  our  official  responsibilities,  we  have  organized 
with  voluntary  contributions  the  finest  Safety  Council  in  Ameri- 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

ca.  I  hope  that  we  are  going  to  be  able  to  see  progress  in  saving 
lives,  in  reducing  injuries,  and  with  your  help  we  can  make  the 
most  intensive  effort  of  any  state  in  the  union. 

Along  with  other  accomplishments  of  a  voluntary  nature,  such 
as  the  Highway  Safety  Council,  the  Trade  Fair  should  be  listed. 
This  was  a  great  success.  It  brought  new  business  to  the  industry 
of  North  Carolina.  This  required  the  energy  and  efforts  of  many 
people  on  a  voluntary  basis,  but  their  work  paid  off  in  the  dis- 
play of  the  diversified  industrial  might  of  North  Carolina  for  all 
the  world  to  see.  This  not  only  indicated  what  is  being  done,  but 
more  important,  it  indicates  what  can  be  done  in  North  Carolina. 

Another  voluntary  effort  I  must  mention  is  the  stay-in-school 
program,  which  is  being  conducted  by  the  state  with  the  help  of 
the  Optimist  Clubs  of  North  Carolina.  This  attempts  to  get  at 
the  reason  for  dropouts,  to  meet  the  human  and  economic  needs, 
and  to  give  the  added  encouragement,  where  necessary,  to  have 
the  student  return  to  school. 

These  are  some  of  the  more  than  100  such  projects,  programs, 
and  activities  directly  under  the  supervision  of  the  Governor's 
Office.  In  addition  to  these,  there  are  as  many  more  in  which 
the  Governor  participates.  There  are  more  than  fifty  heads  of 
boards,  agencies,  or  institutions  who  report  directly  to  the 
Governor.  During  the  past  year,  I  have  appointed  and  enlisted 
in  the  service  of  the  state  more  than  500  people  who  have 
volunteered  their  services  as  members  of  the  various  boards  and 
commissions.  In  the  many  things  required  of  the  state  adminis- 
tration, government  could  not  well  function  were  it  not  for  the 
voluntary  service  of  these  people  who  contribute  of  their  time 
and  talent  to  the  progress  of  North  Carolina.  I  am  most  grateful 
that  these  people  make  their  abilities  available  for  the  welfare 
of  the  entire  state  and  all  its  people. 

Democracy  is  the  best  method  known  to  man  for  providing 
everybody  a  fair  opportunity  to  express  themselves.  In  a  democ- 
racy, there  are  always  disappointments  for  some  people.  When 
two  candidates  run  for  office,  only  one  can  win.  When  a  proposi- 
tion is  put  to  the  people,  it  either  passes  or  fails.  This  is  the  way 
democratic  government  operates.  I  not  only  have  never  quarreled 
with  this  process,  but  I  have  fought  to  defend  it. 

It  so  happened  that  from  the  opinion  I  have  of  the  urgent 
needs,  I  thought  that  the  recent  bond  issues  should  be  approved. 
I  knew  that  failure  of  the  bonds  would  mean  your  children  and 
grandchildren,  even  if  qualified,  might  be  denied  a  college  educa- 
tion. I  knew  failure  meant  your  neighbor's  crippled  or  deaf  child 
might  have  no  place  to  go  for  training.  I  keenly  feel  these  needs. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


but  even  so,  as  I  said  on  the  night  of  the  election,  it  is  not  for 
me  to  quarrel  with  the  decision  of  the  majority  of  the  voters. 

It  is  my  duty,  however,  again  to  call  to  the  attention  of  the 
people  that  we  do  have  needs.  These  needs,  if  unfulfilled,  could 
damage  the  future  of  your  children. 

If  we  are  to  do  our  job  in  the  correction  of  juveniles  who  have 
strayed  from  the  proper  paths,  then  we  need  to  expand  our  insti- 
tutions so  that  juvenile  judges  desiring  to  send  children  to  train- 
ing schools  will  not  be  faced  with  long  waiting  lists  and  delays. 
The  longer  the  delay,  the  more  serious  the  problem  of  correct- 
ing the  child  becomes.  We  do  not  now  have  adequate  facilities, 
and  to  me  personally,  I  believe  this  was  the  most  disappointing 
aspect  of  the  bond  election. 

We  need  very  badly  improvements  in  some  of  the  older  build- 
ings of  our  mental  institutions  if  we  are  to  provide  the  kind  of 
care  which  can  return  patients  to  normal  life  as  rapidly  as  pos- 
sible. This  is  not  only  the  humane  objective,  but  it  has  an  eco- 
nomic value  because  the  sooner  we  can  cure  them,  the  less  ex- 
pense we  will  have  in  their  maintenance.  This  need  remains  to 
be  faced  and  fulfilled,  and  along  with  it  the  need  for  more 
adequate  and  extensive  treatment  for  children  who  need  the  care 
of  these  institutions. 

I  would  go  so  far  as  to  say  that  the  air  conditioning  proposed 
for  the  hospital  ward  where  live  the  children  with  bodies  so 
crippled  that  they  cannot  move  about,  is  one  of  the  urgent  needs 
of  these  institutions.  A  visit  to  this  ward  during  the  months  of 
summer  would  convince  anyone  that  this  is  in  no  way  a  luxury. 

North  Carolinians  have  always  put  their  faith  in  education. 
Historically,  our  ancestors  provided  for  the  necessities  of  life, 
organized  government,  and  then  built  colleges.  In  1776,  North 
Carolina  made  provision  in  the  Constitution  that  ''schools 
[should]  be  established  .  .  .  and  all  useful  learning  [should]  be 
duly  encouraged  and  promoted  in  one  or  more  universities." 
Thirteen  years  later  it  provided  for  the  first  state  university. 

Since  these  Revolutionary  days.  North  Carolina  has  seldom 
faltered.  The  schools,  colleges,  and  university  have  always  stood 
high  among  the  objects  of  public  confidence,  public  appreciation, 
and  public  support.  The  forward  march  of  our  society  always 
brings  new  problems.  Our  educational  institutions  face  increas- 
ing enrollment  demands.  They  face  demands  for  increased  re- 
search to  improve  agriculture,  business,  industry,  health  pro- 
grams, and  many  other  meaningful  areas  of  society.  It  is  clear 
that  our  very  survival  in  the  world  today  demands  that  we  re- 
double our  efforts  in  education.  Indeed,  the  responsibility  to  ed- 


Papers  of  Terry  San  ford 

ucate  is  an  inseparable  part  of  our  responsibility  to  guard  and 
advance  the  ideals  of  democracy.  Further,  if  we  neglect  educa- 
tion, we  block  our  growth  economically  and  industrially;  through 
education  we  open  ways  to  agricultural,  economic,  and  industrial 
advancement  that  will  improve  our  standard  of  living. 

We  have  been  benefited  by  the  fact  that  the  state-supported 
institutions  of  higher  learning  and  the  Board  of  Higher  Educa- 
tion, in  the  lat^'  fifties,  developed  a  long-range  building  program 
for  our  institutions,  including  the  community  colleges,  for  the 
decade  1959-1969.  This  long-range  plan  demonstrated  a  need 
for  $89  million  in  construction  over  a  ten-year  period.  It  was 
reviewed  by  Governor  Hodges  and  the  Advisory  Budget  Com- 
mission prior  to  the  1959  session  of  the  General  Assembly  and 
again  by  them  prior  to  the  1961  General  Assembly.  The  1959 
session  authorized  the  first  step  in  this  long-range  program  of 
capital  improvements.  Over  $22  million,  $17  million  by  a  bond 
vote,  in  new  construction  and  renovation  projects  was  authorized. 
The  second  phase  of  this  long-range  plan  was  approved  by  the 
1961  General  Assembly  and  submitted  to  the  people  in  the  bond 
election  on  November  7. 

This  failure  of  bond  approval  means  that  the  well-planned 
program  of  expansion  in  higher  education,  to  take  care  of  antici- 
pated growth,  was  interrupted  on  November  7.  The  require- 
ments remain,  and  indeed  have  increased. 

Three  items  show  the  increase: 

1.  This  report  estimated  that  we  would  have  at  least  72,000 
students  in  North  Carolina  colleges,  state  and  private,  by  1969. 
Right  now,  eight  years  ahead  of  schedule,  we  have  reached  this 
number.  And  the  most  conservative  estimate  now  for  1969  is 
100,000  students.  The  state-supported  institutions  must  take  their 
share  of  this  increase. 

2.  High  school  enrollments  increased  by  18,000  students  this 
fall.  A  large  percentage  of  these  students  will  be  seeking  admis- 
sion to  college  in  several  years. 

3.  Enrollments  in  state-supported  institutions  increased  by 
4,162  this  fall,  an  increase  of  11.3  per  cent  over  1960,  and  private 
colleges  experienced  an  almost  equal  increase. 

It  is  necessary  to  understand  that  to  plan  for  the  future  over 
two  years  is  required  to  construct  a  facility  once  it  is  authorized. 
Building  cannot  be  done  overnight,  so  we  must  think  and  act 
ahead  of  time  in  order  to  be  ready  for  students  when  they  are 
ready  for  college. 

Here,  then,  is  a  broad  sketch  of  the  immediate  needs.  I  have 
not  mentioned  them  all,  so  to  these  add  the  parks,  the  forests, 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


and  the  ports;  the  test  farms;  the  housing  of  archives,  library, 
and  other  functions;  and  the  medical  care  program  of  local 
hospital  construction. 

All  of  these  things  are  important  to  you,  and  there  is  a  degree 
of  urgency  involved  in  each. 

What  can  we  do  to  meet  these  needs? 

We  could  call  a  special  session  of  the  General  Assembly  and 
submit  the  bonds,  or  at  least  the  most  urgent  ones,  to  the  people 
again.  Many  leaders  have  recommended  this  course  of  action, 
and  I  understand  and  value  their  reasoning  and  their  desires.  I 
have  given  this  decision  my  most  sincere  and  careful  attention 
and  thought.  There  is  a  good  argument  for  calling  a  special 
session  right  now,  but  there  are  also  some  reasons  for  not  calling 
a  special  session.  The  most  compelling  reason  is  this:  It  is  not 
in  keeping  with  the  soundest  principles  of  popular  government. 
To  call  another  election  now  would  be  to  say  that  when  a  demo- 
cratic election  is  lost,  call  another  if  you  can.  This  would  be  a 
bad  precedent,  it  is  haphazard,  and  this  is  not  conducive  to  the 
orderly  processes  of  democratic  government. 

The  people  made  the  decision,  and  I  will  abide  the  decision. 
The  people  made  the  decision,  and  the  urgent  needs  must  abide 
the  decision.  Therefore,  I  will  not  call  a  special  session  of  the 
General  Assembly. 

This  doesn't  mean  that  there  is  nothing  we  can  do  to  lessen 
the  ill  effects  of  these  pressing  needs.  There  is  much  we  can  do. 
I  have  already  pledged  to  do  the  best  possible  in  working  with 
what  we  have. 

During  the  summer  of  1962  the  new  Advisory  Budget  Com- 
mission will  travel  to  all  of  the  state  institutions,  looking  into 
building  requirements,  and  making  decisions  on  a  program  to 
be  presented  in  the  1963  General  Assembly. 

Thus,  through  the  orderly  procedure  established  by  our  excel- 
lent budget  control  act,  we  will  again  have  a  chance  to  present  to 
the  General  Assembly  a  program  to  be  presented  to  the  people. 
In  the  meantime,  we  will  stretch  what  we  have  as  the  demand 

I  have  conferred  with  Mr.  John  Umstead  and  others  on  ways 
we  can  do  the  best  job  possible  with  the  mental  hospital  facilities 
we  have.  We  cannot  expect  to  do  the  full  job,  but  we  will  do  the 
best  we  can  as  applications  increase  beyond  our  present  capacity. 

I  have  conferred  with  the  correctional  training  school  people, 
and  we  are  trying  to  find  temporary  means  of  accepting  some  of 
the  juveniles;  but  we  cannot  expect  to  accept  all  who  should  have 
this  training. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

I  have  conferred  with  college  presidents.  Meeting  the  needs  of 
students  of  college  age  will  take  extraordinary  effort,  because  this 
need  is  growing  so  much  faster  than  anyone  dreamed. 

I  suggest  seven  ways  we  can  do  something  about  higher  educa- 
tion requirements  now: 

1.  The  Advisory  Budget  Commission  and  the  institution  heads 
will  review  the  capital  improvement  projects  to  determine  those 
deemed  absolutely  essential  for  the  biennium  1963-1965. 

2.  In  order  to  speed  up  the  program  of  construction,  I  have 
asked  the  Department  of  Administration  to  seek  ways  now  to 
prepare  plans  and  specifications  of  these  needed  facilities.  This 
will  save  valuable  time  if  dormitories  are  ultimately  approved, 
and  could  enable  us  to  make  up  as  much  as  a  year. 

3.  I  now  ask  citizens  living  in  the  communities  where  our  pri- 
vate and  public  colleges  are  located  to  let  college  officials  know  if 
they  have  any  available  rooming  spaces  in  their  residences  that 
students  might  use. 

4.  I  shall  work  with  the  presidents  of  our  state-supported  insti- 
tutions in  every  possible  way  to  see  if  more  can  be  done  to  accom- 
modate this  situation,  and  I  particularly  note  and  commend  their 
attitude  expressed  last  week  to  "endeavor  to  utilize  our  present 
resources  wisely  and  efficiently." 

5.  I  now  ask  our  private  institutions  to  review  their  situations, 
looking  to  the  possibility  of  accepting  more  students. 

I  promise  to  work  closely  with  the  leaders  of  private  colleges 
in  making  certain  that  adequate  student  loan  funds  are  available 
and  in  any  way  they  might  call  on  me  for  assistance.  I  would 
remind  many  of  you  that  if  you  have  been  contemplating  a  gift 
to  your  favorite  private  college,  now  is  the  best  possible  time  you 
could  make  it. 

6.  I  am  requesting  Mr.  Irving  Carlyle,  the  able  chairman  of 
the  Commission  to  Study  Education  Beyond  the  High  School,  to 
accelerate  the  study  of  the  program  of  higher  education,  since 
these  recommendations  will  be  of  great  value  in  determining  what 
facilities  we  must  have  now. 

7.  I  shall  ask  the  presidents,  faculty  members,  trustees,  alumni, 
friends,  and  students  to  join  me  in  interpreting  the  facts  concern- 
ing higher  education  to  the  people  of  the  state.  It  is  important  for 
the  people  to  know  the  truth  about  enrollments;  research  de- 
mands to  improve  our  farms,  businesses,  industries;  research  in 
the  health  fields;  the  services  rendered  by  our  institutions  to  the 

This,  then,  is  to  say  to  you  that  all  of  those  working  in  this 
administration  will  do  our  best,  and  we  will  meet  most  of  the 
most  pressing  needs  on  a  temporary  basis.  But  to  do  so  we  will 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


need  the  help  of  every  citizen  who  loves  North  Carolina  and  has 
faith  in  her  future. 

There  are  many  forward  mc  'ing  programs  not  affected  by  this 
bond  vote. 

In  these,  which  fortunately  include  the  public  schools,  we  will 
continue  to  move  with  full  force  and  vigor.  We  need  your  help 
with  these  activities. 

All  of  our  problems  come  from  growth  and  expansion  and 
progress.  These  are  problems,  but  also  expansion  and  progress 
and  growth  are  new  opportunities.  These  are  all  around  us.  We 
have  many  things  to  attract  the  energy,  the  devotion,  and  the  zeal 
of  North  Carolinians.  We  need  your  help  in  reaching  for  all  of 
these  objectives. 

In  these  areas  directly  affected  by  the  bond  program,  we  will 
not  falter  in  the  face  of  a  temporary  setback. 

It  may  indeed  be  difficult  for  the  moment,  but  in  the  long  run 
we  will  in  this  way  comprehend  better  our  obligations  to  the 
future.  In  the  long  run  we  will  recover  and  we  will  eventually 
fulfill  these  obligations.  Indeed,  in  the  long  run,  democracy  is 
always  right.  I  trust  implicitly  the  democratic  process.  The  people 
have  spoken  on  this  issue  at  this  time. 

But  now  on  the  broader  issues  let's  speak  louder  than  ever 
in  our  spirit  of  progressiveness,  in  our  determination  to  provide 
the  opportunities  for  every  child  born  on  earth  to  develop  fully 
all  his  talents  for  the  benefit  of  himself  and  for  mankind,  in  our 
determination  to  provide  a  better  chance  for  every  citizen  to  make 
a  better  living,  in  our  determination  to  provide  for  the  weak  and 
the  ill,  in  our  determination  to  take  our  proper  place  of  leader- 
ship as  strong  men  and  women  in  a  frightened  world. 

North  Carolina  is  on  the  move.  The  people  of  North  Carolina 
can  do  anything  they  want  to  do. 

We  need  your  help,  each  of  you,  in  reaching  out  for  the  chance 
that  today  belongs  to  North  Carolina. 


Elon  College 

November  29,  1961 

In  the  sixth  and  last  of  the  industrial  development  confer- 
ences held  in  various  sections  of  the  state.  Governor  Sanford  re- 
viewed the  problems  and  the  opportunities  of  the  area.  An  area 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

which  represented  "about  the  best  potential  in  the  South  for 
industrial  development"  was  failing  to  utilize  its  resources  of 
people,  water,  good  location  within  overnight  distance  of  great 
population  centers,  capital,  and  good  local  governments  and  local 
organizations  working  for  development.  The  Governor  cited  facts 
to  support  his  thesis  that  the  area  had  not  measured  up.  The  per 
capita  income  was  low;  people,  particularly  younger  citizens,  had 
moved  out  of  the  area  to  seek  employment.  Though  national  and 
state  help  was  available,  the  local  people  were  the  ones  primarily 
responsible  and  the  ones  who  had  to  work  to  see  that  there  was 
over-all  improvement.  Sanford  advised  the  group  that  "You  must 
make  industry  want  you."  He  reminded  those  attending  the  con- 
ference that  not  only  industry  but  also  agriculture  had  not  been 
developed  as  fully  as  possible  and  that  co-operative  endeavor 
would  result  in  mutual  benefits.  In  his  concluding  statements  he 
stressed  the  role  of  education  in  the  picture,  reminding  his  audi- 
ence that  education  was  a  vital  development  resource  which 
should  never  be  overlooked. 


Nags  Head 

December  8,  1961 

Governor  Sanford  recalled  his  election  as  president  of  the 
North  Carolina  YDC  in  1949.  He  said  that  the  Young  Democratic 
Clubs  of  the  nation  were  founded  in  North  Carolina  in  1928; 
since  that  time,  they  had  been  "the  trail  blazer"  for  the  party. 
The  Democratic  party  had  "placed  great  accent  on  young  people 
and  young  ideas."  Examples  of  young  leadership  since  the  Demo- 
crats began  "uninterrupted  service  to  North  Carolina"  in  1901 
and  accomplishments  under  this  leadership  were  remembered. 
The  Governor  said  that  Democrats  did  not  always  agree,  but  that 
the  ties  which  bound  them  were  far  greater  than  the  divisive 
factors.  He  spoke  of  the  Democratic  party  as  a  party  of  principles 
and  progress,  re-enforcing  his  evaluation  with  a  review  of  the 
basic  tenets  and  philosophy  of  the  party.  Sanford  commented  that 
young  Democrats  like  those  at  the  rally  would  assure  North 
Carolina's  progress  with  the  Democratic  party. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 




December  18,  1961 

Sanford  spoke  of  the  magnitude  of  the  traffic  safety  problem  in 
North  Carolina.  In  1960,  1,226  persons  were  killed,  26,947  were 
injured,  and  economic  loss  was  estimated  at  around  |200  million. 
He  said  the  state  realized  its  responsibility  in  this  area,  but  in 
spite  of  efforts  in  many  directions,  statistics  of  death  and  destruc- 
tion continued  to  rise.  The  over-all  responsibility  rested  with 
the  Governor's  Coordinating  Committee  on  Traffic  Safety,  made 
up  of  state  officials  most  directly  concerned  with  traffic  and  high- 
ways. The  Safety  Engineering  Committee  was  studying  traffic 
accident  localities  and  was  seeking  to  improve  highway  engineer- 
ing. Legislation  to  require  motor  vehicle  inspection  was  needed, 
and  the  courts  would  have  to  shoulder  the  burden  of  traffic  law 
enforcement.  Governor  Sanford  commented  that  everyone  agreed 
on  the  goal  of  greater  traffic  safety,  but  the  means  to  this  end 
were  often  disputed.  He  emphasized  the  need  "to  shoot  at  specific 
objectives  with  careful  aim,  rather  than  just  pulling  the  trigger 
on  a  big  blast  and  sitting  back  to  hope  it  does  some  good."  The 
state  should  try  to  eradicate  prejudice  and  listen  to  the  advice  of 
professionals.  He  cited  the  use  of  seat  belts  as  an  illustration  of 
this  point.  Sanford  concluded  that  traffic  safety  was  not  receiving 
the  public  support  it  needed,  making  the  need  for  the  Traffic 
Safety  Council  greater  than  ever. 



January  6,  1962 

Sanford  again  addressed  the  Young  Democratic  Clubs  in  1962. 
In  this  speech  he  illustrated  the  contribution  of  the  Democratic 
party  by  discussing  several  areas:  Tobacco  farmers  were  assured 
an  honest  90  per  cent  of  parity  and  the  over-all  farm  picture  was 
brighter;  the  textile  industry  had  prospered  with  increased  allow- 
ance for  depreciation  provided  by  the  Kennedy  administration; 
loosening  of  tight  Republican  money  policies  meant  more  new 
homes  under  FHA;  slums  were  cleared  under  the  1961  Housing 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Act;  Social  Security  covered  more  people  than  ever  before;  con- 
servation practices  were  being  carried  out  in  the  Appalachian 
and  Cape  Fear  areas.  He  said  that  the  Democrats  had  proved  that 
progress  could  be  made  by  going  forward  in  school  improvement, 
mental  hospitals,  correctional  institutions,  and  road  systems.  San- 
ford reminded  the  YDC  members  that  the  biggest  straw  man  of 
the  Republicans  was  socialism,  followed  by  inflation,  but  that 
the  Republican  answer  to  inflation  was  recession  and  depression. 
Though  Republicans  had  said,  throughout  the  years,  that  the 
Democrats  were  going  to  bankrupt  the  state.  North  Carolina's 
credit  rating  was  AAA.  He  promised  that  Democrats  would  con- 
tinue to  work  to  achieve  full  potential  for  North  Carolina. 



January  11,  1962 

At  the  second  annual  meeting  of  the  North  Carolina  Industrial 
Development  Foundation,  Governor  Sanford  said  the  state  had 
just  completed  the  largest  year  in  history  for  industrial  invest- 
ments. The  state's  profits  from  industry  were  impressive.  In 
1961  businesses  invested  more  than  $279  million  in  new  plants 
in  North  Carolina,  meaning  new  payrolls  of  over  $117  million 
and  new  jobs  for  35,154  persons.  Nationally,  investments  in  new 
plants  were  down  about  3  per  cent;  North  Carolina  had  an  in- 
crease of  18.5  per  cent.  Sanford  said  North  Carolina  sought  new 
industries  to  provide  better  opportunities  for  North  Carolinians 
to  make  better  livings.  The  Governor  asked  for  continued  united 
effort,  pledging  his  administration  to  see  that  tax  money  was  well 
spent.  He  reminded  the  group  that  North  Carolina  was  noted 
for  good,  progressive  government,  and  he  cited  examples  to  prove 
the  point.  Despite  the  high  grade  of  service,  the  state  rated  among 
the  lowest  three  of  all  the  states  in  the  amount  of  taxes  paid  per 
person  for  state  and  local  governments.  In  his  final  remarks,  San- 
ford observed  that  North  Carolina's  problems  were  those  of 
progress  and  growth  and  new  opportunity. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 




January  14,  1962 

Governor  Sanford  described  the  organization  to  which  he  spoke 
on  this  occasion  as  one  dedicated  to  fellowship,  progress,  per- 
petuation of  human  dignity  and  individual  freedom  and  as  one 
which  drew  on  the  ideals  of  Greek  traditions,  such  as  free  thought 
and  action.  After  expressing  appreciation  for  the  honor  of  being 
selected  the  outstanding  Ahepan  of  1961,  he  discussed  the  roots 
of  democracy  in  the  Greek  heritage.  He  showed  how  Western 
civilization  was  indebted  to  Greek  civilization  in  democratic 
theory,  in  Greek  names,  in  architecture,  and  in  other  traditions. 
He  said  that  North  Carolina  was  proud  of  its  Greek  citizens,  and 
the  Governor  emphasized  the  need  of  carrying  on  the  Greek  tra- 
dition of  democracy  and  citizenship. 

January  16,  1962 

In  speaking  to  this  group  of  Mooresville  citizens.  Governor 
Sanford  observed  that  the  expansion  of  industry  in  the  local  area, 
through  fuller  use  of  natural  resources,  was  typical  of  growth 
throughout  the  state.  He  said  that  the  North  Carolina  Trade 
Fair  of  1961  was  designed  to  promote  sales  of  Tar  Heel  products; 
its  success  was  evident  when  plans  were  made  for  a  1962  fair.  The 
Governor  then  specifically  discussed  textiles,  the  number-one 
industry  in  Mooresville  and  the  state.  The  state's  textile  mills 
produced  approximately  half  of  the  nation's  entire  hosiery  out- 
put, and  nearly  half  of  the  American  public  used  towels  and 
linens  produced  in  North  Carolina.  Textile  companies  paid 
approximately  17  per  cent  of  all  corporate  taxes  in  the  state; 
about  one  of  every  two  manufacturing  employees  was  employed 
by  a  textile  company.  The  Governor  then  discussed  federal 
administration  programs  to  help  rejuvenate  the  textile  industry; 
he  urged  the  citizens  to  rally  behind  the  foreign  trade  program 
in  return.  He  ended  with  a  reminder  that  challenges  produced 
opportunties,  and  that  this  part  of  "the  free  world  has  the  talent, 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

the  courage,  and  the  determination  to  meet  those  problems  and 
achieve  those  potentials." 

Chapel  Hill 
January  18,  1962 

After  opening  his  address  with  a  bit  of  sarcasm  directed  at  the 
press  and  a  few  jibes  at  his  own  public  image,  Governor  Sanford 
turned  to  a  thoughtful  reflection  on  the  role  of  the  press  in  con- 
temporary society.  Constructive  criticism  from  the  press  helped 
raise  schools  and  raze  slums,  helped  the  poor,  helped  bring  in 
industry,  and  helped  build  new  schools.  The  newspaper,  "a  daily 
diary  and  a  daily  forecast  for  all  of  man's  activities  and  all  of  his 
world,"  naturally  emphasized  the  dramatic  and  the  controversial. 
There  were  many  stories,  however,  of  equal  significance  though 
perhaps  less  dramatic,  on  such  matters  as  the  results  of  the  school 
tax,  on  new  industry,  and  on  other  aspects  of  state  governmental 
activities.  The  Governor  expressed  hope  that  many  of  these  would 
be  written  during  1962.  He  predicted  that  the  state  would  have 
problems  but  they  would  be  problems  of  progress  and  growth 
and  opportunity;  these,  too,  would  be  stories  of  sufficient  interest 
to  be  covered  by  the  press. 

 .  \. 



January  30,  1962 

[In  a  three-day  meeting,  persons  concerned  with  highway  building  met 
to  exchange  ideas,  hear  prominent  speakers,  and  attend  technical  discus- 
sions. Among  other  speakers  were  D.  Grant  Mickle,  Deputy  Highway  Admin- 
istrator for  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Public  Roads,  and  J.  M.  Sprouse, 
Director  of  Associated  General  Contractors  of  the  Highway  Construction 
Division.  In  his  address,  Governor  Sanford  traced  progress  in  the  field  of 
transportation  and  then  took  the  opportunity  to  support  his  faith  in  the 
integrity  of  state  government  despite  the  basketball  scandals  and  the  irregu- 
lar dealings  in  the  Highway  Department,  troubles  which  had  occurred 
during  the  previous  months.  See  statement  on  Burch-Brewer  Case,  January  7, 
1962,  pages  560-563.] 

It  is  a  pleasure  to  join  personnel  of  the  State  Highway  Depart- 
ment, faculty  members  and  students  of  North  Carolina  State 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


College's  School  of  Engineering,  and  road  builders  in  this 
Fourth  Annual  Highway  Conference. 

On  behalf  of  the  state,  I  am  happy  to  welcome  all  of  the  out- 
of-town  guests  to  this  conference. 

As  I  interpret  the  purpose  of  this  conference,  you  are  here  to 
develop  and  exchange  ideas  on  how  to  give  the  citizens  of  this 
state  good  roads  at  the  most  economically  feasible  price. 

North  Carolina  has  a  long  history  of  road  building.  Many  of 
you  here  today  will  recall  that  North  Carolina  bore  the  nickname 
of  ''good  roads  state"  some  time  before  many  of  our  sister  states 
thought  it  was  necessary  to  pave  roads. 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  our  good  roads  policy  goes  back  to  the 
time  of  Revolutionary  War.  When  President  George  Washington 
made  his  tour  of  the  southern  states,  shortly  after  his  first  election, 
he  rode  in  North  Carolina  on  good  roads. 

One  of  the  earliest  long-range  road  planners  of  whom  we  have 
any  record  in  this  country  was  a  North  Carolinian  named  Daniel 
Boone.  As  you  engineers  know,  there  are  superhighways  today 
along  parts  of  the  route  he  took  west. 

My  only  argument  with  Boone's  long-range  planning  was  that 
he  didn't  stake  off  rights-of-way  when  he  made  his  journey  and 
save  us  all  of  those  costs  today. 

In  the  1920's,  when  the  use  of  automobiles  was  just  getting 
into  high  gear,  Governor  Cameron  Morrison  had  the  vision  to 
see  that  if  North  Carolina  was  going  to  grow  and  prosper  she 
would  need  good  roads.  So  he,  and  later  Governor  Angus  Mc- 
Lean, proposed  bond  issues  to  link  the  county  seats  of  our  state. 
That  was  an  awesome  task  and  it  involved  many  millions  of  dol- 
lars. Some  critics  thought  those  road  bonds  were  paving  the 
way  straight  to  the  poorhouse.  But  you  and  I  know  that  those 
bonds  were  paving  the  route  to  a  more  prosperous  citizenry. 

In  the  forties,  Governor  W.  Kerr  Scott  had  the  foresight  to 
recognize  that  if  we  wanted  to  build  the  economy  of  all  the  state, 
we  couldn't  leave  over  half  the  state  bogged  down  on  muddy 

Kerr  Scott  knew  that  if  you  provided  all-weather  roads  to  the 
country,  the  farmer  could  get  his  produce  to  town  to  sell  it.  And 
Kerr  Scott  knew  that  if  the  farmer  got  his  produce  sold,  he  would 
buy  the  manufactured  goods  in  the  stores  in  town  to  haul  back 
to  the  farm. 

Scott  had  the  courage  to  propose  a  $200  million  road  bond  pro- 
gram to  get  the  farmer  out  of  the  mud.  And  the  citizens  of  North 
Carolina  had  the  courage  to  adopt  that  program. 

Many  of  you  will  remember  criticism  of  the  Scott  bond  issue. 
It  was  supposed  to  pave  the  way  to  bankruptcy.  But  it  didn't.  It 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

helped  pave  the  route  to  the  greatest  era  of  industrialization  we 
have  ever  enjoyed  in  North  Carolina. 

Today  those  farm-to-market  roads  are  among  the  strongest 
selling  points  our  state  has.  For  the  industrial  employees  can  travel 
those  "Scott-tops"  to  their  jobs  in  town  every  working  day  in  the 
year.  And  plants  can  be  located  away  from  congested  areas. 

North  Carolina  was  ready  in  the  fifties  to  get  a  running  start 
on  the  interstate  highway  system.  Because  we  were  ready,  we  were 
able  to  translate  the  drawings  of  the  drafting  board  into  highways 
in  an  expeditious  manner.  The  motorists  of  North  Carolina  to- 
day are  driving  on  superhighways  that  were  only  pencil  lines  on 
a  map  at  the  Highway  Department  a  few  years  ago. 

Now  before  any  of  you  folks  at  the  Highway  Department  start 
asking  for  a  raise  and  before  any  of  you  contractors  start  taking 
bows,  let  me  say  that  the  taxpayers  of  this  state  are  not  going  to 
be  satisfied  until  every  mile  and  every  foot  of  this  interstate 
system  allocated  to  North  Carolina  is  paved,  and  every  shoulder 
is  built,  and  every  detour  sign  is  removed. 

The  job  I  have  requires  a  lot  of  travel.  And  despite  some  sug- 
gestions to  the  contrary,  a  lot  more  of  my  trips  are  made  by  car 
than  by  plane.  I  believe  I  am  speaking  for  all  the  traveling  citi- 
zens of  North  Carolina  when  I  tell  you  that  there  is  nothing  quite 
as  frustrating  as  riding  down  a  crowded  two-lane  highway  month 
after  month  and  look  across  an  island  and  see  another  two  lanes 
blocked  off  because  they're  not  quite  finished.  I  realize  you  some- 
times run  into  rock.  And  I  know  the  weather  washes  you  out 
from  time  to  time.  And  I  know  there  are  100  good  reasons  for 
delay  in  building  a  highway  the  way  it  ought  to  be  built.  But  there 
are  1,907,988  good  reasons  to  keep  those  delays  to  a  minimum  and 
to  get  those  roads  open  as  quickly  as  good  engineering  permits. 
Those  1,907,988  reasons  are  the  number  of  vehicles  registered 
in  our  state.  And  I'm  not  even  counting  the  backseat  drivers  of 
those  vehicles. 

In  1961  this  administration  took  a  long,  hard  look  at  the 
money  available  for  roads  in  our  state,  especially  money  available 
for  secondary  roads.  We  found  that  after  we  deducted  all  the 
money  we  had  to  deduct  to  match  federal  road  funds,  and  after 
we  deducted  all  the  money  necessary  to  maintain  the  roads  we 
already  have,  and  after  we  made  all  the  other  deductions  that  are 
necessary,  we  hardly  had  enough  money  left  to  pave  a  secondary 
road  from  here  to  Hillsboro  Street. 

So  the  administration  proposed,  and  the  1961  General  Assembly 
approved,  measures  to  stop  the  diversion  of  highway  funds.  And 
we  shook  loose  some  bookkeeping  funds  that  hadn't  been  working 
for  us.  As  a  result,  the  State  Highway  Commission  intends  to 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


pave  more  secondary  roads  this  year  than  in  any  year  since  Ken- 
Scott's  road  bond  program. 

This  does  not  mean  we  are  going  to  neglect  our  interstate  and 
primary  system.  On  the  contrary,  we  are  going  to  spend  approxi- 
mately 10  per  cent  more  on  the  interstate  and  primary  system 
than  the  average  for  the  last  two  years.  We  intend  to  spend  this 
money  where  it  is  most  needed  and  where  it  will  do  the  most 
good  in  developing  the  state  of  North  Carolina.  And  let  me  say 
with  all  the  force  of  my  command,  that  we  intend  for  this  money 
to  be  spent  without  favoritism. 

The  state  of  North  Carolina  and  the  State  Highway  Depart- 
ment have  a  deservedly  high  reputation  for  honesty  and  efficiency. 
This  reputation  goes  back  over  many,  many  years.  And  it  goes 
out  to  all  the  corners  of  this  country. 

The  honest  and  hard-working  employees  of  the  State  Highway 
Department  have  built  that  reputation  over  the  years— ever  since 
we  started  building  roads  in  North  Carolina.  I  am  proud  of  them, 
and  I  know  the  citizens  of  North  Carolina,  who  are  the  employers, 
are  proud  of  them. 

In  recent  years,  a  malignant  idea  has  grown  in  our  nation  that 
greasing  a  palm  here  and  there  is  good  business.  This  notion  has 
nothing  to  do  with  a  particular  political  party.  It's  a  disease  that 
threatens  the  great  majority  of  honest  and  law-abiding  citizens 
who  foot  the  bill.  Sometimes  it  comes  in  the  form  of  vicuna  rugs 
at  the  White  House.  Sometimes  it  comes  in  the  form  of  a  deep 

In  recent  years,  this  corrupt  concept  that  everything  can  be 
fixed  has  stretched  its  slimy  paws  up  into  the  offices  of  some  of 
the  largest  companies  in  our  country  and  resulted  in  price-fixing. 
And  it  has  stretched  down  onto  the  basketball  courts  of  colleges 
and  resulted  in  point-fixing. 

Last  spring.  North  Carolina  let  it  be  known  to  everyone  doing 
business  with  the  state  of  North  Carolina  that  we  were  not  going 
to  let  the  citizens  of  this  state  be  cheated  through  price-fixing.  Last 
summer,  we  let  it  be  known  that  we  were  not  going  to  tolerate 
the  corruption  of  our  sports.  This  month,  we  have  said  in  as  clear 
a  language  that  I  know  that  this  administration  and  this  state 
will  tolerate  irregular  dealings  neither  on  the  roads  of  North 
Carolina  nor  in  any  other  departments  for  that  matter. 

That's  not  the  way  we  do  business  in  North  Carolina. 

State  employees  are  honest  and  we  are  not  going  to  jeopardize 
their  reputations  or  the  reputation  of  the  state. 

The  citizens  of  North  Carolina  pay  into  public  funds  for  public 
roads.  And  there  are  not  going  to  be  any  under-the-table,  or  back- 
street  deals  going  on  as  long  as  this  administration  is  in  office. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

The  state  of  North  Carolina  and  the  State  Highway  Commis- 
sion have  a  policy  of  spending  public  money  honestly  and  care- 
fully. Nowhere  in  our  system  of  purchase  and  contracts  or  in  our 
low  bid  system  or  in  our  allocation  of  the  taxpayers'  money  is 
there  a  clause  which  mentions  or  implies  that  somebody's  hand 
should  be  greased. 

Let  me  make  it  as  clear  as  I  possibly  can:  Companies  doing 
business  with  the  state  of  North  Carolina  do  not  have  to  go 
through  influence  peddlers.  If  a  company  goes  through  influence 
peddlers,  it  will  lose  its  business  with  the  state  of  North  Carolina 
the  day  we  catch  them.  The  state  of  North  Carolina  does  not  do 
business  with  fixers. 

Any  company  that  thinks  it  has  found  an  "in"  for  getting  the 
state's  business  through  a  back  door  is  going  to  find  a  little  later 
that  it  is  barred  from  doing  business  with  this  state. 

The  state  of  North  Carolina  is  going  to  protect  its  reputation 
against  any  isolated  case  of  irregularities. 

And  the  state  of  North  Carolina  is  going  jealously  to  guard 
every  penny,  nickle,  dime,  and  dollar  of  the  taxpayers'  money. 

Thank  you. 


Salem,  Virginia 
February  I,  1962 

In  speaking  to  the  Salem,  Virginia,  Chamber  of  Commerce, 
Governor  Sanford  took  again  the  theme  of  education.  He  stressed 
the  responsibility  of  the  state  in  the  field  of  education,  adding 
that  the  state  was  well  repaid  for  carrying  out  its  responsibilities. 
The  economy  was  raised  when  the  citizens  were  educated;  the 
ranks  of  unemployed  were  primarily  from  the  group  lacking 
education.  Sanford  reminded  the  audience  of  Roosevelt's  com- 
mentary on  the  South  as  the  number-one  economic  problem  of 
the  nation.  He  said  the  South  had  worked  to  move  forward,  and 
North  Carolina  was  cited  as  an  example  of  a  state  which  had 
succeeded  in  attracting  new  industry.  Chambers  of  commerce, 
governmental  agencies,  and  others  worked  toward  this  goal,  but 
provision  for  training  made  by  the  state  was  a  chief  factor.  Indus- 
trial education  centers  provided  technical  skills,  but  the  state  was 
also  concerned  for  a  broad  education  for  its  citizens.  Sanford  said 
that  education  was  fundamental  for  long-range  economic  develop- 
ment and  was  also  vital  for  short-range  goals.  Education  was 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


essential  if  the  income  of  the  South  was  to  rise.  He  concluded 
with  a  definition  of  education  as  "the  golden  door  to  liberty  and 



February  2,  1962 

As  part  of  the  observance  of  Brotherhood  Week,  Governor 
Sanford  commented  that  nearly  all  religions  subscribed  to  a  be- 
lief in  the  ultimate  aim  of  universal  brotherhood.  He  added  that 
men  had  compromised  their  beliefs  by  relying  on  themselves 
rather  than  God,  that  the  ideal  of  brotherhood  still  existed 
though  its  application  was  hard.  Governor  Sanford  called  on  the 
people  to  draw  on  their  heritage  for  courage  and  inspiration,  say- 
ing that  the  United  States  was  founded  on  brotherhood  and  the 
belief  of  responsibility  to  one's  fellowmen.  Brotherhood  Week, 
1962,  offered  a  challenge  to  meet  the  goal  of  universal  brother- 



February  6,  1962 

The  Governor  spoke  in  Granville  County  on  the  occasion  of 
the  etablishment  of  two  new  plants:  JFD  Electronics-Southern 
and  Outdoor  Supply  Company,  Inc.  He  commended  the  local 
citizens  for  their  initiative,  adding  that  promotion  and  work  un- 
dertaken by  state  government  in  Raleigh  existed  because  of  local 
needs  and  wishes.  He  pointed  out  the  inability  of  state  govern- 
ment to  educate  a  million  children,  to  grow  agricultural  products, 
and  to  perform  other  tasks  needed  by  the  people.  What  the 
government  could  do  was  provide  texts  and  teachers,  supply  the 
results  of  research  from  laboratories  and  offices,  and  give  assist- 
ance in  many  fields.  Attracting  new  industry  had  been  a  joint 
local-state  project;  new  plants,  new  payrolls,  and  a  better  economy 
resulted.  Sanford  commented  that  North  Carolina  had  extended 
advantages  to  all  businesses:  an  excellent  climate;  a  tax  structure 
of  equality;  a  labor  market  made  up  of  efficient  and  hardworking 
employees  rather  than  cheap  workers;  a  good  place  to  live,  with 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

its  educational  program,  mental  health  hospital  system,  credit 
rating,  and  transportation  facilities.  North  Carolina,  a  good  place 
to  work  and  a  good  place  to  live,  welcomed  the  two  new  industries 
locating  in  Granville  County. 



February  22,  1962 

As  he  had  done  many  times  before  and  would  do  repeatedly  in 
the  future.  Governor  Sanford  spoke  on  the  subject  of  education, 
which  he  called  "the  chief  weapon  in  the  arsenal  of  democracy. 
.  .  ."  He  observed  that  ignorance  and  freedom  did  not  go  to- 
gether, that  improvement  in  public  education  was,  therefore,  the 
primary  goal  of  his  administration.  He  applauded  members  of 
the  General  Assembly  who  had  carried  out  the  wishes  of  the 
people  for  improved  educational  opportunities  and  had  voted 
funds  to  support  the  program.  With  additional  financial  support, 
improvements  had  been  made  and  were  being  made.  The  Gov- 
ernor advocated  a  conference  on  education  in  every  county  during 
1962,  with  as  many  people  as  possible  in  attendance.  He  told  the 
North  Carolina  Citizens  Committee  for  Better  Schools  that  cer- 
tain areas  belonged  to  the  professionals  and  others  to  the  laymen. 
In  closing,  he  stated,  "What  our  schools  are  today  will  determine, 
in  large  measure,  what  our  people  will  be  tomorrow." 



March  1,  1962 

[Governor  Sanford  many  times  observed  that  the  ultimate  success  of  the 
quality  education  program  lay  in  student  hands.  In  this  television  address 
to  the  students  of  North  Carolina,  he  spoke  to  more  than  a  million  young 
people,  explaining  to  them  their  opportunities  and  obligations  under  the 
quality  education  program  enacted  by  the  1961  General  Assembly.  The 
"folksy"  language  used  in  this  talk  was  typical  of  the  many  short  speeches 
Sanford  made  to  school  children;  this  speech  easily  shows  how  he  was  able 
to  establish  rapport  with  his  young  audiences.] 

For  some  time  I've  wanted  to  get  all  of  you  together,  all  of  the 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


students  of  the  state.  I  want  to  talk  to  you.  And  I  hope  you'll 
remember  as  I  talk  that  you  form  a  complex  audience.  Some  of 
you  are  in  high  school  and  think  like  adults;  others  of  you  are 
little  tots  just  starting  out.  You  are  varied  company,  not  only  in 
ages,  either.  You  come  from  fishing  families  down  on  the  coast; 
maybe  a  few  of  you  spent  last  Saturday  on  a  trawl  boat.  Others 
of  you  are  from  the  cities,  where  your  fathers  might  work  in 
factories  or  in  offices  or  might  keep  the  streets  safe  and  clean. 
Many  of  you  are  from  the  country.  Your  parents  grow  tobacco 
or  livestock  or  maybe  goats,  as  does  Mr.  Carl  Sandburg  up  in 
the  mountains. 

You  are  of  different  religious  faiths.  You  are  of  different  races. 
Some  of  you  live  in  rich  houses,  some  of  you  don't.  Some  of  you 
are  Indians— did  you  think  of  that?  So  you  see  what  sort  of  audi- 
ence you  are.  Indians  and  non-Indians,  you're  all  members  in 
good  standing  of  the  student  population  of  our  state. 

And  you're  just  about  the  most  important  part  of  all  because 
the  future  belongs  to  you,  and  the  future— the  future  of  you,  our 
children— is  our  most  valuable  possession. 

My  purpose  in  talking  to  you  tonight  is  to  tell  you  about  the 
things  you  can  do  to  help  in  North  Carolina's  program  of  educa- 
tion, because  that  is  our  future. 

Why,  all  of  a  sudden,  are  we  talking  so  much  about  education? 
What  is  this  "quality  education"  you've  been  hearing  about? 
Is  this  something  new?  Is  this  something  we  haven't  had  before? 

As  a  matter  of  fact  we  have  had  a  comparatively  good  school 
system  across  the  state  since  the  days  of  Charles  Brantley  Aycock 
and  an  excellent  school  system  in  some  counties. 

But  now  as  never  before,  education  is  becoming  more  and 
more  esssential.  Because  it  is  more  important  than  ever  before, 
everybody  is  working  to  make  it  more  effective. 

I'd  like  to  think  with  you  about  your  future.  I  want  you  to  try 
to  get  a  picture  of  it  in  your  mind.  It  won't  be  easy  to  see  the 
future.  It  wasn't  at  all  possible  for  me,  when  I  was  a  boy  in 
Laurinburg,  to  see  the  future  well.  For  example,  when  I  started 
school  we  didn't  have  television.  Not  only  did  we  not  have  it,  we 
didn't  even  believe  it.  If  you  had  told  me  about  television,  I 
would  have  thought  you  were  trying  to  be  funny.  When  I  started 
school  there  were  very  few  electric  refrigerators.  We  bought  our 
ice  from  an  ice  wagon  which  was  drawn  by  a  horse.  In  hot 
weather  your  mother  would  buy  10  cents  worth  of  ice,  unless 
you  had  company  and  iced  tea  and  then  you  bought  an  extra 
nickle's  worth.  I  thought  this  was  the  way  it  would  always  be, 
that  the  future  would  always  have  ice  wagons  in  it. 

Back  then  there  wasn't  so  much  danger  of  being  run  over  by  a 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

car,  either.  There  weren't  many  cars.  To  get  from  Laurinburg 
to  Winston-Salem  was  quite  a  trip,  and  to  go  as  far  as  Asheville 
was  a  journey,  and  going  as  far  as  Memphis,  Tennessee,  wasn't 
even  talked  about.  I  remember  writing  a  theme  about  the  great 
progress  of  mankind  after  completing  an  automobile  trip  to 
Maxton  and  back— twelve  miles. 

But  there  has  been  at  least  one  miracle  performed  every  year 
since  I  started  the  first  grade.  And  just  the  other  day  our  country 
sent  a  man  around  the  world.  He  went  around  the  world  three 
times  in  less  than  half  a  workday.  It's  impossible,  but  it's  so.  Be- 
fore long  somebody  will  be  going  to  the  moon.  Some  of  you  will 
go  and  see  what  the  man  in  the  moon  looks  like  from  close  up. 
Maybe  you  can  explore  Mars  and  see  what  Venus  has  on  it,  or 
go  on  into  the  distant  universes.  It's  true.  Yet  I  never  could  have 
foreseen  it  as  a  boy.  I  remember  when  the  comic  strip  Buck  Rogers 
first  came  out.  It  showed  a  rocket  ship  circling  the  earth,  and 
nobody  that  I  knew  believed  it. 

We  know  now  that  your  future  will  be  full  of  miracles.  How  do 
you  prepare  for  a  future  like  that?  How  can  you  get  ready  for 
1980,  or  for  2010?  The  only  reasonable  answer  is  to  advise  you 
to  stock  up  now  on  education. 

That  means  readin',  writin',  and  'rithmetic,  among  other  things. 
An  elderly  man  told  me  years  ago  that  those  three  were  all  a 
person  needed.  This  was  possibly  true  when  he  was  a  boy.  He 
had  a  nice  big  farm  and  a  happy  family.  The  family  had  most  of 
what  it  needed  there  at  home.  The  cloth  was  made  from  cotton, 
or  linsey-woolsey,  made  from  wool  and  linen.  They  had  droves 
of  hogs.  They  had  big  mules  to  pull  the  plow.  They  had  a  buggy 
to  drive  to  worship  in  or  to  go  to  town  to  fetch  salt  or  sugar  or 
coffee.  Their  life  was  well  ordered.  They  did  what  others  had 
done  before  them,  and  about  the  most  change  that  ever  happened 
from  day  to  day  was  the  change  that  came  in  the  weather. 

But  now  our  times  have  changed,  haven't  they?  And  you'll  need 
to  know  readin',  writin',  and  'rithmetic,  but  you'll  also  need  to 
know  more.  Unlike  that  old  gentleman,  and  unlike  the  time  when 
I  started  to  school,  you  happen  to  be  living  in  the  most  rapidly 
moving,  fastest  changing,  complex  age  the  world  has  ever  known. 
That  makes  education— in  many  fields,  and  about  many  things- 
more  necessary  than  ever  before. 

Maybe  you're  interested  in  sciences  and  engineering.  They've 
become  a  big  part  of  our  world,  and  they'll  be  important  in  yours. 
Many  of  you  little  children  know  how  to  turn  a  television  set  on. 
It  seems  to  me  that  there's  not  a  child  in  the  state  too  young  to 
learn  that.  But  how  do  you  suppose  the  set  works?  How  does  my 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


picture  get  on  your  screen?  How  does  my  voice  get  into  your 
set?  The  answers  are  in  the  sciences. 

How  does  your  father's  car  or  truck  work?  You  can  sit  in  the 
front  seat  and  see  that  the  pedals  are  pushed  and  the  steering 
wheel  is  turned,  but  you  know  as  well  as  I  do  that  foot  pedals 
and  a  steering  wheel  don't  make  much  of  a  car.  You  have  to  know 
engineering  to  make  a  car. 

Or  how  is  a  book  printed? 

Or  why  is  it  that  the  doctor  can  put  a  spot  of  liquid  on  your 
arm  and  keep  you  from  getting  smallpox? 

How  is  it  that  an  X-ray  machine  can  see  through  your  clothes, 
and  right  through  your  skin,  and  take  a  picture  of  your  lungs,  so 
that  a  man  trained  to  do  so  can  tell  you  if  you  have  TB? 

How  is  it  that  a  building  can  be  made  forty  stories  high  and 
stay  put?  Try  sometimes  to  set  forty  blocks  on  top  of  one  another 
and  see  if  they  stay. 

Think  about  your  house.  Most  of  you  have  electricity  in  it. 
What  is  that?  How  did  it  get  there?  How  does  it  make  machinery 

Farming  is  another  profession  you  might  be  interested  in,  scien- 
tifically tending  to  the  cattle  and  the  crops,  raising  chickens  and 
pigs.  In  that  case,  you  surely  need  a  sound  education.  Farming  has 
become  a  complicated  procedure.  Farmers  tell  me  that  they  feel 
like  chemists  part  of  the  time.  They  have  to  buy  their  chickens 
special  tablets  and  drops.  They  have  to  get  their  soil  tested  and 
buy  the  fertilizer  prescribed  for  it.  There  are  sprays  for  insects 
and  poisons  for  rodents. 

There  are  many  other  types  of  jobs,  of  course.  You  might  want 
to  go  into  business.  Well,  you'd  better  get  an  education,  hadn't 
you?  You  might  want  to  operate  a  grocery  store;  better  get  an 
education.  Do  you  see  how  far  the  supermarket  has  changed  from 
the  little  country  stores?  Do  you  think  they've  stopped  changing? 
No,  chances  are  that  stores  will  change  more  in  the  next  twenty 
years  than  they  have  in  the  last  twenty  years.  How  will  they  be 
different?  I  don't  know.  They'll  be  different  in  the  ways  edu- 
cated men  and  women  make  them  different.  And  if  you  want  to 
run  a  store,  you'll  need  to  be  an  educated  man  or  woman. 

Some  of  you  will  want  to  be  teachers.  Some  of  you  will  want 
to  be  religious  leaders.  Some  of  you  might  want  to  work  on  the 
railroad.  Well,  you'll  need  to  know  as  much  as  you  can  grasp  and 
contain.  And  let  me  say  this  to  you,  that  I  hope  you  will  settle 
on  a  high  ambition  for  yourself,  on  a  good  one.  You  have  a  right 
to  dream  of  playing  a  special  part  in  our  country. 

Our  schools  will  train  you  to  go  to  college  if  that  is  what  you 
want  to  do.  I  hope  you  will.  Not  enough  of  our  boys  and  girls 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

with  great  ability  go  on  for  advanced  training.  Why  not?  If  you 
have  the  ability  and  the  ambition  you  can  go  to  college.  Don't 
let  anyone  discourage  you.  In  North  Carolina  our  schools  will 
help  you  find  a  way.  We  don't  want  you  to  waste  your  talents. 

But  our  schools  aren't  limited  by  any  means  to  training  people 
for  college.  We  are  trying  to  develop  the  kind  of  program  which 
will  train  you  for  life.  There  is  no  reason  in  the  world  why  you 
should  finish  school  and  face  life  without  having  a  skill  that  will 
enable  you  to  earn  a  better  living.  If  you've  got  the  ambition, 
we've  got  the  school.  If  you  can't  get  it  in  your  local  school,  you 
can  go  on  to  our  industrial  training  centers,  a  part  of  our  school 

Our  purpose  is  to  say  to  every  boy  and  girl,  "What  is  your  am- 
bition? What  do  you  want  to  do?" 

And  our  answer  to  your  response  is,  "We  can  help  you  do  it." 

Do  you  want  to  be  an  automobile  mechanic,  a  practical  nurse, 
a  welder,  a  dental  assistant,  a  machinist,  a  space  scientist,  a  lab 
technician,  a  better  farmer,  a  chemist,  a  bookkeeper,  an  electrical 
engineer,  a  surveyor,  a  teacher,  a  veterinarian? 

We  can  provide  the  training  for  these  and  a  thousand  other 
occupations.  But  you  have  got  to  provide  the  ambition.  You  have 
got  to  provide  the  "get-up  and  go." 

Make  up  your  mind  that  you  are  not  going  to  drift  through 
life,  that  you  are  going  to  develop  your  skills  and  your  mind.  If 
you  do,  we  can  help  you.  Talk  to  your  teacher,  or  principal,  or 
counselor.  Pick  a  career. 

If  you  are  out  of  high  school,  or  didn't  quite  finish,  it  is  not 
too  late  to  make  a  new  start.  Perhaps  you  have  an  older  brother 
or  sister  who  dropped  out.  Talk  to  him  or  her  and  say  that  we 
have  the  means  of  providing  training  if  he  or  she  will  provide  the 

If  you  can't  find  out  locally  what  you  need  to  know,  write  to 

I  am  personally  interested  in  every  young  person  in  this  state, 
and  I  say  to  you  that  there  is  no  reason  for  anyone  not  to  be 
trained  in  a  skill.  This  is  our  program.  This  is  our  goal.  There  is 
no  place  for  unskilled  labor  tomorrow,  and  today  is  the  time  to 

Thomas  Wolfe  once  said  that  we  should  give  every  man  his 
chance,  his  shining,  golden  opportunity  to  work,  to  be  himself, 
and  to  become  whatever  thing  his  manhood  and  his  vision  could 
combine  to  make  him.  He  said  this  was  the  promise  of  America. 
And  so  it  is  for  all  of  you,  rich  and  poor,  girl  and  boy,  white  and 
colored  of  this  state.  Maybe  you  haven't  been  taking  seriously 
your  school  up  to  now.  It's  time  you  did.  I  don't  mean  school 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


should  be  a  burden.  It  shouldn't,  but  don't  sell  yourself  at  a 
bargain  counter.  Get  a  goal  in  mind  and  work  toward  it,  prepare 
yourself.  Sharpen  your  ax  keen.  One  thing  we  can  all  say  about 
the  future.  The  only  ax  that's  going  to  cut  a  thing  is  going  to 
have  to  be  keen. 

I'd  like  to  go  a  step  further  with  you,  not  to  talk  about  other 
jobs,  but  to  say  another  word  about  education.  Schooling  isn't  a 
matter  of  jobs  only.  Schooling  joins  with  your  parents  and  your 
community  and  religious  leaders  to  help  you  become  a  productive 
person  in  your  own  right.  And  you  as  a  person,  and  you  and  the 
family  you  will  have  someday,  are  of  major  consequence.  And  so 
is  your  relationship  with  the  community  as  a  whole. 

The  communities  we  live  in  today  have  widened  and  enlarged 
themselves.  We  travel  faster  now.  In  a  sense,  science  has  brought 
all  of  us  closer  together  and  into  a  community.  Thirty  years  ago 
Asia  wasn't  much  more  than  a  romantic  word;  today  products 
made  by  Asiatic  workers  are  trying  to  compete  with  products 
made  in  North  Carolina,  competing  not  only  in  Asia,  but  in  this 
country,  and  even  in  this  state.  Time  was  when  a  plague  might 
strike  a  country,  and  we  wouldn't  even  hear  about  it  until  it  was 
over.  Today  we  hear  about  it  a  few  minutes  after  it's  detected, 
and  we  can  fly  medicine  to  the  place,  if  we  choose  to,  if  we  want 
to  save  lives. 

The  Bible  teaches  us  to  love  our  neighbors.  It  teaches  us  to 
love  even  enemies,  too,  which  is  asking  more  than  some  of  us 
seem  to  be  able  to  deliver.  We  live  in  a  time  when  almost  all  of 
the  world's  people  are  neighbors,  in  a  sense,  and  when  many  of 
them  are  enemies.  This  is  so  today,  and  in  the  future  it  is  likely 
to  become  even  more  important,  as  we  are  brought  even  closer 
together  in  a  community. 

Some  people  are  afraid  of  this  association.  They  don't  want  to 
get  involved  in  other  people's  affairs,  or  to  have  others  telling 
us  what  they  think  we  ought  to  do.  They  suggest  we  withdraw, 
pull  back.  What  they  haven't  told  us  is  where  we  are  going  to 
withdraw.  In  effect,  they  are  saying  that  they  prefer  the  olden 
days  to  the  atomic  age,  that  they  had  rather  have  the  ice  wagon 
than  rocket  power.  I  can  understand  their  view,  and  so,  I'm  sure, 
can  you.  But  you  probably  can  understand,  too,  their  faulty 
thinking.  We  cannot  abandon  the  rocket  world,  even  if  we  wanted 
to,  and  there  are  no  ice  wagons. 

Well,  we're  going  into  this  new  age.  We  have  no  choice  about 
that,  and  how  do  we  get  ready  for  it? 

I  know  many  of  you  are  studying  a  foreign  language.  Please 
learn  it  well,  and  if  you  have  the  courage  and  mind  for  it,  learn 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Some  of  you  are  studying  the  literature  of  other  peoples.  Absorb 
as  much  meaning  from  it  as  you  can.  Literature  helps  us  under- 
stand a  people. 

Many  of  you  are  studying  world  history.  Please  come  to  grips 
with  it  intelligently.  You  are  going  to  need  to  know  it  long  after 
you  have  finished  the  course,  if  you  are  to  participate  intelligently 
in  the  affairs  which  are  ahead  for  us  all. 

I  know  you  are  studying  American  history.  Study  it  carefully. 
Consider  its  spirit  and  its  power.  Our  Declaration  of  Independence 
was  the  first  clear  call  to  freedom  sounded  by  a  nation's  leaders; 
it  began  a  revolution  which  has  spread  throughout  the  world, 
and  the  echoes  of  it  still  reverberate  in  this  country,  in  this  state, 
and  they  are  coming  back  to  us  from  other  places. 

I  know  many  of  you  are  studying  North  Carolina  history.  I 
recommend  that,  too.  Let  me  tell  you  about  a  few  men  in  that 
story.  There's  William  Davie,^^  who  founded  our  state  university. 
Before  that,  he  was  a  cavalryman  in  our  Revolution.  With  a 
handful  of  men  he  stood  at  the  crossroads  of  the  little  town  of 
Charlotte  and  held  at  bay  for  more  than  a  day  the  entire  army 
of  the  British  General  Cornwallis. 

Another  man  is  Archibald  Murphey,^^  who  came  later.  We 
were  a  poor  state  in  a  new  struggling  country,  and  in  the  early 
part  of  the  nineteenth  century,  Murphey  begged  us  to  make 
better  roads,  to  build  canals,  to  begin  educating  our  children. 
But  he  was  rejected,  and  the  state  languished  in  deeper  and 
deeper  poverty.  We  become  known  as  the  "Rip  Van  Winkle 

But  once  we  reached  the  twentieth  century,  we  found  such  men 
as  Charles  Aycock,  and  for  the  four  years  he  was  governor  a 
school  was  built  every  day.  Other  men  made  our  roads,  opened 
our  harbors.  So  in  our  century  North  Carolina  has  moved  into 
the  forefront  of  the  South  and  has  attracted  the  admiration  of 
the  country. 

Yes,  study  the  history  of  North  Carolina.  It  has  some  sad 
stories  in  it,  but  there's  good  spirit  and  plenty  of  hope  in  it,  too. 
And  seek  to  grasp  the  feelings  of  poetry,  of  music,  of  paintings, 

William  Richardson  Davie  (1756-1820),  Revolutionary  soldier,  early  statesman; 
Governor  of  North  Carolina,  1798-1799;  called  "father  of  the  University  of  North 
Carolina"  for  his  many  efforts  on  behalf  of  that  institution.  Crabtree,  North  Caro- 
lina Governors,  56-57. 

^Archibald  Debow  Murphey  (1777-1832),  statesman  and  lawyer  from  Hills- 
borough, teacher  at  the  University  of  North  Carolina;  state  senator,  1812-1818; 
champion  of  internal  improvements,  universal  education,  and  constitutional  re- 
form. Samuel  A.  Ashe  and  Others  (eds.)  ,  Biographical  History  of  North  Carolina: 
From  Colonial  Times  to  the  Present  (Greensboro:  Charles  L.  Van  Noppen,  8  vol- 
umes, 1905-1917)  ,  IV,  340,  348,  hereinafter  cited  as  Ashe,  Biographical  History. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


of  the  best  plays  and  writing.  Through  such  achievements  we 
come  face  to  face  with  the  best,  most  sympathetic  understanding 
of  ourselves.  And  it's  through  such  achievements  that  we  are 
able  to  present  ourselves  to  others. 

So  I  recommend  to  you  that  all  of  us  learn  to  communicate 
better  what  we  are  and  believe,  and  that  we  learn  to  listen 
intelligently  to  others,  so  that  the  community  of  mankind  will 
have  in  your  time  its  greatest  flourishing. 

You  see  there  is  quite  a  bit  to  do  and  to  learn.  I'm  urging  you 
to  become  educated  men  and  women.  I'm  counting  on  you.  So 
were  the  170  men  and  women  who  met  here  in  Raleigh  last 
summer.  About  the  time  the  weather  was  getting  sticky  hot,  when 
you  were  out  playing  baseball  or  drinking  sodas  at  the  drugstore, 
they  were  here  working  for  you.  They  were  your  state  legislators, 
and  they  were  involved  with  certain  problems  in  arithmetic.  For 
example,  they  were  asking  why  our  state  was  forty-fifth  in  the 
amount  of  money  spent  for  each  student. 

Also,  they  were  asking  why  it  is  that  we  were  forty-first  in  the 
size  of  our  classes.  The  more  students  a  teacher  has,  the  harder 
it  usually  is  to  teach  and  learn.  Our  classes  in  North  Carolina  have 
been  too  big.  They  asked  why  North  Carolina  almost  leads  the 
nation  in  the  number  of  men  turned  down  by  the  armed  forces 
because  they  can't  read  or  write,  even  well  enough  to  be  buck 

The  170  men  and  women  in  Raleigh  decided  the  state  could 
afford  to  sacrifice  enough  money  to  solve  these  problems.  They 
did  their  part.  They  put  a  great  deal  of  money  into  a  new 
program  of  education  for  you.  And  our  state  now  hopes  to  rise 
toward  national  leadership. 

Many  people  have  worked  and  are  working  to  improve  our 

This  work  by  the  legislators,  the  teachers,  the  parents,  the 
county  commissioners,  the  State  Department  of  Public  Instruc- 
tion, the  principals,  the  superintendents,  the  school  boards,  the 
Curriculum  Study,  the  taxpayers,  the  State  Board  of  Education, 
is  done  for  you.  It  is  all  going  to  be  wasted  work  if  you  don't 
take  advantage  of  it.  The  whole  key  to  all  this  effort  is  you. 

What  have  you,  the  student,  to  do  with  achieving  quality  edu- 
cation? I  say  to  students  that  quality  education  is  not  something 
that  you  get  out  of  a  box,  ready  mixed.  It  is  not  something  that 
is  going  to  be  given  to  you.  It  cannot  be  said  to  students,  "Here 
it  is.  Now  come  and  pick  it  up."  Quality  education  stems  from 
the  fact  that  we  have  earnest  students  who  want  to  learn.  Unless 
there  is  a  desire  on  the  part  of  the  student  to  learn  and  to  take 
advantage  of  the  opportunities  and  the  teaching  that  we  hope 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

to  continue  to  move  up  in  quality,  then  we  are  not  going  to 
have  any  quality  education. 

Unless  students  work  at  it,  unless  you  want  to  learn,  there'll 
be  no  quality  education  for  you.  If  you  do  want  to  learn,  i£ 
you  are  sincerely  trying  to  prepare  for  the  opportunities  in  life, 
then  all  the  rest  of  us  are  working  to  improve  the  chances  of 
your  being  properly  prepared. 

But  it  doesn't  make  any  difference  how  well  the  superintendents 
and  principals  plan,  it  doesn't  make  any  difference  how  much 
harder  the  teacher  works,  there  will  be  no  quality  education 
for  you  unless  you  want  it  and  unless  you  are  willing  to  work 
hard  to  get  it. 

Your  fathers  and  mothers  and  the  other  adults  of  North 
Carolina  are  paying  more  taxes  so  you  can  have  better  educational 
opportunities.  We  have  set  as  our  goal  giving  you  educational 
opportunities  as  good  as  any  enjoyed  by  any  children  anywhere 
in  the  nation.  We  have  done  this  because  there  is  no  reason 
that  North  Carolina  boys  and  girls  should  not  have  the  best. 

We  cannot  move  North  Carolina  to  the  forefront  of  the 
nation  unless  we  have  everybody  working  together. 

You  know  in  the  western  part  of  our  nation  there  is  a  large 
desert.  As  you  approach  the  desert  in  your  car,  you  drive  by  signs 
which  warn  you:  "Last  chance.  Last  chance  for  gas  and  water." 
If  you  fail  to  heed  these,  you  may  find  yourself  in  trouble  in  the 
middle  of  the  desert.  Well,  that's  the  way  it  is  with  what  you  are 
doing  now  in  school.  This  is  your  last  chance  to  get  the  education 
you  will  need  in  the  world  that  lies  ahead— not  just  to  make 
money,  but  to  be  a  good  citizen  in  this  complicated  world. 

There  will  not  be  another  chance.  Now  is  the  time.  The  school 
is  the  place. 

We  need  teachers  who  will  work  harder  to  do  a  better  job, 
and  we  have  these.  We  need  to  continue  planning  and  working 
in  the  Board  of  Education  and  the  Department  of  Public  Instruc- 
tion, and  we  are.  We  need  legislators  and  county  commissioners 
who  are  willing  to  pay  the  price,  and  we  have  them.  We  need 
citizens  who  are  willing  to  support  the  future  through  edu- 
cation, and  we  have  them.  We  need  parents  who  will  take  an 
active  interest  in  the  education  of  their  children.  Most  of  all, 
we  need  you.  In  the  final  analysis,  it  is  your  reaction  that  tells 
us  how  well  we  succeed. 

Talk  it  over  in  your  home  room  tomorrow.  I'd  like  to  have  a 
letter  from  your  class  telling  me  that  you  understand  what  we  are 
doing,  that  you  believe  in  it,  and  that  you  want  to  be  a  part  of 
our  efforts,  that  you  want  to  join  our  crusade  to  make  North 
Carolina's  school  system  the  best  in  the  world. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


If  you  are  willing  to  take  part,  you  will  be  starting  right  now 
doing  your  part  to  defend  the  nation,  to  carry  the  banner  of 
freedom  and  human  liberty,  to  promote  world  peace,  and  to 
move  North  Carolina  to  its  greatest  days. 



March  15,  1962 

This  meeting,  Governor  Sanford  reminded  the  audience,  repre- 
sented the  first  anniversary  of  the  Traffic  Safety  Council  and  was, 
therefore,  a  good  time  to  take  stock.  A  comparison  of  figures 
released  by  the  Department  of  Motor  Vehicles  for  1961  and  1960 
was  shocking  in  that  it  showed  an  increase  of  twenty-eight  deaths 
and  an  increase  of  7,485  injuries.  The  Governor  said  the  public 
was  concerned,  and  for  the  first  time  the  state  had  a  co-ordinated 
attack  planned.  Though  on  the  right  track,  the  program  could 
take  years  to  mature.  Sanford  placed  the  courts  "on  the  front 
line  of  this  struggle"  as  he  launched  into  a  discussion  of  traffic 
problems  and  the  court  amendment  under  consideration.  Despite 
the  existence  of  hundreds  of  conscientious  judges  and  solicitors, 
the  court  system  was  called  the  weak  link  in  the  traffic  safety 
chain.  The  trouble  stemmed  from  the  inability  of  the  courts  "to 
cope  with  both  the  volume  and  the  intricacies  of  automobile 
litigation."  The  tendency  of  some  thinkers  to  feel  that  the  courts 
should  deal  sternly  only  with  problem  drivers  overlooked  the 
fact  that  everyone  was  a  "problem  driver"  at  one  time  or  another. 
Attitudes  should  be  developed  but  the  right  attitude  would  not 
substitute  for  the  administration  of  justice.  Governor  Sanford 
urged  the  Traffic  Safety  Council  members  to  expend  as  much 
of  their  resources  as  possible  on  the  passage  of  the  court  reform 



April  12,  1862 

Speaking  to  many  of  the  state's  Negro  educational  leaders  at 
their  meeting  in  Raleigh's  Memorial  Auditorium,  Governor 
Sanford  presented  a  vivid  and  perceptive  study  on  the  qualifi- 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

cations  of  a  good  teacher  and  the  meaning  of  good  teaching.  He 
reminded  the  group  that  money  could  not  do  the  entire  job  and 
that  good  teaching  was  the  prime  requisite  to  the  achievement 
of  quality  education.  He  gave  several  definitions  of  good  teachers 
and  quoted  a  number  of  outstanding  men  from  John  Locke  to 
Henry  Steele  Commager  on  the  subject  of  education  and  teach- 
ing. The  Governor  ended  with  an  expression  of  confidence  in  the 
members  of  the  teaching  profession  in  North  Carolina. 


April  14,  1962 

Since  the  enactment  of  the  North  Carolina  Credit  Union  Act 
in  1915,  credit  unions  contributed  toward  a  higher  standard  of 
living  for  thousands,  the  Governor  told  those  who  attended  the 
Credit  Union  League.  He  reviewed  briefly  the  history  of  credit 
unions  and  then  discussed  financial  stability  of  the  state,  stressing 
the  importance  of  fiscal  soundness  for  a  government  and  for  an 
individual.  He  gave  statistics  to  show  the  strong  financial  position 
of  North  Carolina  and  concluded  by  urging  citizens  to  move 
ahead  with  confidence  in  themselves  and  in  the  future  of  the  state. 


Boiling  Springs 

April  16,  1962 

The  occasion  for  this  speech  by  Governor  Sanford  was  the 
inauguration  of  Dr.  Ernest  Eugene  Poston  as  the  new  president 
of  Gardner- Webb  Junior  College.  His  address  dealt  with  the 
challenge  of  higher  education  in  society.  As  he  frequently  did, 
the  Governor  emphasized  the  importance  of  education.  Where 
citizens  had  the  right  to  vote,  a  literate  people  was  vital.  He  said 
that  elementary  and  high  school  were,  at  one  time,  sufficient, 
but  increased  knowledge  of  mankind  meant  the  need  to  teach 
more  and  more  subjects.  It  was  impossible  for  all  of  them  to  be 
taught  in  high  schools.  With  opportunities  limited,  the  Governor 
urged  a  partnership  between  private  and  public  institutions. 
The  progressive  heritage  of  Gardner-Webb  was  indicative  of  the 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


important  role  the  school  would  play,  and  the  Governor  con- 
cluded by  expressing  appreciation  for  the  contributions  made  by 
this  college  and  its  leaders. 



April  17,  1962 

Sanford  reviewed  progress  made  in  North  Carolina  in  the 
area  of  food  processing  and  marketing,  commenting  on  such 
endeavors  as  the  establishment  of  the  Department  of  Food 
Science  and  Processing  at  State  College.  He  said  that  North 
Carolinians  were  realizing  the  importance  of  every  phase  of  the 
food  industry:  production,  processing,  packaging,  marketing, 
management,  and  research.  The  state  offered  practically  limit- 
less agricultural  potential  which,  matched  with  business  vision, 
intelligent  leadership,  hard  work,  and  close  co-operation,  could 
result  in  a  successful  food  processing  operation.  He  offered  sug- 
gestions as  to  ways  in  which  the  processing  dollar  could  be  kept 
in  North  Carolina,  but  he  stressed  the  requirement  of  high 
quality  as  being  essential  in  the  endeavor.  To  meet  the  challenge, 
the  state  needed  experts  in  packaging  and  processing.  With  the 
native  products  produced  in  the  state.  Governor  Sanford  said 
there  was  no  reason  why  North  Carolina  could  not  become  a 
leader  in  the  new  field. 

Chapel  Hill 
April  18,  1962 

Speaking  at  a  dinner  in  honor  of  John  W.  Umstead,  Jr.,  Gover- 
nor Sanford  expressed  appreciation  for  Umstead's  many  outstand- 
ing contributions  in  the  roles  of  businessman,  trustee,  politician, 
legislator,  and  chairman  of  the  Hospitals  Board  of  Control.  This 
leader  gave  priority  to  mental  hospitals;  as  a  result  of  his  efforts. 
North  Carolina's  mental  hospitals  and  training  schools  were 
highly  esteemed  throughout  the  nation.  Umstead  finally  proved 
that  investment  in  mental  hospitals  paid  rich  dividends  to  the 
state.  He  also  worked  tirelessly  for  the  cause  of  education  and 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

academic  freedom.  Governor  Sanford  commented  that  Umstead 
represented  in  his  many  programs  people  all  over  the  state  in  all 
walks  of  life. 

April  19,  1962 

Governor  Sanford,  speaking  in  the  Senate  chambers  in  the 
State  Capitol,  favored  the  purchase  of  United  States  savings 
bonds.  He  said  that  the  bonds  helped  finance  John  Glenn's  flight 
into  space,  the  ''Nautilus"  trip  under  the  North  Pole,  the  winning 
of  World  War  11.  He  added  that  bonds  were  then  helping  pro- 
vide for  this  country's  obligations  in  trouble  spots  of  the  world, 
and  he  encouraged  the  purchase  of  bonds  as  a  way  of  fulfilling  the 
duties  of  citizenship  and  investing  in  the  future  at  the  same  time. 
State  government  encouraged  the  purchase  of  bonds  through  the 
Payroll  Savings  Plan;  the  press,  radio,  and  television  personnel 
had  co-operated  by  giving  free  advertising  to  the  program  which 
had  a  goal  of  17,000  savers  in  1962  in  North  Carolina. 



April  29,  1962 

The  Governor  thanked  those  who  made  this  occasion  possible. 
To  show  appreciation,  the  state  and  the  Battleship  Commission 
pledged  their  best  to  make  this  the  greatest  World  War  II  me- 
morial in  the  United  States.  The  drive  to  bring  the  ship  to  North 
Carolina  was  successful,  and  the  "North  Carolina"  was  condi- 
tioned for  public  display.  The  Governor  told  of  plans  for  land- 
scaping, parking  lots,  and  other  facilities  which  would  be  made 
possible  by  donations  and  by  garden  clubs.  He  said  the  Battleship 
Memorial  Museum  would  catch  the  imagination  of  the  state  and 
of  the  nation,  that  exhibits  would  tell  the  ship's  history  which 
would  also  be  the  history  of  the  offensive  war  in  the  Pacific. 
Sanford  called  this  the  chance  to  preserve  North  Carolina's  most 
historical  link  with  World  War  II,  concluding  that  the  prospect 
awaiting  Tar  Heels  was  an  exciting  one. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 




April  30,  1962 

[The  North  Carolina  Conference  for  Social  Service,  an  organization  of 
both  laymen  and  professionals  in  the  field  of  social  welfare,  heard  Governor 
Sanford  urge  North  Carolinians  to  acquire  a  keen  social  awareness  through 
historical  understanding  and  to  accept  the  philosophy  that  government  was 
necessarily  involved  in  the  lives  and  happiness  of  its  citizens.  Two  years 
later,  Sanford  was  awarded  the  North  Carolina  Conference  for  Social 
Service  Award  for  the  many  programs  undertaken  during  his  administration 
on  behalf  of  human  welfare.] 

As  we  spend  millions  of  man-hours  and  tens  of  millions  of 
dollars  in  the  race  to  the  other  side  of  space,  it  is  incumbent  on  us 
to  remember  fellow  citizens  on  the  other  side  of  the  tracks.  This 
golden  anniversary  of  the  North  Carolina  Conference  for  Social 
Service  makes  it  apparent  that  North  Carolinians  are  remember- 
ing these  human  beings  on  the  "wrong"  side  of  the  tracks  and 
are  working  to  remedy  the  social  ills  of  our  time. 

North  Carolina  has  traveled  a  long  way  in  many  areas  of 
human  need  since  this  organization  was  founded  under  the 
leadership  of  people  like  Clarence  Poe  and  J.  Y.  Joyner^^  in  1912. 

When  this  organization  was  formed,  chain  gangs  were  con- 
sidered an  essential  part  of  our  penal  system.  Child  labor  was 
defended  as  necessary  in  industry.  Mental  patients  were  locked 
away  in  filth  and  misery.  Compulsory  vaccination  for  smallpox 
and  other  communicable  diseases  was  unknown.  There  was  no 
program  to  care  for  the  dependent  child,  the  lame,  and  the  aged. 
Workers  hurt  on  the  job  received  sympathy  and  very  little  else, 
for  there  was  no  workmen's  compensation  laws  in  those  days. 

I  believe  those  who  now  cry  "socialism"  when  any  legislation 
is  proposed  to  meet  human  needs  might  find  it  very  informative 
to  review  histories  of  the  early  part  of  this  century. 

For  that  matter,  those  who  see  government  as  a  necessary  evil, 
at  best,  might  well  improve  their  perspective  by  reviewing  the 
newspapers  and  the  histories  of  the  thirties. 

As  North  Carolina  moved  slowly  forward  in  the  twentieth 
century  to  remove  the  abuses  and  to  relieve  the  suffering  of  our 
society,  there  was  rarely  a  forward  step  taken  that  wasn't  attacked. 
Moves  to  protect  the  weak  and  to  defend  the  poor  and  to  heal 

^  James  Yadkin  Joyner  (1862-1954),  lawyer,  educator,  alumnus  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill;  teacher,  principal,  professor;  State  Superin- 
tendent of  Public  Instruction  under  Governor  Charles  B.  Aycock;  leader  in  shaping 
educational  policy  and  legislation.  Ashe,  Biographical  History,  VI,  335-341. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

the  ill  and  to  give  all  of  our  citizens  better  opportunities  have 
almost  invariably  been  challenged  on  the  grounds  that  their 
sponsors  were  "Reds"  or  spendthrifts,  or  at  least  "visionary,  im- 
practical, do-gooders."  This  opposition  continues  today.  Happily, 
the  good  sense  and  the  good  conscience  of  the  large  majority  of 
the  citizens  of  North  Carolina  and  of  America  have  not  been 
scared  away  from  social  progress  by  the  bogy  men  erected  by 
the  shortsighted. 

In  free  elections,  the  people  of  this  state  and  of  this  nation 
voted  twice  for  the  social  reforms  embodied  in  Woodrow  \Vilson's 
New  Freedom,  and  they  voted  four  times  for  Franklin  Roose- 
velt's New  Deal.  They  voted  for  John  Kennedy's  New  Frontier. 

The  people  of  North  Carolina  do  not  believe  it  is  unduly 
radical  to  use  a  round  wheel  when  it  is  proved  that  a  round  wheel 
will  carry  the  needs  of  the  people  better  than  a  square  wheel. 
The  people  of  North  Carolina  do  not  believe  that  our  free  enter- 
prise system  is  going  communistic  Tvhen  you  take  the  children 
out  of  the  mills,  women  out  of  sweatshops,  and  men  off  the 
sixty-hour  week.  The  people  of  North  Carolina  believe  that  a 
prosperous  state  and  nation  must,  in  good  conscience,  give  a 
helping  hand  to  the  indigent  old,  to  the  physically  and  fiscally 
disabled,  and  to  the  underprivileged  child. 

The  state  of  North  Carolina,  working  with  county  and  munici- 
pal governments,  has  adopted  many  programs  for  the  benefit 
of  the  less  fortunate.  Our  religious  training  teaches  us  that  we 
are  our  brother's  keeper.  And  we  would  be  obligated  to  provide 
these  programs  on  that  basis  alone.  But  these  programs  go  far 
beyond  helping  the  persons  who  are  the  direct  recipients  of  the 

^Ve  learned  long  ago  that  an  epidemic  is  no  respecter  of  bound- 
ary lines  between  poor  and  well-to-do  neighborhoods.  We  learned 
that  a  criminal  bred  by  slums  has  no  particular  scruples  against 
carrying  out  crime  on  the  other  side  of  town.  We  learned  that  a 
communitv  or  a  state  or  a  nation  is  just  so  strong  as  its  weakest 

That's  Tvhy  North  Carolina  moved  to  correct  the  weak  links 
in  the  social  structure  of  our  state.  That's  why  North  Carolina 
abolished  chain  gangs  and  turned  its  attention  to  rehabilitation 
of  prisoners.  That's  ^vhy  this  state  and  this  nation  set  up  minimum 
standards  and  maximum  hours  for  industrial  ^vorkers.  That's  why 
North  Carolina  in  1959  became  the  first  state  in  the  Southeast  to 
enact  a  State  Minimum  AVage  Act,  and  that's  w^hy  the  1961 
General  Assembly  strengthened  that  act.  That's  why  N'orth  Caro- 
lina enacted  the  mandatory  smallpox  vaccination  bill  some  years 
ago,  and  that's  why  North  Carolina  became  the  first  state  to  enact 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


the  polio  vaccination  program.  That's  why  we  replaced  our 
"snakepits"  with  decent  mental  hospitals  where  the  mentally  ill 
are  cared  for  and  cured  rather  than  imprisoned. 

We  have  come  a  long  way  since  1912,  but  we  still  have  a  long 
way  to  go.  And  that's  why  we  are  moving  ahead  with  important 
programs  in  the  area  of  social  legislation. 

First  and  foremost  is  the  quality  education  program  which  was 
designed  to  give  North  Carolina's  sons  and  daughters  the  same 
opportunities  as  those  offered  to  children  in  other  states.  The 
1961  General  Assembly  had  the  vision  to  appropriate  the  funds 
needed  to  improve  the  educational  opportunities  of  our  children. 
And  the  legislators  had  the  courage  to  raise  the  funds  needed  to 
pay  for  those  improvements.  That  program  already  is  paying  the 
state  dividends  in  many  ways. 

In  1961,  North  Carolina  ranked  first  among  all  the  fifty  states 
in  the  rate  of  advancement  in  public  education. 

Much  remains  to  be  done  in  the  schools.  In  fact,  it  is  a  never- 
ending  job  that  we  must  continue  to  face  so  long  as  there  are 
children  to  educate.  But  the  important  thing  is  that  North 
Carolina  is  moving  in  the  right  direction. 

In  the  field  of  education,  we  have  a  serious  problem  of  drop- 
outs—the students  who  leave  school  before  they  have  completed 
their  high  school  work.  We  are  working  to  solve  this  problem 
through  the  Stay-In-School  Committee.  One  of  the  major  civic 
clubs  of  North  Carolina  has  taken  this  problem  as  a  state-wide 
project  and  is  doing  excellent  work  in  this  field.  I  am  happy  to 
know  that  this  conference  is  planning  a  follow-up  meeting  on 
this  problem  of  dropouts  later  this  year. 

An  accompanying  problem  to  that  of  dropouts  is  juvenile 
delinquency.  Now  North  Carolina  does  not  suffer  as  critically 
from  juvenile  delinquency  as  do  the  more  highly  populated 
states.  But  we  would  be  deluding  ourselves  if  we  thought  it  did 
not  exist  in  our  state.  Because  juvenile  delinquency  is  much  more 
easily  prevented  than  cured,  I  have  asked  some  300  experts  and 
leading  laymen  to  discuss  this  matter  at  a  conference  in  Chapel 
Hill  on  May  14. 

Commissioner  Blaine  Madison  and  the  State  Board  of  Cor- 
rection and  Training  have,  over  the  years,  developed  a  highly 
effective  program  at  the  state  training  schools.  The  purpose  of 
these  schools  is  to  take  young  people  who  have  gotten  off  on  the 
wrong  track  and  to  help  them  become  self-respecting  and  self- 
supporting  citizens.  The  center  for  youthful  offenders  at  Camp 
Butner  is  an  important  project  in  this  effort  to  set  young  people 
who  have  strayed  on  the  right  paths.  These  correctional  insti- 
tutions have  one  of  the  best  rates  of  rehabilitation  in  the  nation. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

An  expanding  prison  population  increases  the  importance  of 
the  work  being  done  by  our  Prison  and  our  Probation  depart- 
ments. Our  prison  program  is  considered  one  of  the  soundest 
and  most  enlightened,  by  just  about  everyone,  except  two 
escaped  prisoners  and  one  lawyer  in  Rhode  Island.  [Reference 
was  to  a  case  in  which  extradition  was  recommended  following 
a  tour  of  North  Carolina  prisons  by  the  defense  attorney  and 
Rhode  Island  officials.] 

Plans  are  now  underway  to  provide  psychiatric  treatment 
within  the  prison  system  so  that  the  antisocial  attitudes  which 
send  people  to  prison  in  the  first  place  may  be  corrected.  Efforts 
are  being  expanded  rapidly  for  the  cure  and  rehabilitation  of 
alcoholics  in  prison. 

Our  probation  system  is  designed  to  give  men  and  women  the 
supervised  opportunity  to  prove  that,  given  another  chance,  they 
can  conduct  themselves  as  law-abiding  citizens.  This  probation 
program  is  not  set  up  to  forgive  crime.  It  is  operated  to  correct 
crime.  The  results  show  that  it  is  succeeding. 

Another  important  facet  of  the  state's  efforts  to  replace  incarcer- 
ation with  rehabilitation  is  the  work  release  law  under  which 
certain  first  offenders  may  continue  to  work  during  the  daytime. 
This  program  means  simply  that  the  offender,  who  shows  good 
promise  of  going  straight,  continues  to  support  his  family  and 
himself  during  his  sentence. 

A  serious  problem  facing  this  state  and  most  farm  states  is 
that  of  migrant  farm  workers.  The  citizens  of  North  Carolina 
were  shocked  into  an  awareness  of  this  problem  several  years  ago 
when  a  truck  overloaded  with  migrants  was  involved  in  a  wreck 
near  Fayetteville.  The  General  Assembly  has  enacted  legislation 
to  prevent  recurrences  of  that  particular  aspect  of  the  problem 
and  to  establish  requirements  for  sanitation  at  the  camps.  The 
Committee  on  Agricultural  Migrants  and  other  state  agencies 
concerned  are  now  at  work  to  see  that  this  legislation  is  enforced. 

There  are  other  programs  being  conducted  by  the  state  and 
other  problems  facing  our  citizenry:  the  surplus  food  program, 
special  classes  and  special  schools  for  the  mentally  retarded, 
programs  for  alcoholics,  the  blind,  the  deaf,  the  handicapped.  All 
of  these  human  needs,  and  others,  demand  our  attention  and 
our  best  efforts. 

I  invite  your  advice  and  your  assistance  on  the  meeting  of  these 

Only  by  facing  up  to  these  problems  and  solving  them  can 
we  truly  say  that  North  Carolina  is  a  state  where  the  weak 
grow  strong  and  the  strong  grow  great. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 



Atlanta,  Georgia 

May  2,  1962 

In  this  speech  to  fellow  alumni,  Governor  Sanford  reminisced 
about  the  University  of  North  Carolina.  After  describing  a  recent 
visit  to  the  Chapel  Hill  campus,  the  Governor  compared  the 
institution  with  the  University  of  Georgia;  he  concluded  that  the 
distinctions  were  small  as  compared  to  the  close  co-operation 
between  the  two  schools.  Sanford  then  turned  his  attention  to 
problems  of  out-of-state  enrollments  and  faculty  recruitment.  At 
the  time  of  the  address,  there  were  800  U.N.C.  alumni  living  in 
Atlanta  and  194  Georgia  students  attending  the  Chapel  Hill 
university.  The  value  of  having  out-of-state  students  attend  North 
Carolina  schools,  when  many  North  Carolinians  needed  an  edu- 
cation, was  unquestioned  in  his  mind;  the  Governor  commented 
on  the  advantages  of  having  new  people  and  new  ideas  coming 
into  North  Carolina  schools.  With  the  increase  in  student  popu- 
lation would  come  additional  problems  related  to  recruitment. 
The  Governor  indicated  that  some  faculty  members  for  North 
Carolina  colleges  would  come  from  the  University  of  North 
Carolina;  many  would  come  from  elsewhere.  He  stressed  the 
need  for  a  faculty  of  high  quality,  saying  that  North  Carolina 
wanted  to  be  compared  with  the  nation  rather  than  the  region. 
The  University  of  North  Carolina,  as  one  of  only  forty-one 
institutions  belonging  to  the  Association  of  American  Universi- 
ties, ranked  as  a  top  university.  Sanford  predicted  that  its 
future  would  be  one  of  continued  achievement  and  that  with 
the  support  of  the  alumni  its  growth  could  mean  positive  gains 
for  the  state  and  the  nation. 

May  8,  1862 

Governor  Sanford  discussed  with  the  Medical  Society  a  grave 
illness:  traffic  accident  deaths  and  injuries.  In  addition  to  the 
human  tragedy  involved,  he  commented  on  the  tremendous 
property  and  economic  loss.  Prevention  of  such  waste  was 
imperative,  but  the  trouble  in  efforts  to  educate  the  public  came 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

when  many  felt  the  campaign  was  directed  at  the  other  fellow 
and  others  felt  that  accidents  could  not  be  prevented.  The  Gov- 
ernor's Coordinating  Committee  on  Traffic  Safety  was  working 
to  determine  the  cause  of  accidents  and  to  answer  obvious  ques- 
tions before  an  official  action  program  could  be  implemented. 
The  role  of  the  physician  was  stressed,  and  Sanford  urged  the 
doctors  to  assume  positions  of  leadership  to  win  citizen  support 
for  the  program.  He  called  preventive  medicine  a  thankless  task 
but  added  that  it  was  often  the  best  medicine.  After  winning 
citizen  support,  the  second  major  step  was  legislation  to  combat 
the  epidemic.  The  court  improvement  amendments  would  per- 
mit the  General  Assembly  to  establish  traffic  courts  under  a 
unified  judicial  system.  Questions  of  drunken  driving,  teen-age 
drivers,  safety  equipment,  and  others  were  being  studied  and 
solutions  sought.  The  Governor  concluded  with  a  plea  to  doctors 
to  help  in  the  "crash  program  to  stop  the  crashes." 



May  17,  1962 

North  Carolina,  called  a  "Dixie  Dynamo"  by  a  national  maga- 
zine, might  have  been  called  a  "Democratic  Dynamo"  had  the 
magazine  been  partisan,  according  to  Governor  Sanford.  In  ad- 
dressing the  state  Democratic  convention,  he  reviewed  twentieth- 
century  progress  in  North  Carolina  under  Democratic  leadership. 
The  party,  realizing  the  value  of  education,  continued  to  move 
forward;  and  the  Democratic  majority  in  the  1961  General 
Assembly,  with  the  help  of  only  one  Republican  vote,  met  the 
challenge  and  chose  the  unpopular  way  in  providing  for  quality 
education.  The  party  knew  that  the  path  to  a  brighter  future 
lay  in  education.  Sanford  observed  that  the  people  of  North 
Carolina  recognized  courage  as  being  the  primary  requisite  of  a 
legislator,  and  he  prophesied  that  the  legislators  who  voted  for 
quality  education  would  be  returned  to  the  1963  General 
Assembly.  "Courage,  and  vision,  and  a  willingness  to  move  for- 
ward wdll  keep  the  party  strong,"  Sanford  said,  predicting  that 
the  Democratic  party  would  continue  to  fulfill  its  role  of  leader- 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 




May  26,  1962 

Appalachian  State  Teachers  College,  primarily  concerned  with 
the  education  of  teachers,  was  reminded  to  look  to  its  founder 
and  first  president,  B.  B.  Dougherty,  for  setting  the  tone  for  the 
high  professional  training  for  teachers.  The  Governor  discussed 
education  and  the  excellence  required  in  teaching,  saying  that 
this  was  an  appropriate  topic  for  a  school  which  trained  teachers. 
"Civilization  has  made  progress  and  is  continuing  to  make  prog- 
ress in  many  ways,  but  progress  makes  problems,  and  problems  are 
always  with  any  people."  The  Governor  said  that  problems  had 
been  solved  through  the  pursuit  of  excellence,  but  that  modern 
standards  had  been  lowered  in  too  many  ways,  resulting  in  a 
weakening  of  the  individual  soul  and  a  weakening  of  the  national 
character  and  strength.  He  challenged  everyone  to  pursue  excel- 
lence, saying  that  "Excellence  in  one  pursuit  spills  over  into 
other  activities."  This  was  given  as  the  reason  teaching  was 
important,  and  the  Governor  urged  those  who  were  going  to  teach 
to  "define  it  and  live  by  it  and  teach  by  it."  He  urged  the  gradu- 
ates to  set  excellence  as  their  example  and  to  remember  the 
influence  they  would  have  on  hundreds  of  lives.  "There  isn't  any 
more  constructive  way  to  spend  your  life,"  the  Governor  said  in 



June  1,  1962  1 

The  Governor  took  this  opportunity  to  discuss  the  growth  of 
the  dairy  industry  as  part  of  the  over-all  program  to  develop  and 
co-ordinate  food  production,  processing,  and  marketing  across  the 
state.  Enthusiasm  for  such  a  program  was  not  new  to  dairymen, 
who  blazed  the  trail  in  many  ways.  The  North  Carolina  food 
industry,  the  Governor  said,  stood  in  1962  where  the  dairy 
industry  had  been  two  decades  earlier.  In  1945  a  group  of  people 
who  recognized  the  dairy  industry  potential  organized  and  raised 
money  for  the  establishment  of  a  dairy  teaching  and  research 
program  at  North  Carolina  State  College.  As  a  result  North 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Carolina  produced  milk  for  its  own  requirements  and  exported 
a  quantity.  The  Governor  gave  statistics,  citing  the  dairy  industry 
as  an  example  of  what  could  be  achieved. 



June  6,  1962 

Governor  Sanford  praised  the  graduates  of  the  North  Carolina 
School  for  the  Deaf  on  their  demonstrated  ability  to  overcome 
handicaps.  He  then  turned  to  the  subject  of  their  future,  which 
he  described  as  "bright  with  promise."  True  education,  he 
reminded  them,  was  lifelong  in  scope;  this  commencement,  which 
marked  the  end  of  one  phase  of  education,  was  the  beginning 
of  another.  Graduation  meant  an  opportunity  to  "move  into  the 
full  stream  of  responsibility  as  a  citizen  of  North  Carolina."  It 
also  carried  an  obligation  to  serve  those  who  would  come  later. 
The  Governor  reminded  his  audience  that  schools  were  owned  by 
the  people,  and  the  people  had  the  ultimate  responsibility  of 
providing  for  education. 



June  6,  1962 

[The  tragedy  of  highway  traffic  deaths  continued  to  haunt  the  Governor. 
Early  in  his  administration  he  initiated  programs  whereby  an  emphasis 
would  be  placed  on  traffic  safety.  In  this  direct  report  to  the  people  of  North 
Carolina,  by  means  of  television  and  radio,  the  Governor  previewed  a  five- 
point  highway  program  being  planned  by  the  state  to  curb  senseless  killing 
and  injury  and  property  damage.  Following  the  address,  the  Governor 
received  a  number  of  letters  on  the  subject  of  traffic  safety.  A  man  who  had 
lived  in  North  Carolina  twenty-four  years  wrote  that  he  had  never  agreed 
more  than  50  per  cent  with  any  statement  made  by  leading  political  figures, 
but  he  could  "honestly  say  that  I  agreed  one  hundred  per  cent  with  the  mes- 
sage which  you  brought  to  the  public.  ...  I  firmly  believe  that  the  five  points 
presented  in  your  message  will,  and  should,  concur  with  the  feelings  of  the 
majority  of  North  Carolinians."  He  told  Sanford  that  the  Governor  had 
"shown  your  intestinal  fortitude  in  presenting  five  issues  which  you  know 
will  be  a  'hot  potatoe'  [sic]  in  political  circles  and  in  the  next  legislature. 
I  feel  that  you  have  done  your  part,  but  it  is  now  time  for  the  citizens  of 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


North  Carolina  to  match  your  intestinal  fortitude  and  let  their  representa- 
tives know  their  desires  in  this  matter."  In  his  closing  sentences,  the  writer 
said  that  reform  could  not  begin  at  the  state  level,  that  there  had  to  be 
"desire  for  reform  ...  in  the  brain  and  heart  of  every  individual.  Law  and 
reform  are  not  for  the  'other  fellow'  alone;  they  are  for  me."  A  few  days 
later,  Governor  Sanford  received  a  letter  outlining  a  number  of  personal 
experiences  and  ending  with  the  question  of  blame.  The  writer  an- 
swered her  own  question  by  saying  parents,  who  would  not  say  "no"  to 
their  children,  and  "you,  and  our  law-makers,  who  are  cognizant  of  these 
facts,  yet  continue  to  talk  and  talk  and  talk,  while  our  children  (too  many) 
never  attain  their  best  capacities,  become  delinquents,  or  die  so  needlessly." 
The  Governor's  concern  continued,  and  in  the  spring  of  1963,  Sanford  went 
to  the  General  Assembly  to  deliver  in  person  another  address  on  this  sub- 
ject. For  this  speech  to  the  legislators,  see  pages  75-80.] 

About  three  or  four  weeks  ago  a  letter  arrived  at  the  Mansion. 
Usually  my  mail  goes  to  the  office,  which  is  in  the  Capitol,  but 
this  letter  turned  up  at  the  house,  and  my  wife,  Margaret  Rose, 
gave  it  to  me. 

The  letter  was  from  a  woman  down  east  who  took  me  to  task. 
She  told  me  that  her  son  had  been  killed  a  few  days  before.  He 
had  been  driving  up  from  Wilmington  and  another  car  had 
appeared,  coming  extremely  fast  and  slipping  suddenly  across 
the  center  line.  Her  son  evidently  tried  to  avoid  a  collision,  but  he 
couldn't  make  it.  The  woman  asked  me  what  kind  of  roads  we 
have  in  this  state,  when  death  is  a  constant  traveler. 

I  have  the  letter  here  that  this  mother  wrote,  and  Til  read  this 
paragraph  from  it: 

If  there  was  a  man  shooting  at  people  on  US  421,  you  would  try  to  have 
him  arrested.  Why  don't  you  have  the  speeders  and  reckless  people  arrested? 
Somebody  is  being  killed  nearly  every  day.  What's  the  matter  with  you  in 

I  sympathize  with  this  woman.  It's  a  tragic  thing  to  lose  a  mem- 
ber of  one's  family.  I  know  that.  And  I  agree  with  her  that  more 
must  be  done  if  our  highways  are  to  be  safe.  Actually,  they  are 
even  more  dangerous  than  she  thinks.  She  says  traffic  accidents 
take  a  life  every  day  in  North  Carolina.  They  take  one  life  every 
seven  hours.  Not  only  that,  but  somebody  is  injured  every  fifteen 
minutes.  That  totals  about  100  people  a  day,  killed  or  injured. 

We  have  grown  accustomed  to  viewing  statistics  coldly.  After 
all,  they  are  merely  numbers.  But  I  remind  you  that  we  are 
talking  about  families,  and  about  individuals  who  bleed  if  cut. 

I  want  this  lady  down  east  who  lost  her  son  to  know,  and  I 
want  you  to  know,  that  I  am  in  sympathy  with  those  who  suffer 
on  the  roads  and  highways  of  this  state. 

There's  a  big  problem  here,  and  it  won't  be  solved  by  good 
intentions  alone.  It  will  not  go  down  before  a  renewed  siege  of 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

determination,  either.  We  must  take  action  if  we  are  to  solve  it, 
and  I  intend  to  talk  about  action  tonight.  I  would  like  to  review 
with  you  a  program  for  our  highways  which  I'm  considering,  and 
I  would  welcome  your  views  about  it. 

In  fact,  you  might  even  want  to  get  a  pencil  and  piece  of  paper 
to  jot  down  notes  as  I  talk,  for  there  are  several  ideas  in  all.  I 
^vill  tell  you  ^vhat  has  been  suggested  to  me,  and  what  I  think 
about  it.  W'e  will  go  down  the  line  point  by  point,  idea  by  idea. 

The  first  one  is  this:  that  we  put  out  more  literature  and  safety 
announcements  on  the  radio  and  television,  to  keep  the  people 
aware  of  the  problem. 

My  impression  is  that  the  existing  publicity  programs  are 
adequate.  We  don't  need  to  spend  money  adding  to  them.  By 
now  all  of  us  know  that  safety  is  a  serious  problem,  and  surely 
nobody  in  the  state  is  in  favor  of  accidents.  I  think  too  that  the 
people  who  really  need  educational  programs  on  highway  safety 
don't  listen  to  them.  And  the  rest  of  us  don't  either.  We  seem 
to  feel  the  programs  are  for  the  other  people.  Therefore,  it's 
my  impression  that  we  don't  need  to  press  for  more  publicity 
about  highway  safety. 

There  you  have  one  idea  which  has  been  suggested  to  me, 
which  I  feel  will  not  yield  additional  results.  What  we  need 
is  action. 

Two  types  of  drivers  cause  a  high  proportion  of  our  accidents, 
and  we  can  use  special  legislation  to  deal  more  adequately  with 
them.  One  type  is  composed  of  young  people  betw^een  the  ages 
of  sixteen  and  twenty-one.  There's  no  doubt  about  it,  these 
drivers  are  far  more  likely  to  have  accidents  than  are  other 
age  groups— two  or  three  times  as  likely,  as  the  record  shows. 
Some  young  drivers  seem  to  be  reckless  by  nature,  to  enjoy 
moving  at  high  speeds,  to  seek  out  danger.  Not  only  are  our 
young  people  involved  in  a  great  many  accidents,  but  they  are 
involved  in  some  of  the  most  violent,  tragic  ones.  Right  on  the 
threshold  of  a  good  life,  they  get  broken  up  or  cut  down.  Some 
of  you  listening  are  in  this  age  group.  I'm  not  criticizing  all  of 
you,  but  your  group  needs  criticism.  There  was  an  accident 
recently  in  which  a  car  driven  by  a  young  man  struck  a  tree. 
The  car's  motor  was  ripped  out  and  ^vent  sailing  into  a  field. 
The  car  was  demolished.  The  speed  of  the  car  was  reckoned 
at  100  miles  an  hour.  The  young  man  driving  that  car  thought 
he  would  never  be  involved  in  an  accident.  He  doubtless  liked 
to  speed.  Maybe  he  would  object  to  my  suggesting  tonight  that 
special  legislation  is  needed  to  deal  with  his  age  group  and  its 
driving  problems.  Maybe  his  youthful  companions  in  the  car 
would  object,  too.  But  they  won't,  for  he  and  they  are  dead. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


except  for  one,  and  she  is  in  the  hospital  badly  crippled.  It 
might  be  that  special  regulations  would  have  saved  their  lives. 

Of  course,  a  young  man  who  will  drive  100  miles  an  hour  will 
break  any  other  rule.  We  have  to  take  the  drivers'  licenses  of 
such  people,  that's  the  point  of  it.  My  feeling  as  of  tonight  is 
this:  that  the  drivers'  licenses  of  our  young  people  (and  this  is 
particularly  true  of  our  young  men),  should  be  issued  with 
stricter  requirements.  Any  serious  infringement  of  the  driving 
privilege  should  bring  about  immediate  cancellation  of  the 
license.  We  cannot  continue  to  have  daredevil  driving  on  the 
public  roads.  I  believe  we  need  stricter  rules  for  young  drivers 
than  for  the  older  ones. 

A  second  type  of  driver  causes  far  more  than  his  share  of 
accidents,  too.  That's  the  drunken  driver.  Nobody  believes  a 
drunken  driver  should  be  permitted  to  operate  a  car,  not  on  the 
roads  as  they  are  today.  I've  asked  the  highway  people  for  a 
count  on  how  many  of  our  accidents  involve  drivers  who  are 
drinking,  and  the  report  is  significant.  Of  the  fatal  accidents  in 
our  state,  drinking  drivers  are  involved  in  at  least  one  out  of 
every  three  of  them. 

It's  time  to  press  for  better  ways  to  get  these  people  off  the 
roads.  Our  present  ways  are  not  the  best.  If  a  drinking  driver  is 
brought  in  by  a  patrolman  today,  the  question  often  arises  as 
to  whether  or  not  the  driver  is  drunk.  The  driver  often  says 
he  isn't,  while  the  patrolman  says  he  is.  This  is  a  matter  of 
opinion.  What's  needed  is  a  legal  definition  of  what  constitutes 
drunkenness— a  definition  that  can  be  measured  exactly.  Also,  we 
need  equipment  so  that  tests  can  be  given  drinking  drivers  to 
find  out  if  they  are  drunk.  That  is,  when  the  scientific  tests 
show  that  a  driver  has  a  certain  percentage  of  alcohol  in  his 
system,  then  he  is  marked  down  as  being  a  drunken  driver, 
drunk  as  defined  by  law,  not  drunk  as  a  mere  matter  of  opinion. 

Therefore,  we  need  a  new  law  defining  what  constitutes 
drunkenness  on  our  roads,  and  we  need  equipment  to  make  the 
test.  With  that  out  of  the  problem,  we  can  get  the  problem 
under  better  control,  and  our  roads  will  be  that  much  safer. 

The  third  suggestion  which  I  recommend  is  that  we  hire 
additional  traffic  engineers  in  order  to  get  more  of  the  dangerous 
places  out  of  our  present  roads.  It  was  a  surprise  to  me  to  find 
out  recently  that  the  state  has  only  three  traffic  engineers  in 
the  Highway  Department.  When  we  think  of  all  the  miles  of 
roads,  and  the  new  roads  being  planned  and  built,  we  suspect 
that  more  men  would  be  useful.  If  the  Highway  Department  had 
more  traffic  engineers,  it  would  be  able  to  put  our  roads  in 
safer  shape,  to  correct  dangerous  places. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

I  have  traveled  a  great  deal  in  North  Carolina.  This  is  a  big 
state.  Anybody  who  travels  it  knows  that.  We  need  more  traffic 
engineers  than  we  have.  We  need  five  times  as  many.  They  in 
turn  can  help  us  fix  up  our  existing  roads  and  make  new  high- 
ways safer. 

The  fourth  suggestion  is  that  we  add  patrolmen  to  the  High- 
way Patrol.  I've  looked  into  this  matter  and  have  asked  the 
patrol  to  tell  me  how  many  patrolmen  they  have  on  duty  at  any 
one  time  for  every  thousand  miles  of  road  in  the  state.  The 
patrolmen  we  have  must  be  spread  around  the  clock,  so  I  guessed 
that  they  would  say  five  or  six,  at  any  one  time  day  or  night, 
for  every  thousand  miles  of  road. 

They  don't  say  anything  like  that.  They  have  only  two.  They 
have  one  patrolman  on  duty  for  every  500  miles  of  road.  A 
patrolman  can't  even  travel  that  far  in  an  eight-hour  shift.  That's 
the  distance  from  Murphy  to  Morehead  City.  All  the  patrolman 
can  hope  to  do  is  patrol  a  section  of  this.  Usually  he  has  to  stay 
on  the  heavily  traveled  and  most  dangerous  sections  of  the 
primary  roads.  But  accidents  occur  on  all  the  roads. 

You  will  perhaps  agree  that  the  Highway  Patrol  we  have 
is  excellent.  It's  competent,  it's  dedicated,  it's  well-run.  It  re- 
peatedly wins  national  awards.  An  enlarged  patrol,  however, 
can  do  an  even  better  job,  can  make  the  roads  safer. 

It  will  take  some  money  to  hire  additional  patrolmen,  and  to 
keep  these  cars  going,  but  the  patrol  makes  the  roads  safer;  each 
one  saves  many  times  his  cost  in  property  damage  alone,  and 
whenever  there  is  an  accident,  the  first  helping  hand  is  likely  to 
be  the  hand  of  a  patrolman. 

There  is  one  more  suggestion  that  I  can  recommend  to  you. 
It  pertains  to  the  courts.  Many  of  you  will  agree  that  some- 
thing needs  to  be  done  to  revise  our  court  system.  There  is  too 
much  red  tape  and  delay  and  inconsistency.  I'm  a  lawyer  and  I 
respect  the  courts,  but  from  my  experience  it's  clear  that  the 
system  is  cumbersome,  has  loopholes,  and  lacks  uniformity.  Cer- 
tainly this  is  so  in  terms  of  our  highway  cases. 

In  November  you  will  have  a  chance  to  vote  on  a  new  system 
of  courts.  A  constitutional  amendment  will  be  put  on  the  ballot. 
At  that  time  you  can  tell  the  General  Assembly  to  set  up  a  uni- 
form court  system.  I  hope  you  will  do  so.  Please  set  it  firmly  in 
your  memory  to  vote  for  court  improvement  at  the  election  in 

So  there  you  have  five  suggestions,  which  have  been  made  to 
me,  which  I  am  convinced  we  need.  The  first  will  help  us  get 
the  youthful  driver  problem  under  better  control.  We  need  to  do 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


The  second  will  help  us  get  the  drunken  driver  off  the  roads. 
Certainly  he  has  no  place  there. 

The  third  suggestion  is  that  we  hire  more  highway  traffic 
engineers,  in  order  to  improve  existing  roads,  to  get  rid  of 
hazards,  and  to  help  with  the  planning  of  new  highways. 

Then  the  last  two  suggestions  deal  with  law  enforcement. 
We  should  increase  the  size  of  the  Highway  Patrol,  and  we  should 
insist  on  a  uniform  system  of  courts. 

These  five  measures  will  bring  results.  They  are  firm  and 
reasonable.  They  go  straight  to  the  core  of  five  major  problems. 
They  are  needed  in  our  state  now. 

However,  they  will  not  come  about  without  support  from  you. 
Most  of  them  have  opposition  of  one  sort  or  another.  For 
example,  whenever  the  state  takes  away  a  man's  driver's  license, 
the  man  and  his  family  strongly  object.  Occasionally  the  man 
can't  continue  on  his  job,  and  this  causes  the  entire  family  to 
suffer.  At  the  same  time,  we  know  some  people  shouldn't  drive; 
we  need  to  get  these  unsafe  drivers  out  from  behind  the  wheel. 
This  is  a  life  and  death  matter.  And  their  lives,  as  well  as  ours, 
are  involved,  even  though  they  don't  realize  it. 

Traffic  judges  need  your  support.  They  need  for  you  to  give 
your  approval  when  they  convict  according  to  the  law.  The 
judge's  job  is  a  thankless  job  if  there  ever  was  one.  Here's  an 
illustration  of  what  I  mean.  If  you  build  a  hospital,  people  can 
see  it  and  appreciate  it  because  they  and  their  loved  ones  receive 
the  benefits  of  it.  If  you  reduced  accidents  by  25  per  cent,  you 
would  save  300  lives  in  one  year  and  avoid  10,000  injuries,  but 
the  300  people  and  their  families  would  never  thank  the  judges 
because  it  is  incomprehensible  to  them  that  they  might  have 
been  killed.  Instead  of  thanking  the  judges,  the  solicitors,  the 
patrolmen,  the  mayors  who  save  the  lives,  they  are  more  likely 
to  complain  and  condemn  these  very  people.  But  on  the  brighter 
side,  I  believe  these  complainers  are  in  the  minority.  I  believe 
the  vast  majority  of  the  people  are  ready  for  a  strong,  firm 
solution  for  these  problems. 

The  five  suggestions  for  action  which  I  have  made  in  this  talk 
are  necessary,  and  I  trust  those  of  you  listening  will  let  your  own 
views  be  known. 

I  have  here  a  few  notes,  other  ideas  which  have  been  given 
to  me,  which  I  am  not  ready  to  say  should  be  a  part  of  our  pro- 
gram. There  might  be  value  in  some  of  them.  One  is  the  old 
question  of  safety  inspection  of  automobiles.  This  can  become 
a  heated  debate,  as  you  might  remember  from  past  experience. 
Fifteen  years  ago  we  had  an  inspection  system  for  cars,  and  some 
people  raised  the  dickens.  They  complained  that  the  system  got 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

jammed  up— and  it  did— and  that  the  cars  which  needed  most  of 
the  repair  work  done  were  old  cars,  which  they  said  caused  few 
of  the  accidents  on  the  roads.  The  poor  people  said  that  they 
would  have  to  spend  a  large  amount  of  money  to  fix  up  their 
cars,  while  the  rich  man  got  by  free.  His  brakes  were  good,  his 
windshield  wipers  worked  well,  his  lights  were  most  often  in 
adjustment,  and  so  forth. 

But  surely  we  can  agree  that  a  car  should  have  proper  safety 
equipment,  no  matter  how  old  it  is.  I'm  inclined  to  believe  now 
we  might  need  a  safety  inspection  program.  If  we  do,  I  hope  one 
can  be  devised  which  can  be  easily  administered  and  which  will 
be  fair  to  everybody  covering  only  the  safety  equipment,  such 
as  brakes,  tires,  lights,  steering,  without  a  lot  of  petty  rules  and 
restrictions  in  it.  Your  views  on  this  matter  will  be  helpful  to  me 
in  making  up  my  own  mind. 

Here's  a  card  with  another  idea  on  it.  It  suggests  that  we  require 
safety  belts.  Well,  it  is  true  it  is  almost  impossible  to  get  killed 
if  you  are  buckled  in  with  a  safety  belt.  It  is  now  required  that 
brackets  be  installed  in  new  cars,  so  you  can  put  belts  in  if  you 
want  to.  I  don't  know  about  requiring  them.  What  do  you  think? 

Here's  another  card  which  reads  as  follows:  "Would  it  be 
possible  to  get  the  billboards  off  our  highways?  They  cause 
accidents."  I  don't  know  that  they  cause  accidents.  Of  course,  I 
don't  like  billboards  when  they  get  to  be  lined  up  down  a  high- 
way, or  clustered,  as  they  sometimes  are.  I  noticed  that  Luther 
Hodges  complained  recently  to  the  people  in  the  Maggie  Valley, 
near  Waynesville,  about  the  number  of  billboards  there.  It's 
true  that  highway  billboards  add  little  to  the  roads,  but  I'm 
not  convinced  that  they  cause  accidents. 

However,  I  admit  that  our  attitudes  toward  our  highways  do 
influence  our  use  of  them.  Improvements  such  as  roadside  picnic 
parks,  things  of  that  sort,  help  a  great  deal.  It  might  be  that  the 
state  could  work  more  than  it  does  with  citizen  groups  in  order 
to  beautify  stretches  of  our  highways.  I  am  thinking  here  that  a 
club  in  your  town  might  be  willing  to  undertake  the  planting 
of  flowering  trees  along  a  highway.  They  might  use  dogwood 
trees,  or  redbud  trees,  which  I  call  the  Judas  tree.  Why  not  use 
them  more  than  we  do?  Up  in  the  mountains,  a  laurel  highway 
is  now  planted,  and  that's  a  good  thing,  an  asset  to  the  state. 
Rose  bushes  could  be  used  everywhere  more  than  they  are.  We 
can  plant  them  in  patches,  or  we  can  plant  a  long  stretch  with 
them.  In  other  words,  we  can  make  our  highways  sources  of  pride, 
and  this  will  certainly  have  a  bearing  on  their  usefulness  and 

There  are  doubtless  other  ideas.  You  have  some  of  your  own. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


I  suspect.  We  will  be  pleased  to  consider  them.  We  need  good 
thinking.  But  I  am  pretty  well  sold  already  on  the  need  to  seek 
the  five  things  I  outlined  earlier:  special  legislation  tor  young 
drivers,  special  legislation  for  drinking  drivers,  more  traffic  engi- 
neers, more  highway  patrolmen,  and  needed  court  improvements. 
If  you  will  join  me  on  those  five,  we  can  make  a  dent  in  this 
problem.  We  will  begin  to  turn  the  tide,  which  now  works  so 
painfully  against  us. 

And  please  give  some  thought  to  inspection  of  safety  equipment 
and  safety  belts,  and  any  other  ideas  you  might  have. 

We  asked  the  Institute  of  Government  to  analyze  all  of  the 
causes  of  accidents.  We  have  already  distributed  the  report  to  all 
students  sixteen  to  eighteen  years  old.  The  staff  there  has  also 
prepared  this  short,  concise,  concrete,  and  specific  analysis. 

Beginning  in  the  morning  we  will  distribute  these  to  every 
civic  club  member  in  the  state,  and  to  a  half-million  other  drivers. 
This  is  not  the  outline  of  a  program.  This  is  a  study  of  the  prob- 
lem. We  are  not  trying  to  "sell"  a  program.  We  are  trying  to  find 

I  want  to  call  on  the  civic  clubs  for  a  special  project.  All  of 
them  have  safety  chairmen.  Sometime  this  summer,  I  hope  you 
will  distribute  this  analysis,  consider  it,  have  a  program  concern- 
ing safety  actions,  discuss  the  problem,  make  recommendations, 
or  pass  resolutions,  giving  me  your  advice  on  what  we  should 
do  to  stop  this  killing  on  the  highways.  This  problem  will  not  be 
solved  by  drivers,  as  such,  but  by  citizens. 

Last  year  we  managed  to  get  the  North  Carolina  Traffic  Safety 
Council  started.  It's  an  organization  of  citizens;  it  doesn't  cost 
the  taxpayers  anything.  We  also  have  the  Governor's  Coordinating 
Committee  on  Traffic  Safety,  and  it  consists  of  top  state  officials. 
They  are  preparing  their  recommendations  for  us,  and  I  believe 
they  will  recommend  some  of  the  actions  we  have  discussed 
tonight.  When  their  report  is  ready,  it  will  be  released  to  all  the 
news  media,  and  I  hope  you  will  give  it  your  best  thinking.  You, 
and  they,  and  those  of  us  in  government  need  to  work  closer 
together.  We  can't  solve  complex  problems  any  other  way.  We 
can  help  with  the  roads— and  we're  doing  that  in  Raleigh  and 
Washington.  We  need  new  laws,  and  I  can  recommend  them  to 
the  General  Assembly  and  you  can  recommend  them  to  your 
representatives.  Beyond  that  we  need  to  seek  good  ideas  and  to 
create  a  more  healthy  attitude  toward  this  predicament,  which 
involves  us  and  our  families.  In  olden  times  travel  was  dangerous 
because  of  robbers;  today  it's  dangerous  because  of  ourselves  and 
our  powerful  machines. 

I  have  chosen  this  special  time  to  discuss  this  with  you  because 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

we're  going  into  the  summer  season.  That  means  more  traffic 
and  perhaps  more  accidents.  At  this  time  I  need  to  know  what 
legislation  on  this  matter  I  should  present  to  the  General  Assem- 
bly. I  have  reviewed  the  entire  matter  with  you;  I  will  be  happy 
to  receive  your  cards  and  letters.  They  will  be  read  and  entered 
into  the  total  consideration  of  this  problem.  Send  them  to  the 
Governor's  Office  here  in  Raleigh. 

A  while  ago  I  read  you  one  paragraph  from  the  letter  written 
by  a  woman  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  state.  I  will  read  you  the 
remainder  of  the  letter. 

What  are  you  going  to  do  about  the  problems  we  have  in  this  state?  What 
do  you  do  for  us  when  a  son  is  killed  on  the  roads  that  you  people  in  Raleigh 
have  made?  I  have  lost  a  son,  and  I  don't  know  what  to  do.  Such  accidents 
go  on  and  on.  I  read  about  them  in  the  paper.  What  are  you  going  to  do 
about  them?  I  wonder  if  you  care  about  us,  sitting  in  your  big  office  in 

It  is  very  lonely  in  my  house  now.  I  think  it  is  all  over  for  me.  I  feel  as 
if  my  life  has  come  to  an  end.  My  boy  is  gone,  and  he  was  the  best  part  of 
my  life.  What  can  you  do  now  that  he  is  gone? 

We  will  do  all  we  can. 


Williamsburg,  Virginia 

June  15,  1962 

Governor  Sanford,  as  chairman  of  the  Southern  Regional  Edu- 
cation Board,  explained  that  the  formal  meeting  of  the  board, 
held  at  the  time  and  place  of  the  Southern  Governors'  Confer- 
ence, was  usually  limited  by  time.  For  a  full  study  and  evaluation 
of  the  board's  activities,  a  summer  meeting  was  devised  in  1957. 
The  Governor  turned  to  a  consideration  of  the  report  of  the 
Commission  on  Goals  for  Higher  Education  in  the  South;  the 
report  contained  a  master  plan  for  improving  higher  education 
and  had  received  widespread  recognition.  Sanford  said  the  report 
revealed  the  poor  position  of  the  South,  socially,  economically, 
and  educationally.  The  reality  of  the  situation  was  confronted 
with  four  objectives:  to  provide  full  opportunity  for  all  citizens 
through  a  variety  of  institutions  and  through  co-ordinated  pro- 
grams of  adult  education  and  extension  work;  to  achieve  the 
highest  degree  of  excellence  in  teaching,  scholarship,  and  research; 
to  operate  at  maximum  efficiency  by  making  better  use  of  physical 
facilities  and  technological  aids;  to  serve  as  an  invigorating  force 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


in  the  economic  and  social  improvement  of  each  state.  The  report 
met  with  positive  response,  but  Sanford  called  for  a  sustained 
effort  to  see  that  the  report's  recommendations  were  enacted  into 
law  by  southern  legislators.  He  felt  that  the  Southern  Regional 
Education  Board  could  exert  powerful  leadership  to  insure  a 
meaningful  follow-up  to  the  commission's  report. 


Morehead  City 

June  18,  1962 

Governor  Sanford  recognized  the  responsibility  of  county 
officials  in  moving  North  Carolina  forward.  He  pointed  out  that 
"The  quality  of  state  government  reflects,  to  a  large  degree,  the 
quality  of  local  government."  North  Carolina's  position  existed 
because  "(1)  the  potential  for  unprecedented  progress  has  long 
existed  in  North  Carolina,  (2)  because  our  people  have  become 
united  in  both  their  desire  to  develop  fully  this  potential  and 
their  confidence  in  their  ability  to  do  so,  and  (3)  because  the 
state's  leadership,  at  all  levels  of  government,  has  recognized  the 
value  of  close  co-operation  in  the  formulation  and  execution  of 
intelligent,  realistic,  carefully  co-ordinated  plans  of  action."  San- 
ford called  aggressive  leadership  the  key  to  the  future  of  the 
state.  He  urged  public  officials  to  do  more  than  was  expected  and 
never  be  satisfied.  He  concluded  by  assuring  county  officials  of 
his  confidence  in  their  willingness  to  help  in  working  co-oper- 
atively for  "a  more  prosperous  state  and  a  better  life  for  the 
people  we  serve." 



June  19,  1962 

Beginning  with  a  story  illustrative  of  a  period  of  transition, 
Governor  Sanford  continued  with  the  observation  that  mankind 
had  always  been  faced  with  transition  and  change.  He  gave 
examples  of  changes  in  farm  life  in  the  twentieth  century  and 
changes  in  community  life  of  rural  people.  These  changes  re- 
quired readjustments;   mechanization,   for  example,   meant  a 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

smaller  rural  population;  the  income  of  many  farm  families  was 
not  on  a  par  with  other  citizens.  Despite  problems,  Sanford  ex- 
pressed the  opinion  that  farms  on  a  family-size  scale  should  not 
be  foreclosed  but  should  be  reinvigorated.  As  an  example  of 
positive  steps  taken  to  improve  the  farm  situation,  the  Governor 
discussed  the  Agricultural  Opportunities  Program,  with  its  goal 
of  farm  income  of  $1.6  billion  by  1966— "1.6  in  '66."  Food  process- 
ing as  an  expanded  industry  would  provide  farmers  with  new 
markets  and  new  employment  and  would  make  for  opportunities 
near  farms.  Paved  rural  roads,  a  quality  education  program,  and 
conservation  of  water  resources  were  only  a  few  of  the  assets 
which  would  prove  to  be  a  boost  to  farms.  The  Governor  then 
discussed  agriculture  as  a  weapon  against  communism,  with  sur- 
plus food  being  important  to  the  defense  of  the  free  world.  War- 
time conditions  would  require  more  than  the  surpluses  on  hand, 
though  the  Governor  expressed  the  hope  that  it  would  never  be 
necessary  to  use  the  surpluses  for  war.  He  said  that  farmers  in 
communist  areas  had  resisted  nationalization  of  their  land,  homes, 
lives,  and  that  free  America  had  to  take  the  offensive  in  using 
the  farm  surpluses  to  feed  a  hungry  world.  This  step  had  to  be 
taken,  not  only  to  win  friends,  but  because  it  was  morally  right. 
Sanford  called  the  surpluses  a  blessing,  not  a  burden,  and  asked 
that  this  blessing  be  shared  with  underfed  people  around  the 



June  27,  1962 

Governor  Sanford  chose  the  sometimes  controversial  topic  of 
church-state  relationships  on  which  to  speak  to  this  Baptist 
group.  He  called  religion  the  foundation  of  culture  in  America; 
he  explained  that,  though  separation  of  church  and  state  had 
been  a  basic  principle  of  the  country,  that  did  not  mean  that 
government  should  be  godless.  The  Governor  questioned  the 
Supreme  Court  decision  banning  prayer  in  the  public  schools. 
He  said  no  school  should  require  prayer  but  citizens  should 
"continue  to  use,  encourage,  and  promote  prayer  in  the  schools, 
out  of  schools,  in  government,  and  out  of  government."  He  spoke 
of  the  partnership  between  church  and  state,  citing  the  establish- 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


ment  of  educational  institutions  as  an  example.  Educational 
institutions  had  to  be  provided  by  both  government  and  churches 
and  the  cost  to  the  individual  had  to  be  kept  within  reach. 
He  commended  the  Baptists  for  their  stand  in  favor  of  the  separ- 
ation of  church  and  state,  saying  that  decisions  regarding  edu- 
cational needs  and  facilities  would  have  to  be  made  without 
violating  this  principle  or  the  basic  belief  in  the  right  of  private 
groups  to  establish  and  maintain  schools.  At  the  same  time,  plans 
could  and  would  have  to  be  made  together.  He  urged  citizens 
to  ''demonstrate  .  .  .  qualities  of  citizenship  as  well  as  .  .  .  qualities 
of  loyalty  to  .  .  .  religious  beliefs.  .  .  ."  He  added  that  they  needed 
to  "merge  these  two  and  wear  .  .  .  [the]  two  hats  of  citizenship 
and  religion  with  dignity  and  with  commitment  to  basic  human 

Hershey^  Pennsylvania 
July  2,  1962 

Governor  Sanford  took  advantage  of  another  opportunity  to 
sell  North  Carolina  when  he  addressed  the  National  Governors 
Conference.  He  discussed  industrial  development  as  one  of  many 
efforts  to  raise  income,  but  he  explained  that  the  North  Carolina 
program  did  not  include  tax  concessions.  The  state  had  not 
stolen  industry,  though  it  welcomed  industries  which  chose  to 
come  to  North  Carolina.  Programs  to  train  individuals  in  twenty 
industrial  education  centers,  appropriations  at  the  state  level, 
hard  ^vork  at  the  local  level,  and  constructive  programs  in  the 
Department  of  Conservation  and  Development  were  all  factors 
which  had  resulted  in  success.  Sanford  explained  that  the  state 
paid  particular  attention  to  existing  industries.  Trade  fairs  and 
"Made  in  North  Carolina  Week"  were  cited  as  examples  of  two 
ways  of  showing  appreciation  to  industries  established  in  the 
state.  In  turn,  industries  became  good-will  ambassadors  for  North 
Carolina.  The  whole  purpose  of  the  program  of  industrial  devel- 
opment was  "to  help  people,  men  and  women,  have  a  better 
chance  to  make  a  better  living." 


Papers  of  Terry  San  ford 

New  York,  New  York 
July  11,  1962 

[The  responsibilities  of  local  governments,  as  opposed  to  those  of  state 
and  national  governments,  were  often  argued  by  laymen,  legislators,  and 
administrators.  In  his  address  at  the  National  Association  of  County  Officials 
in  New  York,  Governor  Sanford  discussed  this  subject  and  emphasized  the 
advantages  of  local  leadership  in  specified  areas.] 

There  is  a  lot  of  talk  about  home  rule.  Our  theme  this  morn- 
ing is  what  we  can  do  about  it. 

Not  many  years  ago  the  roads  were  designed,  built,  and  main- 
tained by  decisions  made  by  county  governing  bodies.  The 
welfare  responsibilities  were  met  by  the  operation  of  a  county 
home,  or  the  "poor  house"  as  it  was  called  in  Scotland  County 
when  I  was  a  boy.  The  schools,  although  they  might  have  received 
a  little  "encouragement"  money  from  the  state  government, 
were  built  and  the  teachers  paid  by  local  governments  which 
thereby  established  educational  standards.  Law  enforcement  was 
a  county  or  town  undertaking.  How  far  to  go,  or  not  to  go,  was 
a  matter  of  home  rule. 

But  that  was  yesterday.  When  Adam  and  Eve  were  being 
banished  from  the  Garden  of  Eden,  Adam  turned  to  Eve  and 
said,  "My  dear,  we  are  living  in  a  period  of  transition."  And  so 
it  is. 

Changes  not  in  government  but  in  conditions  brought  a 
transition  in  home  rule.  The  mule  and  "drag  pan"  and  the  man 
with  the  pick  passed  on.  The  need  for  more  roads,  the  necessity 
for  multicounty  planning,  and  the  coming  of  heavy  construction 
equipment  combined  to  shift  many  road  decisions  from  court- 
houses to  state  capital,  or  at  least  to  state  divisional  offices. 

The  depression,  demonstrating  that  the  counties  where  people 
most  needed  welfare  financial  assistance  were  least  able  to  provide 
it,  moved  other  decisions  to  the  statehouse  and  the  nation's 

So  change  brought  change  and  will  continue  to  bring  more 

There  were  valid  reasons  for  some  shifts  toward  more  cen- 
tralization away  from  local  decisions.  Faster  transportation  and 
communication  made  crossing  county  lines  by  state  authority  and 
state  lines  by  federal  authority  imperative. 

In  too  many  places,  however,  it  was  a  matter  of  abdication. 
Local  leaders  got  tired  of  leading.  They  failed  to  respond  to 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


demand  for  needed  governmental  services,  and  citizens  turned 
away  to  higher  governments  for  solutions  to  their  problems. 

This  has  been  true  not  only  of  the  shift  from  local  to  state, 
but  from  state  to  national,  and  the  basic  reason  is  that  it  is  far 
easier  to  let  someone  else  solve  our  problems. 

I  get  disheartened  almost  every  time  a  conference  of  state  or 
local  officials  is  conducted  about  any  specific  problem  because, 
more  likely  than  not,  their  labors  bring  forth  the  decision  in 
profound  words  that  what  we  need  is  more  federal  aid.  This  is  a 
"national  problem,"  they  declare. 

For  example,  I  don't  think  we  need  to  look  to  the  federal 
government  for  a  juvenile  delinquency  program.  If  there  is  one 
thing  that  can  be  cared  for  better  the  closer  to  home  we  can 
keep  it,  it  is  juvenile  correction.  Maybe  our  interest  can  be 
promoted  by  national  groups,  but  the  solution  is  not  national 

I  see  no  reason  to  call  for  federal  help  because  urban  trans- 
portation is  a  knotty  problem.  Sure  it  is,  but  all  of  the  leadership 
for  solving  knotty  problems  is  not  in  Washington.  Sure  it  is 
easier  to  get  money  from  the  federal  government,  but  that  is 
exactly  what  we  are  talking  about,  or  rather  talking  against, 
when  we  seek  more  local  authority. 

I  know  how  hard  it  is  to  get  tax  money  locally,  but  it  will  cost 
all  of  us  less  if  we  get  it  locally  to  spend  locally  rather  than  letting 
the  federal  government  get  it  locally  to  spend  locally. 

This  is  like  pouring  buttermilk  from  one  glass  to  another.  By 
the  time  it  gets  to  the  third  glass  there  is  about  20  per  cent  less 
to  drink. 

I  am  sure  that  the  President,  and  most  cabinet  members,  and 
substantial  leadership  in  the  Congress  would  like  to  stop  the 
trend  to  centralization,  but  they  can't  do  it  unless  the  public 
will  tolerate  it;  and  the  public  will  not  accept  it  until  we  as  state 
and  local  officials  demonstrate  our  competence  and  our  willing- 
ness to  handle  the  legitimate  needs  of  the  people. 

So  this  puts  the  burden  of  home  rule  on  us.  Nobody  else  is 
going  to  take  up  this  cause  because  nobody  else  is  in  the  position 
of  responsibility  for  home  rule. 

Home  rule  and  local  decisions  are  particularly  important  today. 
In  these  days  of  rising  state  and  local  taxes,  and  very  high  federal 
taxes,  all  governmental  activity  is  subject  to  the  closest  scrutiny 
and  people  everywhere  heed  the  call  for  economy. 

There  is  a  strong  cry  against  centralization,  because  of  the 
inflexibility,  the  duplication,  the  remoteness,  the  waste,  the  delays 
which  result  when  government  is  too  far  away  from  the  people  it 
is  designed  to  serve. 


Papers  of  Terry  San  ford 

If  we  do  not  put  our  governmental  house  in  order  in  a  way 
that  brings  greater  economy  and  greater  service,  we  will  play  into 
the  hands  of  the  right-wing  extremists  who  believe  that  govern- 
ment is  not  designed  to  serve  and  who,  in  the  false  name  of 
economy,  would  eliminate  or  curtail  the  services  of  education, 
roads,  health,  welfare,  and  the  other  essential  and  common  pur- 
poses of  democratic  government. 

This  is  why  home  rule  is  so  important  today.  If  we  fail  to 
check  centralization,  government  may  very  well  sustain  a  loss 
in  public  confidence. 

Your  program  impresses  me.  This  is  your  third  day  of  examin- 
ing home  rule  in  its  many  aspe':ts.  You  began  with  Bill  Mac- 
Dougall's^^^  description  of  home  rule  in  the  democratic  process. 
You  have  considered  various  approaches  and  have  heard  specific 

There  is  much  to  know  about  home  rule,  and  a  complexity  of 
variations,  but  one  thing  is  certain:  We  are  in  favor  of  it! 

What  action  will  strengthen  it  is  a  different  story. 

We  are  talking  about  a  fundamental  ideal  of  democratic  gov- 
ernment when  we  promote  home  rule  and  local  decision,  for  this 
means  keeping  government  as  close  as  possible  to  the  people. 
That  is  an  easy  and  proper  position  to  take. 

The  difficulty  lies  in  applying  this  ideal  to  individual  functions, 
structures,  and  situations  of  government.  What  political  action 
should  we  take  to  extend  home  rule? 

What  should  be  a  local  decision,  and  how  is  it  to  be  made  and 
paid  for,  and  who  decides  what  is  local  and  what  is  not,  are 
matters  of  application. 

County  governing  boards,  whether  called  commissioners  or 
supervisors,  or  juries,  or  courts,  or  one  of  twenty-three  other 
titles,  and  with  membership  ranging  from  one  to  more  than  fifty, 
charged  with  duties  ranging  from  all  schools  to  no  schools,  all 
roads  to  no  roads,  all  prisoners  to  no  prisoners,  make  impossible 
one  single  and  simple  suggestion  of  political  action  necessary  to 
protect  the  right  of  home  rule. 

For  example,  do  you  want  anything  to  do  with  rural  roads? 
Do  you  want  to  plan,  build,  or  maintain  them?  Do  you  want  to 
pay  for  them  or  share  in  the  price?  Do  you  want  to  play  a  part 
in  planning  or  paving  or  setting  priorities?  In  some  states  90 
per  cent  of  the  rural  roads  belong  to  the  counties,  along  with  the 

100  William  R.  MacDougall,  general  counsel,  County  Supervisors  Association  of 
California;  keynote  speaker  at  1962  national  conference  of  county  officials.  1962 
County  Yearbook  (Chapel  Hill:  North  Carolina  Association  of  County  Commis- 
sioners, 1962),  123. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


problems  and  the  payments.  In  other  states,  North  Carolina 
included,  100  per  cent  belongs  to  the  state. 

Is  this  good  or  bad,  and  can  greater  efficiency,  and  therefore, 
more  roads  be  a  justifiable  price  to  pay  for  this  diminished  bit  of 
home  rule? 

Do  you  want  to  control  totally  the  purse  strings  of  education, 
as  you  do  in  some  counties,  or  do  you  want  to  share  this  as  is  done 
in  some  counties,  or  do  you  want  to  give  this  over  to  other 
agencies  as  is  done  in  some  counties? 

There  is  one  certain  pattern  to  the  government  of  American 
counties  and  that  is  a  total  lack  of  uniformity. 

This  has  given  us  flexibility  and  provided  examples  of  progress 
and  is  a  tradition  well  worth  maintaining.  We  do  not  seek  uni- 
formity and  conformity  to  the  master  plan,  not  even  in  our 
definition  and  goal  of  home  rule. 

There  is  a  reason  for  centralization  and  a  reason  for  maintain- 
ing local  decision.  We  need  to  test  each  issue  and  each  function 

Some  things  can  be  done  more  efficiently  and  effectively  from 
the  courthouse,  some  from  the  statehouse,  and  some  from  Wash- 

It  seems  to  me  that  there  are  three  parts  to  the  action  we  should 

First,  we  should  define  for  ourselves,  within  the  context  of 
our  counties  and  our  states,  what  is  desirable  and  what  is  possible. 
Obviously  a  Delaware  county  would  not  set  out  the  details  in  the 
same  matter  defined  by  an  Oklahoma  county.  Surely  each  state 
association  could  propound  its  home  rule  goals  in  definite 
fashion.  In  this  way  we  can  know  what  we  seek  and  the  people 
can  know  why  we  seek  it. 

Second,  we  need,  as  always  in  democratic  government,  to  con- 
sider the  appropriate  political  action.  It  would  be  very  easy  to  say 
that  in  order  to  obtain  more  home  rule,  or  more  authority  to 
decide  questions  locally,  all  you  have  to  do  is  put  the  pressure 
on  the  state  legislature  to  increase  your  statutory  authority,  or 
to  insist  that  state  agencies  impose  fewer  state  restrictions  and 
authorize  more  local  decisions.  But  this  would  be  as  misleading 
as  it  is  inaccurate,  for  this  is  not  all  that  there  is  to  it. 

Legislatures  act  in  response  to  citizen  demand,  or  at  least  with 
the  tacit  approval  of  the  voters.  So  a  case  must  be  made  to  the 
legislature  to  get  it  to  act,  and  this  must  have  general  public 
support.  Also,  state  agencies  have  their  own  responsibilities  and 
their  own  ideas  as  to  the  best  way  of  discharging  these  responsi- 
bilities. Like  the  counties,  they  depend  on  a  grant  of  authority 
from  the  legislature.  But  unlike  the  counties,  they  look  at  things 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

on  a  state-wide  basis  which  often  conflicts  ^vith  the  way  particular 
areas  look  at  the  same  things.  Some  areas  may  want  more,  and 
some  less,  activity.  And  the  state  agency's  responsibility  is  to  arrive 
at  a  workable  happy  medium— which,  like  compromises,  generally 
tend  to  satisfy  nobody. 

I  emphasize  this  particular  aspect  of  state-county  relations— 
for  after  all  home  rule  and  local  decisions  in  the  major  concerns 
of  county  activity  exist  in  the  context  of  state-county  relations. 
This  is  true  of  public  schools,  public  welfare,  and  public  health. 
These  three  activities  involve  90  per  cent  of  the  expenditures  of 
our  North  Carolina  counties,  and  more  than  75  per  cent  of  our 
state  budget,  excluding  roads  and  highways.  In  most  states, 
it  is  also  true  in  roads  and  highways. 

My  point  is  that  necessarily  there  is  a  state-wide  interest  and 
a  local  interest  in  most  of  our  responsibilities.  The  state-wide 
interest  is  often  phrased  in  terms  of  a  minimum,  or  basic  pro- 
gram. The  state,  acting  in  response  to  citizens'  demands,  provides 
that  each  child  shall  be  given  a  certain  minimum  education;  that 
each  needy  person  shall  receive  a  grant  based  on  a  minimum 
standard  of  decency  and  health;  that  certain  conditions  detri- 
mental to  public  health  shall  be  eliminated.  Home  rule,  then, 
cannot  mean  a  reduction  of  the  state-wide  minimum  level,  no 
matter  what  the  wishes  of  a  particular  area.  A  majority  of  people 
of  the  entire  state  have  decided  the  matter,  and  they  will  not 
have  their  will  frustrated  by  local  inaction. 

The  proper  responsibility  for  local  decision  is  how  to  provide 
each  child  with  the  minimum  education  that  child  needs,  plus 
additional  education  to  make  the  child  as  productive  an  adult 
as  possible;  how  to  distinguish  the  needy  from  the  lazy,  and  how 
to  rehabilitate  the  physically  and  mentally  disabled;  how  to 
identify  and  deal  with  public  health  problems  that  truly  are 

This  is  the  position  for  home  rule  and  local  decision  in  the 
state-county  relationship  context.  The  states  will  not  and  can- 
not allow  local  decision  to  override  state-wide  policy.  And  as 
you  approach  state  agencies  to  obtain  more  local  authority,  you 
must  understand  and  appreciate  their  position  just  as  they  must 
understand  and  appreciate  yours.  While  local  decision  cannot 
override  state-wide  policy,  state  agencies  should  not  attempt  to 
use  the  cloak  of  state-wide  policy  to  interfere  in  local  decisions. 
This  makes  continuous  negotiation  and  compromise  necessary. 
This  negotiation  and  compromise  must  be  conducted  in  the  spirit 
of  good  will,  in  an  attempt  to  harmonize  state-wide  interest  with 
local  administration  to  achieve  efficiency  and  economy. 

I  can  speak  for  myself  on  this  point,  and  I  have  made  myself 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


clear  to  the  county  officials  of  my  own  state.  I  have  worked  and 
will  continue  to  work  with  our  North  Carolina  counties  to  pro- 
vide maximum  local  authority  and  autonomy.  I  believe  local 
government,  carried  out  close  to  the  people  served,  should  be  and 
can  be  responsive  government.  I  believe  it  should  be  and  can  be 
efficient  and  economical  government.  I  believe  it  can  be  pro- 
ductive. For  these  reasons  I  believe  as  much  as  possible  should 
be  decided  locally.  But  the  Governor  of  the  entire  state  cannot 
and  will  not  allow  the  decision  of  a  particular  locality  to  frustrate 
or  override  a  state-wide  interest. 

You  cor.nty  officials  can  and  must  help  to  achieve  home  rule 
and  local  decision.  If  political  action  is  the  key  to  home  rule,  the 
political  atmosphere  is  the  key  to  political  action.  If  county 
officials  and  state  officials  are  to  work  together  to  increase  home 
rule  and  local  decision,  they  must  have  the  approval  of  citizens 
and  voters.  And  if  state  and  local  officials  disagree,  the  victor  on 
a  particular  issue  will  be  the  side  having  the  greater  popular 

My  point  is  this:  To  create  the  political  atmosphere  necessary 
to  increase  home  rule  and  local  decisions,  you  must  act  responsi- 
bly in  areas  where  you  now  have  authority.  It  is  often  said  that 
responsibility  and  authority  go  together.  If  you  are  to  have 
more  authority,  you  must  be  responsible. 

Look  at  it  this  way.  If  counties  do  not  respond  to  citizens' 
desires  for  services,  these  citizens  will  not  be  willing  to  see  more 
authority  granted  to  counties.  If  counties  do  not  provide  existing 
services  economically  and  efficiently,  citizens  will  not  be  willing 
to  provide  more  opportunity  for  waste.  If  counties  do  not  merit 
confidence  in  the  existing  operations,  they  will  not  have  oppor- 
tunity for  additional  operations.  This  is  no  easy  task.  Like  a  stone 
wall,  built  by  adding  stone  on  stone,  public  confidence  is  earned 
and  won  by  a  steady  succession  of  satisfactory  actions.  Some  coun- 
ties have  further  to  go  than  others,  just  as  some  states  have  further 
to  go  than  others. 

The  third  suggestion  sums  up  the  first  two  in  a  word.  The  word 
is  leadership.  You  occupy  the  positions  of  leaders.  You  were 
elected  to  lead,  not  just  to  preside.  Home  rule  and  local  decisions 
flourish  when  local  leaders  are  willing  to  fight  for  better  edu- 
cational opportunities  for  local  children.  Overcentralization  in 
government  is  retarded  when  local  leaders  get  out  on  a  limb  to 
stand  for  planning,  and  development,  and  slum  avoidance,  and 
proper  endeavors  which  promote  a  stronger  economy  and  a  more 
wholesome  community. 

Home  rule  follows  leadership.  If  your  mission  is  vigorously  the 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

mission  of  the  people,  then  you  are  promoting,  developing,  and 
achieving  home  rule. 

July  18,  1962 

[Industrial  education  centers,  established  during  the  administration  of 
Governor  Hodges,  were  made  components  of  the  comprehensive  system  of 
community  colleges  and  were  greatly  expanded  during  the  Sanford  admin- 
istration. With  part-time  instruction  in  various  trade  and  specialty  courses 
for  high  school  juniors  and  seniors  and  adult  education  courses,  the  centers 
featured  an  "open  door"  policy  of  admission  and  stressed  individualized 
learning.  These  dedicatory  exercises  at  Charlotte  gave  the  Governor  another 
opportunity  to  discuss  education  and  its  relation  to  the  total  economy.  San- 
ford suggested  the  inclusion  of  a  liberal  arts  program  to  complement  the 
practical  instruction  given  at  the  centers.] 

I  am  happy  to  have  a  part  in  the  exercises  dedicating  the  Char- 
lotte Industrial  Education  Center.  This  is  part  of  our  state-wide 
declaration  of  war  on  poverty. 

Such  a  complete  and  effective  job  has  been  done  in  remodeling 
this  building  that  it  is  hard  to  recognize  it  as  the  old  Central 
High  School  which  was  erected  in  the  early  twenties  and  in  which 
Dr.  Garinger^^i  served  as  the  first  principal. 

While  this  building  has  been  extensively  remodeled  and  while 
the  industrial  education  center,  now  housed  here,  is  a  different 
type  of  institution,  in  no  small  degree  it  inherits  the  mantle  of 
Central  High  School.  Many  successful  men  and  women  in  Char- 
lotte and  Mecklenburg  County,  but  also  in  many  other  areas  of 
our  state  and  nation,  have  moved  out  from  this  building  to 
successful  careers  and  to  lives  of  valuable  service  to  their  state 
and  their  nation.  All  of  these  have  carried  with  them  the  very 
fine  reputation  that  Central  High  School  built  for  providing 
excellent  educational  opportunity.  This  reputation  for  excellence 
was  due  in  no  small  measure  to  the  leadership  of  Dr.  Garinger, 
as  well  as  to  the  leadership  of  many  other  people  here  in  Char- 

I  am  certain  that  this  industrial  education  center  will  uphold 

Elmer  Henry  Garinger  (1891-  ),  educator  from  Charlotte;  Superintendent 
of  Charlotte-Mecklenburg  Schools,  consultant  in  education,  Visiting  Professor  of 
Education  at  Appalachian  State  Teachers  College,  University  of  North  Carolina  at 
Chapel  Hill,  University  of  Missouri,  and  Peabody  College;  civic  and  government 
worker;  representative  in  the  General  Assembly,  1963.  North  Carolina  Manual, 
1963,  573-574. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


this  record  of  excellence  in  providing  education.  There  is  no 
more  important  task  that  we  face  than  the  task  of  extending 
educational  opportunity  beyond  the  high  school.  In  doing  this, 
your  industrial  education  center  here  in  Charlotte  fills  a  place 
in  a  pattern  of  such  institutions  throughout  our  state. 

In  all  areas  of  life,  the  welfare  of  our  state  will  move  forward 
on  the  feet  of  educated  people.  This  is  as  true  in  economic  wel- 
fare as  it  is  true  in  the  area  of  citizenship  in  general. 

The  economic  pattern  of  life  in  North  Carolina  has  changed 
radically  since  the  day  that  this  building  was  first  erected.  In  fact, 
even  during  the  twenty  years  from  1940  to  1960,  there  have  been 
great  changes  in  the  way  that  people  make  a  living  in  North  Caro- 
lina. For  example,  in  1940  agricultural  employment  accounted 
for  33.8  per  cent  of  our  labor  force.  By  1950  this  had  fallen  to  24.6 
per  cent,  and  in  1960  it  has  declined  sharply  to  12.8  per  cent.  The 
twenty-year  period  from  1940  to  1960  showed  a  49.6  per  cent 
decline  in  the  proportion  of  the  labor  force  engaged  in  agri- 

At  the  same  time,  the  percentage  of  the  population  engaged 
in  manufacturing  has  increased  sharply.  In  fact,  manufacturing 
employment  in  North  Carolina  has  advanced  consistently  since 
the  mid-fifties  in  contrast  with  a  near  stable  level  in  manufactur- 
ing employment  for  the  nation  as  a  whole.  We  now  find  in  1960, 
1,200,500  people  in  nonagricultural  employment;  and  manu- 
facturing industries  account  for  42.4  per  cent  of  this  nonfarm 
employment.  This  ratio  is  considerably  above  the  national  ratio 
which  is  30.6  per  cent.  Expansion  of  industries  that  we  have  had 
in  our  state  for  a  number  of  years  has  accounted  for  a  great  deal 
of  this  increase.  At  the  same  time,  we  are  making  significant 
progress  in  attracting  new  industries. 

Last  year  over  a  quarter  of  a  billion  dollars  was  invested  in 
North  Carolina  in  new  industrial  plants  in  our  state.  Last  year 
some  35,000  new  jobs,  with  an  annual  payroll  of  more  than 
$117  million,  were  established  for  the  people  of  North  Carolina. 
The  Department  of  Conservation  and  Development  reports  to 
me  that  for  the  first  six  months  of  this  year,  we  ran  ahead  of  the 
same  period  in  the  record-setting  year  of  1961. 

While  we  are  proud  of  our  record  in  industrial  expansion,  we 
plan  to  continue  working  hard  to  create  a  balance  in  the  types 
of  manufacturing  in  North  Carolina.  Our  manufacturing  is 
largely  devoted  to  nondurable  goods.  These  producers  provide 
approximately  72  per  cent  of  the  state's  manufacturing  employ- 
ment. At  the  same  time,  employment  in  durable  goods  manu- 
facturing in  this  state  accounts  for  only  28  per  cent  of  the  total. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

We  can  compare  four  industries  in  durable  goods  and  four  in 
nondurable  goods  in  order  to  see  just  what  this  picture  is.  In  the 
United  States,  furniture,  lumber  and  wood  products,  metal 
products,  and  electrical  goods  account  for  36.1  per  cent  of  the 
manufacturing  industries.  In  North  Carolina,  these  same  four 
account  for  24.4  per  cent  of  the  total  manufacturing  output.  Four 
industries  in  nondurable  goods— textiles,  tobacco,  apparel,  and 
food— account  for  23.7  per  cent  in  the  United  States  and  63.1  per 
cent  in  North  Carolina. 

Not  only  are  we  somewhat  out  of  balance  as  we  compare 
durable  goods  manufacturing  ^vith  nondurable  goods  manufactur- 
ing, but  in  specific  areas  we  are  out  of  balance.  For  example,  in 
the  durable  goods.  North  Carolina  is  far  ahead  of  the  nation  in 
furniture  manufacturing  and  in  lumber  and  wood  products 
manufacturing,  but  we  are  far  behind  the  nation  in  metal 
products  and  some  behind  the  nation  in  electrical  goods  manu- 
facturing. We  are  working  to  attract  more  of  the  metal  products 
manufacturing  and  electrical  goods  manufacturing  businesses  to 
North  Carolina,  while  we  work  to  hold  our  lead  in  the  other 

If  ^ve  look  at  the  nondurable  goods  industries,  we  find  that 
North  Carolina  is  heavily  engaged  in  textile  manufacturing  which 
accounts  for  43.8  per  cent  of  our  manufacturing  operations; 
whereas,  this  per  cent  is  5.3  per  cent  for  the  nation.  We  are  also 
far  ahead  in  tobacco,  but  ^ve  are  behind  in  apparel  and  in  food. 
Certainly,  we  should  not  be  behind  in  processing  of  food  through 
manufacturing  enterprises.  Our  percentage  in  North  Carolina  in 
food  manufacturing  is  6.5  per  cent  compared  with  10.6  per  cent 
for  the  nation  as  a  whole. 

This  concentration  of  manufacturing  in  a  few  relatively  major 
industry  groupings  indicates  that  we  do  not  have  the  kind  of 
balance  in  our  manufacturing  structure  that  we  should  have.  We 
have  made  excellent  progress,  but  we  need  to  make  much  more. 
We  are  going  to  give  every  assistance  possible  to  the  growth  of  the 
great  established  industries  of  our  state,  including  textiles, 
tobacco,  and  furniture.  But  at  the  same  time,  we  are  also  going 
to  be  seeking  more  diversified  industry. 

I  have  already  mentioned  the  sharp  drop  in  agricultural  em- 
ployment. There  are,  how^ever,  many  activities  that  are  closely 
related  to  agriculture,  such  as  food  processing,  that  we  need  to 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries  263 

Dr.  Rupert  Vance^^-  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina  says 
that  a  fully  industrialized  society  will  have  a  large  proportion  of 
the  labor  force  engaged  in  service,  distribution,  and  clerical 
activities.  There  are  many  types  of  jobs  in  all  of  these  areas 
that  we  have  not  developed  fully  in  North  Carolina. 

In  the  final  analysis,  industrial  welfare  means  human  welfare. 
While  we  must  be  concerned  that  the  manpower  needs  of 
industry,  agriculture,  and  business  are  met,  we  must  also  be  con- 
cerned that  the  needs  of  the  people  of  the  state  shall  be  met;  and 
among  these  needs  is  the  need  for  education,  including  vocational 

This  industrial  education  center  and  others  like  it  are  being 
established  to  provide  the  manpower  needs  of  the  state.  But  first 
of  all,  they  are  to  provide  for  human  needs.  The  Employment 
Security  Commission  of  North  Carolina  has  just  completed  a  very 
able  study  of  the  manpower  needs  of  our  state.  These  findings  are 
to  be  used  in  many  different  ways.  Among  these  ways,  they  will 
be  used  to  determine  the  types  of  training  programs  needed  in  the 
industrial  education  centers  in  North  Carolina.  In  addition  to 
the  information  we  secure  from  this  study  of  manpower  needs, 
we  have  also  secured  information  about  the  flood  of  high  school 
graduates  who  will  be  moving  into  the  labor  force  or  institutions 
for  education  beyond  the  high  school.  Information  of  this  nature 
being  developed  by  the  Carlyle  Commission  on  Education  Beyond 
the  High  School  ties  closely  in  with  the  information  from  the 
Employment  Security  Commission  study  in  order  to  give  us  the 
kind  of  data  that  we  must  have  if  we  are  going  to  meet  the  needs 
of  our  people  in  terms  of  economics  and  in  terms  of  education. 

I  have  been  pointing  out  to  you  that  we  in  North  Carolina 
can  be  proud  of  the  improvement  we  have  been  making  in  the 
economic  posture  of  our  state  and  in  the  job  opportunities  made 
available  for  our  people.  We  cannot  be  as  proud  of  our  record  in 
providing  educational  opportunities.  For  example.  North  Caro- 
lina has  the  poorest  record  of  any  state  save  only  Mississippi  in 
the  percentage  of  our  young  people  who  attend  college.  We  can 
hardly  hide  behind  a  feeling  of  pride  in  economic  advancement, 
while,  at  the  same  time,  we  follow  policies  that  keep  half  of  our 
college-capable  youngsters  out  of  college.  We  may  also  extend 
this  by  saying  that  there  are  many  more  of  our  people  who  should 

Rupert  B.  Vance,  Arkansas  native;  Professor  of  Sociology  at  the  University  of 
North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill  since  1929;  research  professor  at  the  Institute  for 
Research  in  Social  Science  in  Chapel  Hill.  The  University  of  North  Carolina  at 
Chapel  Hill  Record:  The  General  Catalogue  Issue,  1962-1963  (Chapel  Hill:  Uni- 
versity of  North  Carolina  Press,  1962),  hereinafter  cited  as  University  Record, 
1962-1963.  . 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

not  go  to  college  to  train  for  the  professions  but  are  fully  capable 
of  being  educated  as  technicians  and  skilled  craftsmen  in  all 
phases  of  work. 

The  state  must  educate;  the  state  must  be  educated.  The 
alternative  is  slavery— economic,  cultural,  social,  and  political 
slavery.  The  choice  is  between  ignorance  and  enlightenment  on  a 
vast  scale.  We  must  double  our  enrollments  in  institutions  giving 
education  beyond  the  high  school  or  we  will  certainly  double 
our  problems  and  our  poverty. 

The  people  of  this  state  are  hungry  for  the  type  of  education 
that  will  be  provided  and  is  now  being  provided  in  this  institution. 
How  else  can  we  explain  that  in  the  space  of  three  years  we  are 
reaching  35,000  young  people  in  the  industrial  education  centers, 
many  of  whom  would  not  have  gone  to  any  type  of  training 
institution  beyond  the  high  school  if  these  centers  had  not  been 
available.  They  have  enrolled  because  they  need  education  for 
economic  survival  in  an  economy  that  is  changing  more  rapidly 
than  our  ideas  about  education  are  changing.  Now  the  questions 
must  be:  Is  terminal  education,  alone,  adequate  for  them?  Is 
vocational  education  all  that  they  need?  Do  they  not  also  need 
an  opportunity  for  certain  liberal  studies  in  the  program  of 
education  in  this  institution  and  in  other  institutions  that  may  be 
developed  in  North  Carolina? 

At  the  same  time  that  we  see  clearly  the  need  for  improvement 
in  our  economic  posture  in  North  Carolina,  we  also  must  have 
an  equal  concern,  if  not  a  greater  concern  that  the  human  values 
shall  be  recognized  and  provided  for.  We  must  be  concerned  that 
every  child  have  an  excellent,  appropriate  educational  opportunity 
available  for  him,  and  we  must  also  see  that  in  a  changing  world 
this  educational  opportunity  can  no  longer  be  ended  with  the 
public  school  program. 

Walter  Hines  Page  pointed  out  very  clearly  the  need  for 
recognizing  the  importance  of  education  for  all.  This  is  the  way 
he  expressed  it: 

Society  forever  needs  reinforcement  from  the  rear.  It  is  a  shining  day  in 
any  educated  man's  growth  when  he  comes  to  see  and  to  know  and  to  feel 
and  freely  to  admit  that  it  is  just  as  important  to  the  world  that  the  raga- 
muffin child  of  his  worthless  neighbor  should  be  trained  as  it  is  that  his 
own  child  should  be.  Until  a  man  sees  this  he  cannot  become  a  worthy 
democrat  nor  get  a  patriotic  conception  of  education;  for  no  man  has 
known  the  deep  meaning  of  democracy  or  felt  either  its  obligation  or  its 
lift  till  he  has  seen  this  truth  clearly.^'^ 

I  am  sure  that  you  believe  as  strongly  in  the  potential  future 
of  North  Carolina  as  I  believe.  I  am  sure  that  you  are  as  dedicated 

Page,  Rebuilding  of  Old  Commonwealths,  89-90. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


as  I  am  to  raising  the  economic  level  and  the  general  cultuial 
level  of  our  people.  The  existence  of  this  institution  demonstrates 
concretely  that  you  understand  that  the  way  to  achieving  our 
goals  is  through  improved  educational  opportunity.  I  am  certain 
that  you  are  concerned  that  all  people  shall  have  appropriate, 
excellent  educational  opportunity  and  that  we  cannot,  if  we  love 
our  state  and  if  we  have  any  hope  at  all  for  the  future,  neglect 
providing  educational  opportunity  beyond  the  high  school  for 
all  who  need  this  opportunity. 

August  1,  1962 

Governor  Sanford,  speaking  in  Avery  County,  reminded  his 
audience  that  other  counties  were  engaged  in  programs  to  create 
employment  and  raise  incomes,  but  he  cited  Avery  as  a  county 
which  had  taken  action.  The  county's  average  income  per  person 
was  less  than  a  quarter  of  the  national  average  and  the  com- 
munities faced  loss  of  population.  It  was  assumed  that  the  county 
had  to  have  industry,  but  the  people  came  to  realize  that  industry 
was  only  one  solution.  The  decision  was  made  to  develop  tourist 
facilities,  engage  in  agricultural  enterprises  such  as  the  raising 
of  fruits  and  Christmas  trees,  and  establish  small  industries.  Lack 
of  capital  was  a  problem  until  funds  became  available  through 
the  Federal  Area  Redevelopment  Act.  The  County  Planning 
Board,  building  on  the  groundwork  laid  by  the  Chamber  of 
Commerce,  was  formed.  The  board  did  not  displace  any  existing 
group,  but  in  its  advisory  and  co-ordinating  capacity  it  represented 
all  major  economic  interests.  Reminding  the  group  that  neighbor- 
ing counties  had  also  made  outstanding  progress,  the  Governor 
advised  the  Avery  County  people  not  to  become  complacent  but 
to  concentrate  on  continued  improvement.  He  solicited  the  help 
of  every  citizen  in  selling  the  area. 



August  3,  1962 

Governor  Sanford  told  this  group  of  police  executives  that 
law,  the  backbone  of  society,  was  worthless  unless  it  was  respected 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

and  enforced.  He  said  that  the  policeman  personified  law  for  the 
majority  of  the  people.  The  Governor  then  launched  into  a  dis- 
cussion of  the  proposed  court  reform  amendment,  saying  that  an 
efficient  court  system  was  imperative  to  modern  law  enforcement, 
that  times  changed  and  old  machinery  needed  replacement,  and 
that  North  Carolina  was  being  asked  to  support  a  revision  of  an 
outdated  system.  The  purpose  of  the  amendment  was  to  establish 
a  uniform  system  of  lower  courts.  Though  there  were  many 
excellent  courts,  the  state  had  1,400  of  them  operating  independ- 
ently. The  amendment  provided  for  the  division  of  the  state  into 
local  court  districts.  The  plan  would  be  worked  out  by  the  General 
Assembly  in  conjunction  with  an  administrative  office  which 
would  be  established  to  free  judges  of  details.  Sanford  remarked 
that  justice  was  everybody's  business  and  that  court  improvement 
should  be  important  to  every  citizen.  He  closed  with  a  word  of 
confidence  that  law  enforcement  in  North  Carolina  would  face 
up  to  the  challenge  of  progress. 



August  7,  1962 

Governor  Sanford,  speaking  on  the  spot  on  which  the  first  soil 
conservation  program  was  initiated  twenty-five  years  earlier, 
briefly  reviewed  accomplishments  of  the  program.  The  original 
district  of  120,000  acres  in  Anson  and  Union  counties  grew  to 
3,000  districts  covering  more  than  92  per  cent  of  the  nation's 
farm  and  range  land.  The  Governor  stressed  the  need  to  continue 
the  program  to  assure  proper  use  of  natural  resources.  He  said 
the  responsibility  was  one  which  would  produce  rewards  if  prop- 
erly assumed;  future  generations  would  enjoy  prosperity  if  the 
present  generation  assumed  its  rightful  responsibility. 



August  7,  1962 

[One  of  the  top-priority  programs  of  the  Sanford  administration  was  the 
expansion  of  the  food  processing  industry.  A  thirty-minute  documentary  (pro- 


Public  Addresses  and  Summaries  267 

duced  by  WTVD,  Durham,  in  its  "Dixie  Dynamo"  series),  showing  food 
crops  and  processing  plants  filmed  from  the  coast  to  the  mountains,  was 
shown  while  the  Governor  discussed  efforts  being  made  to  capitalize  on  the 
multibillion  dollar  market.  For  another  address  in  which  Sanford  presented 
the  need  for  expansion  in  the  area  of  food  processing,  see  the  summary  of 
the  April  17,  1962,  speech  on  page  233.] 

During  the  coming  months  I  hope  to  discuss  with  you  the  vital 
issues  that  are  important  to  every  citizen  of  the  state.  Among 
these  issues  are  such  things  as  court  improvement,  the  state's 
prison  system,  North  Carolina's  water  resources,  the  welfare  pro- 
gram, and  other  subjects  of  equal  importance. 

On  this  program  I  want  to  talk  with  you  about  food  processing 
in  North  Carolina— its  accomplishments  and  its  opportunities. 

Since  the  Colonial  days  we  have  been  known  as  an  agricultural 
state,  primarily  for  our  cotton  and  tobacco.  For  more  than  two 
centuries  our  entire  economy  was  geared  to  the  production  of 
these  commodities.  It  has  only  been  during  this  century  that  food 
crops  have  supplemented  farm  income  to  any  degree,  and  only 
in  the  past  few  years  has  food  processing  started  to  move  into  its 
own  in  the  state. 

Feeding  180  million  persons  three  meals  a  day  not  only  is  a 
great  responsibility  but  is  also  a  great  challenge.  The  farms  of 
North  Carolina  and  the  nation  are  providing  the  foodstuffs  to 
make  this  the  best  fed  nation  in  history. 

At  this  season  of  the  year  when  fresh  produce  reaches  the 
market  in  quantity  we  are  all  impressed  with  nature's  abundance 
in  North  Carolina:  the  fields  of  corn,  apples  ripening  in  the 
mountains,  tomatoes  on  the  vine,  green  fields  all  over  the  state, 
and  those  taste-tempting  strawberries  and  Sandhills  peaches. 

If  we  limited  ourselves  entirely  to  the  fresh  produce  market, 
we'd  find  ourselves  in  the  position  of  providing  fewer  and  fewer 
job  opportunities  for  our  people  while  at  the  same  time  paying 
a  premium  for  food  processed  out  of  state.  We  have  made  a  start 
and  now  we  have  the  opportunity  of  greatly  expanding  what  we 
are  dong  toward  providing  those  540  million  American  meals  a 

It  hasn't  been  too  long  ago  that  a  good  sized  grocery  store 
carried  no  more  than  a  thousand  different  food  items  on  its 
shelves.  When  you  go  into  a  modern  supermarket  today  you  find 
up  to  7,000  articles,  and  the  number  is  increasing  constantly. 
Some  of  these  are  presently  being  processed  in  North  Carolina, 
some  for  purely  local  distribution,  others  for  regional  or  even 
national  markets. 

Just  a  few  years  ago  the  state  had  to  import  many  products 
that  weren't  grown  in  sufficient  quantity  to  make  processing 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

worthwhile.  Now  that  picture  is  rapidly  changing  and  many  of 
the  items  we  were  getting  from  as  far  away  as  the  Pacific  North- 
west or  even  Japan  are  being  profitably  produced  and  processed 
in  this  state. 

Some  of  North  Carolina's  food  plants  have  been  around  for 
many  years.  Others  are  almost  brand  new.  Pickles  have  long  been 
a  favorite;  consequently  it  was  no  great  surprise  when  a  new 
plant  began  operation  in  Henderson  three  years  ago.  An  ag- 
gressive local  industrial  group  convinced  some  hardheaded  in- 
vestors that  what  had  been  done  successfully  in  Mount  Olive  and 
Faison  could  be  done  in  Vance  County.  The  only  surprising  thing 
has  been  the  rapid  growth  and  expansion  of  this  organization. 
This  company  employs  from  200  to  600  persons,  depending  on 
the  season,  and  puts  more  than  |2  million  into  the  economy  of 
the  surrounding  counties.  Along  with  its  counterparts  it  has 
helped  raise  North  Carolina  into  the  second  largest  cucumber 
producing  state  in  the  nation.  Management  of  the  firm  gives  much 
credit  to  North  Carolina  State  College  for  one  of  its  developments 
that  has  been  a  boom  to  the  industry.  Researchers  at  the  college 
were  able  to  isolate  a  bacteria  that  caused  cucumbers  to  soften 
during  fermentation.  This  research  saved  the  industry  thousands 
of  dollars. 

Ten  years  ago  sweet  red  and  green  peppers  were  a  negligible 
crop  in  North  Carolina  when  a  company  began  operations  in 
Dunn.  Now  several  hundred  acres  of  the  vegetable  are  being 
harvested  every  year.  The  first  two  seasons  were  bad  crop  years, 
but  persistence  and  faith  in  the  future  paid  off.  Next  time  you 
eat  a  stuffed  green  pepper  or  have  a  pizza  with  pepper  strips, 
more  than  likely  it  will  have  been  grown  and  processed  in  North 

Men  of  vision  have  been  responsible  for  the  growth  of  North 
Carolina's  three  great  industries:  tobacco,  textiles,  and  furniture. 
Men  like  Reynolds  and  Duke  had  the  inspiration  and  determi- 
nation to  take  North  Carolina's  tobacco  and  process  it  into  the 
finished  product.  They  know  that  what  we  can  grow  in  North 
Carolina,  we  can  process  in  North  Carolina.  The  Loves  and  the 
Cannons  used  this  principle  in  the  development  of  textiles.  The 
same  is  true  of  the  furniture  industry. 

The  Department  of  Food  Science  and  Processing  has  been 
established  at  State  College  under  the  leadership  of  Dr.  William 
Roberts. This  department  is  equipped  to  provide  technical 

iw  William  Milner  Roberts,  head  of  depai  tment  and  Professor  of  Food  Science 
at  North  Carolina  State  University  at  Raleigh.  North  Carolina  State  College  Gen- 
eral Catalog,  1962-1964  (Raleigh:  Office  of  Information  Services  of  North  Carolina 
State  College  of  Agriculture  and  Engineering,  1962)  ,  410,  hereinafter  cited  as 
North  Carolina  State  College  Catalog. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


assistance  to  farmers  and  processors  alike.  A  development  of  this 
department  is  responsible  for  a  totally  new  food  industry  being 
started.  Through  the  research  of  Dr.  M.  W.  Hoover^^^  a  method 
of  drying  sweet  potatoes  and  pumpkins  and  transforming  them 
into  flakes  was  developed.  This  laboratory  project  was  translated 
into  full  plant  operation  down  in  Windsor  by  produce  processors. 
A  combination  of  local  initiative  and  outside  financial  help  and 
know-how  resulted  in  a  successful  operation.  They  also  have 
plans  for  developing  a  white  potato  flour  which  could  revolution- 
ize the  food  industry.  Their  pumpkin  operation  is  in  full  swing 
at  the  present  time.  You  can  see  that  plants  such  as  this  can't 
depend  on  leftover  produce  from  the  fresh  market.  Rather  they 
need  the  highest  quality  raw  product  available. 

With  a  state  as  large  and  diverse  as  North  Carolina  no  one  can 
keep  up  with  all  the  things  that  are  happening.  Each  of  us  is 
generally  aware  of  developments  in  the  area  in  which  we  live, 
but  occasionally  very  important  happenings  somewhere  else  can 
pass  almost  unnoticed.  Here's  a  case  in  point.  In  1958  the  Gerber 
Company  started  construction  on  its  huge  baby  food  plant  near 
Asheville.  I  was  amazed  to  discover  recently  that  many  people 
didn't  know  this  plant  existed.  When  this  plant  was  built  it  took 
into  account  the  much  publicized  population  explosion.  It  had 
expansion  plans  due  for  completion  in  1970.  Their  North  Carolina 
operation  has  been  so  successful  they  have  already  reached  the 
projected  1970  size.  As  far  as  it's  available,  produce  for  this  plant 
is  purchased  in  North  Carolina.  Farmers  grow  beets,  carrots, 
peaches,  apples,  green  beans,  and  other  produce  for  this  plant. 
This  operation  is  another  excellent  example  of  an  industry  making 
use  of  the  resources  of  the  community.  In  addition  to  making 
use  of  the  land,  it  is  employing  several  hundred  persons.  It  is 
purchasing  related  products,  such  as  glass  jars  and  other  supplies, 
locally.  In  addition,  it  is  distributing  Gerber  products  produced 
in  other  plants  to  a  ten-state  area.  One  production  line  of  this 
operation  produces  650  jars  of  baby  food  a  minute. 

In  nearby  Henderson  County  a  state  research  farm  is  exploring 
avenues  of  food  production  that  promise  to  provide  opportunities 
for  farmers  and  food  processors.  One  crop  on  which  they  are 
working  is  cauliflower,  now  mostly  grown  on  Long  Island.  If 
the  experimental  planting  is  successful— and  it  appears  it  will 
be— another  food  crop  opportunity  will  open  up  for  North  Caro- 
lina farmers. 

Another  crop  on  which  considerable  work  is  being  done  is 

Maurice  W.  Hoover,  Professor  of  Food  Science  at  North  Carolina  State  Uni- 
versity at  Raleigh.  North  Carolina  State  College  Catalog,  401. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

beets.  These  are  just  some  of  the  tools  the  state  food  team  is 
providing  farmers  and  industry  to  make  food  processing  more 
practical  and  profitable  in  North  Carolina. 

Making  use  of  the  assets  we  have  is  a  very  necessary  step  in  our 
industrial  growth.  We  aren't  going  to  interest  steel  mills  and 
automobile  manufacturers  in  moving  their  multibillion  dollar 
operations  to  North  Carolina,  at  least  not  overnight.  But  by 
judicious  use  of  the  assets  we  have  we  can  upgrade  the  economy 
of  the  state  tremendously.  We  have  vast  areas  of  land  that  can 
be  developed  to  produce  needed  agricultural  products  on  the 
volume  basis  necessary  for  processing.  We  have  good  supplies  of 
labor  for  food  factories;  we  have  good  water  supply;  we  have 
good  plant  site  availability.  Another  necessary  asset  we  have 
is  assurance  of  the  needed  capital  for  establishment  of  worthwhile 

Recently  the  peanut  industry  in  the  state  was  given  a  boost. 
Traditionally,  peanuts  have  been  thought  of  on  the  national 
market  as  a  Virginia  product  because  the  first  large  plants  were 
built  in  the  tidewater  section  of  that  state— this  in  spite  of  the 
fact  that  North  Carolina  grows  more  peanuts  than  Virginia.  Two 
years  ago  a  blanching  plant  was  established  in  Edenton  that  has 
become  something  of  a  model  for  the  industry.  Millions  of  pounds 
go  through  this  plant  a  year  in  wet  and  dry  blanching  processes. 
There  has  been  a  considerable  growth  of  packaging  of  North 
Carolina  peanuts  in  recent  months  but  not  as  much  as  we  would 
like  to  see.  The  latest  use  of  this  multimillion  dollar  crop  is  being 
developed  by  a  company  down  in  Duplin.  It  is  manufacturing  and 
marketing  peanut  mixes  for  pies,  cakes,  and  cookies.  This  is  an 
example  of  individual  initiative  and  research  being  put  to  work. 

All  the  effort  being  expanded  is  not  in  big  plant  operation. 
Here  is  a  case  of  a  small  operator  struggling  to  make  a  product 
saleable.  For  nearly  four  years  this  man  has  been  smoking  marlin, 
amberjack,  dolphin,  blues,  and  other  fish  so  abundant  in  our 
coastal  waters.  His  results  have  been  a  prized  food,  but  he  just 
couldn't  make  the  smoked  fish  keep  long  enough  to  be  com- 
mercially successful.  Now  State  College  has  come  along  with  a 
chemical  answer  to  that  problem.  We  have  more  than  enough  fish 
available  to  supply  thousands  of  such  smokehouses  in  eastern 
North  Carolina.  Good  merchandising  could  make  this  the  multi- 
million  dollar  industry  it  is  in  Florida. 

One  of  the  seafood  products  generally  associated  in  the  public 
mind  with  New  England  has  a  strong  foothold  in  this  state.  Down 
at  Williston,  Mr.  Elmer  Willis  is  processing  clams.  Other  seafoods 
being  processed  that  are  important  to  the  economy  of  the  state 
include  a  new  pasteurized  crab  meat,  shrimp,  oysters,  and  of 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


course,  a  large  variety  of  fish.  North  Carolina  has  the  potential 
for  becoming  the  national  leader  in  this  most  important  food 

Recognizing  opportunity  when  it  comes  their  way  is  an  accepted 
condition  for  the  Hartsfield  family  in  Holly  Ridge.  You  can  put 
their  product  on  fruit  cakes.  They  took  advantage  of  a  native 
crop— here  when  Sir  Walter  Raleigh's  colonists  arrived— to  estab- 
lish the  only  winery  in  the  state.  Their  principal  product  is  the 
scuppernong.  In  addition  to  some  fourteen  acres  of  vineyards  of 
their  own  they  buy  all  the  scuppernong  grapes  they  can  find  and 
they  still  need  more.  In  fact,  they  set  out  30,000  cuttings  this 
summer  which  they  plan  to  offer  to  farmers  at  cost  in  an  effort 
to  get  them  to  grow  scuppernongs.  These  are  the  highest  priced 
grapes  on  the  American  market,  and  it  offers  an  excellent  extra 
cash  crop.  In  a  normal  year  a  vineyard  will  gross  a  thousand  dollars 
an  acre  or  more.  California  growers  have  been  in  North  Carolina 
this  summer  exploring  the  possibilities  for  scuppernongs  in  that 
state.  The  potential  for  jellies  and  preserves  has  never  been  fully 

A  company  that  has  done  a  splendid  job  of  exploring  preserving 
possibilities  is  the  Garner  Company  in  Winston-Salem.  This  is 
one  of  the  oldest  forms  of  food  processing  and  one  of  the  most 
competitive.  The  competition  is  not  only  from  other  companies, 
but  from  millions  of  housewives.  First  known  for  its  Texas  Pete 
Hot  Sauce,  the  company  now  produces  thirty  kinds  of  preserves, 
jellies,  and  sauces.  It  buys  most  of  its  raw  materials  in  bulk 
from  North  Carolina  frozen  food  plants.  A  high  degree  of  auto- 
mation, quality  control,  and  technical  know-how  have  made  it 
possible  for  this  company  to  produce  a  superior  product  that  has 
distribution  over  a  five-state  area.  This  is  a  success  story  that  can 
be  duplicated  by  those  willing  to  devote  time  and  energy  and 

In  this  land  of  plenty  not  many  of  us  give  a  great  deal  of 
thought  to  our  food— where  it  comes  from,  how  it  gets  to  us. 
We  take  for  granted  the  things  that  millions  of  people  across  the 
world  think  about  constantly.  The  bottle  of  milk,  the  loaf  of 
bread,  the  soft  drink,  the  dried  beans,  the  canned  vegetables  are 
all  things  most  of  us  can't  remember  being  without— at  least  not 
since  the  depression.  Our  children  can't  remember  being  without 
TV  dinners  and  frozen  pies.  Another  generation  will  demand 
further  refinements  in  food  processing. 

Twenty  years  ago  North  Carolina  had  to  import  much  of  the 
fresh  milk  sold  in  the  state.  With  the  help  of  the  State  Department 
of  Agriculture  and  State  College,  dairy  herds  are  much  enlarged 
and  improved.  In  spite  of  greatly  increased  domestic  consumption 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

we  are  now  net  exporters  of  milk.  All  sections  of  the  state  have 
benefited  from  this  expansion. 

A  factor  in  milk  production  that  hasn't  received  much  notice 
was  a  twofold  development  by  the  Agriculture  Department  and 
State  College.  First  a  new  type  grass  suited  to  the  needs  of  dairy 
cows  was  developed  and  found  to  grow  well  in  North  Carolina. 
The  only  difficulty  was  that  milk  from  cows  eating  this  grass  had 
an  undesirable  flavor.  The  Food  Science  Division  then  developed 
a  machine  to  remove  the  objectionable  characteristics,  but  which 
retained  all  the  desirable  qualities  of  processed  milk.  Here  again 
an  industry  has  taken  advantage  of  changing  tastes  and  demands 
to  provide  a  better  product. 

Another  food  industry  that  has  grown  by  leaps  and  bounds  has 
been  the  producing  and  processing  of  poultry.  The  broiler  demand 
has  caused  the  entire  poultry  and  egg  business  to  expand  many 
times  over  with  still  more  room  to  grow.  A  plant  such  as  this 
Farmers  Exchange  in  Durham  processes  several  thousand  chickens 
an  hour.  In  addition  to  those  sold  on  the  fresh  market,  many 
more  are  frozen  and  shipped  to  national  and  even  foreign  markets. 
In  fact,  one  of  the  greatest  opportunities  for  this  burgeoning 
industry  is  the  shipment  to  overseas  points  through  the  ports  of 
Wilmington  and  Morehead  City. 

Livestock  raising  and  meat  processing  are  other  phases  of  the 
food  industry  that  have  become  vital  parts  of  our  economy  and 
offer  a  great  opportunity  for  the  state.  The  large  Swift  and 
Company  plant  in  Wilson  is  an  excellent  example  of  outside 
capital  seeing  an  opportunity  in  North  Carolina  and  taking 
advantage  of  it.  Other  big  packers  such  as  Newbern  Provision  are 
expanding  already  large  operations  so  they  can  take  care  of  the 
ever  increasing  food  demands. 

Swine  markets  are  increasing  with  the  advent  of  pig  parlors  and 
the  more  modern  methods  of  hog  production.  More  and  more 
farmers  are  feeding  out  hogs  and  furnishing  packers  and  curers 
with  a  better  product.  In  fact,  the  country  ham  business  is  be- 
coming big  business  in  the  state.  Tomahawk  Farms  in  Dunn  has 
a  capacity  of  10,000  dry-cured  hams  a  week. 

Impressive  as  our  progress  has  been  in  the  last  few  years  we 
need  to  do  much  more  to  raise  North  Carolina  from  its  position 
of  forty-second  in  per  capita  income  to  a  point  nearer  to  the 
national  average. 

Raw  food  products  being  shipped  out  of  the  state  and  being 
returned  as  processed  food  can  be  reversed  in  flow  so  that  we 
become  a  net  exporter  of  manufactured  food  items.  We  can  be 
to  the  food  industry  what  Detroit  is  to  the  automobile  industry, 
and  there  is  more  money  spent  on  food  than  on  new  cars.  The 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


farmer  receives  less  than  40  per  cent  of  the  food  dollar  with  the 
largest  share  going  to  the  middleman— the  processor.  We  need 
more  middlemen  in  North  Carolina  to  keep  this  huge  source 
of  income  at  home. 

Let's  not  kid  ourselves.  Mama's  not  going  back  to  the  kitchen 
to  spend  five  or  six  hours  a  day  in  food  preparation  when  she 
can  get  better,  tastier  products  cheaper  than  grandma  knew.  One 
of  America's  improvements  in  living  standards  has  been  brought 
about  by  the  emancipation  of  women  from  the  drudgery  of  day- 
long food  preparation.  The  time  has  come  for  us  to  give  mama 
what  she  wants:  better  food,  more  easily  prepared,  and  processed 
in  North  Carolina. 

Many  agencies  of  the  state  are  co-operating  in  helping  the 
farmer  and  businessman  in  the  co-operative  venture  of  preparing 
food  items  for  the  shelves  of  today's  pantry.  The  Extension 
Division  at  State  College  and  the  School  of  Agriculture,  under 
Dean  James,  with  its  new  Department  of  Food  Science,  are  bring- 
ing scientific  research  and  enthusiastic  promotion  to  food  proc- 
essing. The  Agriculture  Department,  under  the  direction  of  my 
close  associate  L.  Y.  "Stag"  Ballentine,  is  taking  the  lead  in  finding 
ways  to  keep  the  family-size  farm  profitable.  Just  recently  the 
Department  of  Conservation  and  Development  added  a  three- 
man  food  processing  section  to  its  Department  of  Commerce  and 
Industry.  — 

This  might  be  a  good  time  to  remind  businessmen  of  North 
Carolina  that  the  opportunities  in  food  processing  in  this  state 
are  not  closed.  On  the  contrary,  the  period  of  greatest  growth  is 
just  beginning.  If  you  need  help  or  advice  in  starting  or  enlarging 
a  food  processing  plant  let  us  know  about  it.  If  you  need  assistance 
in  merchandising  or  if  you  need  to  know  what  to  grow  and  ^vhere 
to  sell,  we'll  help  you  find  the  answers.  Just  write  to  me  at  the 
State  Capitol  in  Raleigh  and  I'll  see  that  your  letter  is  sent  to 
the  department  that  has  the  answers. 

During  this  program  we  have  mentioned  the  names  of  just  a 
few  firms  and  individuals  who  are  doing  great  work  in  this  field. 
We  could  list  ten  times  the  number  and  still  only  scratch  the 
surface.  We'd  like  to  pay  tribute  to  all  those  fine  people  and 
the  job  they  are  doing.  With  all  of  us  working  together  we  can 
accomplish  all  we  have  the  courage  to  set  out  to  do. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 


BiLoxi,  Mississippi 

August  16,  1962 

This  Legislative  Work  Conference  was  planned  by  the  Legis- 
lative Advisory  Council,  the  permanent  advisory  body  of  the 
Southern  Regional  Education  Board.  The  need  for  courageous 
legislative  action  was  apparent  if  educational  opportunity  for 
all  and  quality  education  at  every  level  was  to  be  provided.  The 
objectives  of  the  Commission  on  Goals  for  Higher  Education 
in  the  South  were  cited;  to  reach  those  goals  would  demand 
courage  and  money.  Governor  Sanford  expressed  the  opinion 
that  money  was  available  though  it  might  have  to  come  from  new 
taxes.  He  explained  that  the  task  of  each  state  was  different,  but 
the  report  of  the  board  and  the  goals  listed  there  would  serve  as 
an  excellent  guide.  He  then  told  the  group  about  the  establish- 
ment in  North  Carolina  of  the  Commission  on  Education  Beyond 
the  High  School.  He  urged  all  states  of  the  South  to  move  forward 
without  delay. 



August  18,  1962 

Gathered  at  the  Waterside  Theater  in  Manteo  to  commemorate 
the  birth  of  the  first  child  born  of  English  parentage  in  America, 
the  audience  heard  Governor  Sanford  speak  of  the  courage  and 
daring  of  the  first  people  to  come  to  the  shores  of  America.  He 
compared  their  vision  with  the  vision  of  man  today  as  he  seeks 
passage  to  the  stars.  The  Governor  remarked  that  the  course  to 
the  moon  could  be  charted  with  more  certainty  than  the  course 
to  the  New  World  could  have  been  charted  by  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh's  ship.  The  settlement,  the  birthday,  the  first  airplane 
flight  were  all  called  "highly  important,"  and  this  ceremony 
recognized  the  "re-establishment  of  the  common  heritage  and 
common  cause  of  two  free  nations,"  England  and  the  United 
States.  The  occasion  called  attention  to  the  hopes  and  aims  of 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


the  free  people,  and  the  Governor  reminded  his  audience  that 
"Those  aims  were  enunciated  in  a  not-too-distant  past  by  Winston 
Churchill  and  Franklin  D.  Roosevelt."  The  common  bonds  of 
the  two  countries  were  being  renewed  on  this  occasion,  and 
Sanford  welcomed  the  representative  of  Queen  Elizabeth's  govern- 
ment. Sir  Edward  Boyle,  Minister  of  Education  of  Britain.  He 
spoke  of  education  as  a  "historically  vital  force  in  North  Carolina 
and  .  .  .  the  chief  goal  of  the  administration.  .  .  After  giving 
a  brief  sketch  of  the  career  of  Sir  Edward,  the  Governor  presented 
him  as  the  speaker  of  the  evening. 



August  25,  1962 

The  opening  of  a  new  segment  of  highway  would  initiate  new 
economic  opportunities  for  Gaston  County,  the  South  Piedmont, 
and  all  of  North  Carolina,  according  to  remarks  made  by  Gov- 
ernor Sanford  on  this  occasion.  A  good  system  of  roads  was  part 
of  state  policy,  with  the  result  that  there  had  been  development 
of  streets  in  the  largest  cities  and  farm-to-market  paved  roads  in 
rural  areas.  Roads  meant  commerce  and  trade  and  economic 
growth;  industrial  development  came  because  of  good  schools 
and  roads  which  paved  the  way.  In  1961  over  a  quarter  billion 
dollars  in  new  plants,  with  new  payrolls  of  over  $117  million  and 
jobs  for  35,000  North  Carolinians  made  for  a  new-plant  growth 
of  18.5  per  cent,  while  the  national  plant  investments  fell  3  per 
cent.  In  the  1920's,  Governors  Cameron  Morrison  and  Angus 
McLean  proposed  bond  issues  to  link  county  seats;  in  the  1940's, 
Governor  Kerr  Scott  realized  the  necessity  of  paving  rural  roads; 
these  projects  led  to  expansion  and  prosperity.  North  Carolina 
was,  therefore,  ready  to  start  building  the  interstate  system  under 
Governors  William  B.  Umstead  and  Luther  H.  Hodges.  Governor 
Sanford  observed  that  much  remained  to  be  done,  and  that  North 
Carolina's  programs  in  the  fields  of  industry  and  agriculture  were 
dependent  on  good  transportation.  America  was  "pushing  toward 
new  frontiers  of  economic  and  human  opportunities";  North 
Carolina  intended  "to  pave  the  road  to  those  opportunities." 


Papers  of  Terry  San  ford 



September  12,  1962 

In  his  address  at  the  dedication  of  a  new  building  at  Cherry 
Hospital,  the  Governor  reminded  his  audience  of  the  contribution 
of  Dorothea  Dix,  who  helped  convince  North  Carolina  citizens 
that  they  should  care  for  those  suffering  from  mental  illness.  As 
a  result  of  her  efforts,  the  state  substituted  care  for  incarceration. 
Later,  John  W.  Umstead  sold  the  citizens  on  the  idea  of  cure 
as  well  as  care,  proving  that  an  investment  in  mental  health 
would  pay  rich  dividends  to  the  state.  Sanford  said  that  crusaders 
were  often  called  free  spenders,  but  the  state  had  learned  that  it 
was  cheaper  to  cure  a  man  and  return  him  to  normal  life  than 
to  incarcerate  him.  The  new  building  at  Goldsboro  would  pay 
for  itself  by  making  restored  lives  available  to  many,  by  alleviating 
anguish,  and  by  offering  other  tangible  benefits.  He  called  atten- 
tion to  the  obligation  of  citizens  to  participate  in  a  mental  health 
program  which  provided  an  opportunity  to  invest  in  the  greatest 
resource  of  all— human  life. 

Washington^  D.  C. 
September  13,  1962 

Governor  Sanford,  addressing  the  annual  reunion  of  Airborne 
Association,  referred  to  the  military  reserve  of  the  United  States 
as  an  effective  force.  He  told  of  steps  taken  by  President  Kennedy 
to  improve  the  nation's  military  posture,  but  he  added  that  there 
was  still  need  for  adequate  and  efficient  reserve  forces.  Discussing 
the  National  Guard,  Sanford  urged  the  Pentagon  to  have  a  better 
understanding  of  the  citizen-soldier,  who  could  not  be  expected 
to  give  but  so  much  time  to  military  obligations  but  who  should 
seek  to  live  up  to  his  responsibilities.  After  outlining  needs  and 
proposals  with  regard  to  the  National  Guard,  Sanford  observed 
that  more  was  needed  than  a  priority  reserve.  The  governors  of 
the  fifty  states,  concerned  with  problems  of  civil  defense,  saw  the 
National  Guard  playing  a  vital  role  in  this  area.  Though  it  was 
primarily  an  organization  to  augment  the  active  army  and  air 
force  in  time  of  national  emergency,  the  Guard  was  a  state 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


organization,  available  to  governors  in  times  of  peace.  Sanford 
ended  with  a  plea  for  stability  in  the  National  Guard  so  that  it 
would  not  have  to  fight  for  its  existence  with  each  change  of 



September  13,  1962 

[At  various  times  the  Governor  took  the  opportunity  to  express  his 
philosophy  concerning  race  relations  and  civil  rights.  Speaking  to  the  Meth- 
odist Men  of  Gastonia  District,  Sanford  brought  up  the  idea  of  the  Good 
Neighbor  Council,  an  idea  which  was  to  develop  into  reality  the  next  year. 
See  Governor  Sanford's  press  statement  of  January  18,  1963.] 

It  is  most  appropriate  that  I  announce  some  important  plans 
at  a  meeting  of  church  laymen  because  our  most  difficult  problems 
of  race  differences  must  be  worked  out  in  the  spirit  of  Christian 

The  situation  at  highway  restaurants  has  inadvertently  delayed 
long-range  plans  on  which  people  of  good  will  have  been  working 
for  some  months.  We  must  continue  to  work  on  these  broader 
plans  because  they  can  have  so  much  real  meaning  for  the  people 
of  the  state.  In  the  meantime,  you  will  remember  that  I  have 
asked  some  people  to  w^ork  with  both  sides  of  the  restaurant 
situation.  The  two  matters  should  not  be  confused. 

The  long-range  plans  center  on  economic  opportunities.  There 
are  three  factors  involved  in  my  planning: 

First,  people  all  over  North  Carolina,  in  and  out  of  government, 
are  working  to  improve  the  economy  of  North  Carolina,  to  lift 
us  from  the  forty-second  position  in  per  capita  income.  A  major 
reason,  as  Census  Bureau  figures  show,  for  North  Carolina's  low 
per  capita  standing  is  that  Negroes  do  not  have  adequate  economic 
opportunities.  If  we  counted  the  income  of  white  citizens  only. 
North  Carolina  would  rank  thirty-second  in  per  capita  income 
instead  of  forty-second. 

Second,  Negro  youths  are  not  taking  full  advantage  of  the 
technical  training  available  to  them.  Admittedly,  this  may  be  due 
to  the  lack  of  motivation  as  a  consequence  of  poor  economic 
opportunities  for  qualified  Negro  workers. 

Third,  we  need  always  to  understand  the  hopes  of  all  people. 
North  Carolina  has  a  tradition  of  good  human  relations,  and 
nothing  must  be  permitted  to  detract  from  that  record. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

For  a  long  time  I  have  been  working  on  an  idea  to  set  up  what 
I  think  should  be  called  the  North  Carolina  Good  Neighbor 
Council.  It  will  take  several  more  weeks  to  complete  the  member- 
ship of  the  council  but  the  purposes  are  too  important  to  be 
rushed.  It  would  consist  of  representatives  from  all  segments  of 
our  economy  and  all  sections  of  our  state.  This  council  would 
have  as  its  mission:  (1)  helping  to  provide  greater  economic 
opportunities  for  all  North  Carolinians;  (2)  encouraging  all 
young  people  to  become  better  educated  and  better  trained;  (3) 
dealing  ^vith  problems  which  require  human  understanding  and 
co-operation.  It  also  would  work  with  state  agencies  and  local 
groups,  which  already  have  been  established  in  some  North  Caro- 
lina towns,  and  would  encourage  the  establishment  in  others. 

In  these  days  in  America,  we  need  to  show  living  proof  that 
people  of  different  backgrounds  and  races  can  Tvork  together. 
If  we  are  true  to  our  religious  heritage  in  North  Carolina  and  if 
we  believe  the  lesson  of  the  parable  of  the  Good  Samaritan,  we 
should  help  those  in  need  of  help.  It  is  as  simple  as  that.  But  it 
is  powerful  in  its  capacity  to  achieve  broader  opportunities  for 
everyone,  the  helped  and  the  helpers  alike. 

WTVD.  Durham 
September  28,  1962 

In  1868  the  General  Assembly  set  up  a  court  system  for  1868. 
Amendments  in  1875  and  later  provided  for  various  courts,  but 
the  Governor  insisted  that  courts  had  to  be  uniform  to  assure 
equal  justice.  He  said  the  1961  General  Assembly  proposed  an 
amendment  on  which  the  people  would  be  asked  to  vote  on 
November  6.  Sanford  referred  to  North  Carolina  as  a  state  on  the 
go,  with  progress  evident  in  many  areas.  The  Governor  invited 
people  with  questions  about  the  court  improvement  amendment 
to  write  to  him  and  promised  that  the  questions  would  be 
answered.  He  closed  ^vith  a  plea  for  a  favorable  vote  for  the  con- 
stitutional change. 

Hollywood,  Florida 
October  1,  1962 

Governor  Sanford  told  the  Southern  Regional  Education  Board 
that  the  South  was  emerging  from  a  long  economic  struggle,  that 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


the  new  era  was  in  evidence,  that  abundant  resources  were  avail- 
able but  the  question  of  developing  them  to  their  full  potential 
remained.  He  stressed  the  idea  that  the  answer  was  in  quality 
education.  Each  citizen  should  have  the  opportunity  to  learn  to 
the  limit  of  his  ability.  New  institutions,  opportunities  for 
adult  education,  and  financial  support  for  higher  education  were 
requirements  for  the  South  to  reach  its  full  potential.  Sanford 
referred  to  the  great  impact  of  the  report  of  the  Commission  on 
Goals  for  Higher  Education  in  the  South.  He  urged  the  governors 
to  accept  their  responsibility  and  use  their  influence  to  see  that 
the  recommendations  of  the  report  were  implemented.  He  ad- 
vised the  group  to  "Tell  the  people  where  we  stand  and  what 
we  must  do,  and  they  will  provide  the  support  and  the  means." 


Hollywood,  Florida 

October  4,  1962 

All  governors  faced  a  multitude  of  problems,  according  to 
Governor  Terry  Sanford,  but  all  knew  that  they  had  volunteered 
for  their  jobs.  He  said  that  North  Carolina  had  problems  of 
mutual  concern  to  all  states:  education,  low  income,  the  paving  of 
highways  and  secondary  roads,  the  revitalization  of  agriculture, 
prisons  and  rehabilitation,  welfare  and  hospitals.  On  this  occasion, 
however,  the  Governor  talked  on  the  problems  of  modernizing 
the  system  of  justice  in  North  Carolina.  In  1955  the  North 
Carolina  Bar  Association  and  lay  leaders  took  a  look  at  the 
courts  and  found  that  the  system  of  justice  had  not  kept  up 
with  the  times— that  the  system,  not  the  judges  or  juries  or 
lawyers  or  court  officials,  was  at  fault.  One  system,  for  example, 
provided  for  fees  to  jaypees  for  convictions.  Over  a  thousand 
lower  courts  operated  with  variations  in  procedures,  costs,  and 
organization.  Dockets  were  crowded.  Recommendations  made 
to  the  1959  General  Assembly  for  a  constitutional  amendment 
were  defeated,  but  another  proposal  was  made  in  1961  and  a 
compromise  system  was  accepted  by  the  legislators.  The  plan  was 
to  be  voted  on  by  the  people  on  November  6.  The  Governor 
commented  that  up-to-date  law  enforcement  required  a  modern 
system,  and  that  the  new  organization  would  provide  a  uniform 
system  of  courts  below  the  level  of  the  superior  courts,  and  would 
establish  an  administrative  office  to  free  judges  of  mechanical 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

details.  Because  some  lower  courts  had  been  making  big  profits, 
and  because  there  had  been  no  uniform  fee  system,  the  amend- 
ment contained  provisions  to  correct  these  faults.  Details  regard- 
ing the  new  system  were  spelled  out  by  Governor  Sanford,  who 
concluded  with  a  reminder  that  "In  a  democracy,  justice  is  every- 
body's business." 



October  9,  1962 

The  Governor  began  with  an  expression  of  appreciation  for 
the  privilege  of  participating  in  the  First  Democratic  District 
Rally  and  with  praise  for  the  congressman  from  the  district, 
Herbert  C.  Bonner.  He  said  that  Democratic  records  from  the 
courthouse  to  the  White  House  spoke  for  themselves,  and  he 
reviewed  Democratic  accomplishments  in  North  Carolina,  men- 
tioning the  program  for  quality  education,  industrial  expansion, 
and  revitalization  of  agriculture.  Such  a  record  would  force  the 
opposition  to  smear  tactics  and  would  cause  them  to  talk  about 
"spending,"  about  a  "tw^o-party"  system,  and  about  the  Demo- 
cratic President.  Sanford  said  the  First  District  supported  Ken- 
nedy in  1960  and  the  state  gave  him  one  of  the  largest  majorities 
in  the  nation.  Governor  Sanford  observed  that  when  they  talked 
about  a  "two-party"  system,  the  Republicans  ^vanted  their  own 
party's  system;  and  that  when  they  discussed  "deficit  spending," 
they  should  remember  North  Carolina's  Triple-A  credit  rating. 
Though  North  Carolina's  Democrats  had  their  differences,  the 
ties  that  bound  them  ^vere  stronger  than  their  differences,  and  the 
principles  of  the  Democratic  party  were  "unchanged  and  un- 
changeable." Sanford  called  the  Democratic  party  the  one  that 
believed  in  the  people,  believed  in  free  enterprise,  and  believed 
in  helping  the  weak. 



October  11,  1962 

Discussing  one  of  the  major  problems  facing  those  in  the  field 
of  education,  the  Governor  made  several  comments  concerning 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


dropouts.  He  indicated  that  the  responsibility  for  keeping  chil- 
dren in  school  rested  with  many  individuals,  but  it  was  primarily 
that  of  the  young  person  himself.  Many  factors— difficulties  with 
reading,  failure,  monetary  problems— entered  into  the  decision 
of  a  child  to  continue  or  discontinue  his  schooling.  Nearly  half 
of  those  who  entered  the  first  grade  failed  to  graduate  from  high 
school.  Sanford  urged  parents,  school  officials,  and  all  citizens 
to  help  provide  the  incentive  needed  to  keep  young  people  in 
school.  He  felt  that  they  had  to  be  convinced  of  the  value  of  an 
education  and  had  to  realize  that  by  dropping  out  they  robbed 
themselves  and  the  state.  The  Governor  referred  to  this  meeting 
as  a  step  in  the  right  direction;  he  suggested  that  the  task,  of 
taking  the  program  into  every  North  Carolina  home  and  seeing 
that  every  child  understand  what  was  at  stake,  be  carried  out. 



October  22,  1962 

[The  need  for  court  reform  in  North  Carolina  was  urgent  long  before 
the  Sanford  administration.  The  North  Carolina  Bar  Association,  in  1955, 
began  a  study  of  the  judicial  system  of  the  state  and  recommended  a  con- 
stitutional amendment  to  the  1959  General  Assembly.  Because  of  differences 
of  opinion,  the  proposal  was  defeated;  two  years  later,  after  compromises 
had  been  effected,  the  legislators  approved  the  amendment  enthusiastically. 
In  this  address  the  Governor  urged  all  North  Carolinians  to  ratify  the 
amendment  in  the  November  6  election;  his  request  was  granted  by  an 
overwhelming  vote  in  favor  of  the  issue.] 

The  improvement  of  our  courts  is  one  of  the  most  vital  issues 
to  face  the  people  of  North  Carolina  since  1868.  We  now  have  the 
opportunity  to  establish  a  uniform  state-wide  court  system.  You 
can  join  in  making  this  possible. 

The  time  is  here  for  those  who  like  the  idea  of  equal  justice 
for  all— whether  they  live  in  the  mountains  of  western  North 
Carolina  or  the  Piedmont  or  on  the  Coastal  Plains  of  eastern 
North  Carolina,  the  big  city  or  the  small  community— to  get 

As  you  know,  action  of  the  1961  session  of  the  General 
Assembly  permits  us  to  vote  on  this  proposed  amendment.  If 
we  approve  it,  every  family  in  North  Carolina  will  benefit.  If 
we  do  not,  the  cause  of  court  improvement  in  our  state  will  have 
suffered  such  a  tremendous  blow  that  it  could  well  be  another 
generation  before  North  Carolinians  would  have  such  an  oppor- 
tunity again. 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

What  would  this  amendment  do?  We  often  hear  that  it  is 
difficult  for  laymen  to  understand  the  courts,  that  everything 
said  or  written  on  judicial  matters  is  so  complicated  that  only 
lawyers  know  what  it  is  all  about.  This  certainly  is  not  true  in 
this  case,  for  the  plan  for  court  improvement  which  will  be  sub- 
mitted to  the  people  in  November  is  simple  and  clear. 

I  am  a  lawyer  by  profession  and  I  respect  the  profession. 
But  let  me  say  right  here,  the  courts  of  the  state  don't  belong 
exclusively  to  lawyers  and  they  don't  belong  to  judges.  Courts 
belong  to  all  the  people. 

This  amendment  is  strongly  supported  by  most  lawyers  and 
most  judges. 

But  the  amendment  was  approved  in  a  General  Assembly  by 
lawmakers,  most  of  whom  are  not  lawyers. 

And  the  "jury"  which  will  determine  its  fate  are  all  of  the 
citizens  of  North  Carolina. 

The  court  improvement  amendment  goes  straight  to  the  place 
where  changes  are  needed  most  and  where  the  majority  of  our 
citizens  have  their  only  court  experience— to  the  lower  courts, 
those  beneath  the  Superior  Court  level— and  groups  them  into 
a  uniform  system.  It  also  establishes  an  administrative  office  to 
free  judges  of  vexing  mechanical  details  and  assist  in  the  busi- 
ness management  of  the  courts. 

The  proposed  amendment  is  not  something  which  was  de- 
veloped overnight.  It  resulted  from  the  co-operation  of  many  of 
North  Carolina's  public  spirited  citizens  who  studied  our  courts, 
prepared  recommendations  for  making  the  administration  of 
justice  what  it  should  be  in  this  progressive  state,  and  worked 
together  as  private  citizens  and  as  members  of  the  legislature  to 
devise  a  program  which  would  give  our  citizens  the  kind  of 
administration  of  justice  they  have  a  right  to  expect. 

The  court  study  which  formed  the  foundation  from  which 
the  proposed  amendment  evolved  was  made  by  a  group  of  lead- 
ing lawyers  and  laymen  who  undertook  this  job  seven  years  ago. 
Many  thousands  of  man-hours  were  spent  in  getting  the  facts 
and  preparing  recommendations.  This  committee  found  that  we 
had  approximately  1,400  so-called  lower  courts,  including  the 
recorder-type  and  special  courts  and  justices  of  the  peace.  Operat- 
ing as  separate  units,  these  courts  had  different  costs,  practices, 
and  procedures.  A  man  tried  for  an  offense  in  one  county  might, 
for  instance,  be  charged  $36.00  in  costs,  while  someone  in  an 
adjoining  county  might  have  costs  of  $8.00  for  an  identical 

The  committee  found  also  that  some  local  courts  were  making 
big  profits.  In  the  case  of  justices  of  the  peace,  we  were  reminded 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


that  they  were  paid  for  their  services  only  upon  conviction  and 
that  these  officers  often  were  chosen  in  a  way  which  did  not 
necessarily  require  that  they  be  suited  to  their  jobs.  Without 
supervision  and  in  many  cases  not  qualified  to  dispense  justice, 
they  quite  frequently  proved  to  be  unfit  for  their  responsibilities. 
There  definitely  is,  however,  a  place  for  honest,  capable  justices 
of  the  peace  in  the  administration  of  justice.  We  have  many  of 
these.  The  amendment  would  establish  this  proper  place  for 
them  by  bringing  them  into  the  district  courts  as  officers  of  the 
court  and  giving  them  and  those  who  have  business  with  them 
the  advantages  which  will  result  from  having  their  work  super- 

The  amendment  would  abolish  the  method  of  basing  their 
pay  on  convictions,  for  they  would  be  paid  for  their  services  on 
a  fair  plan. 

Just  how  essential  it  is  that  the  present  system  for  selecting 
magistrates  be  changed  is  indicated  in  the  fact  that  under  the 
present  law,  each  township  is  entitled  to  three  magistrates,  with 
one  additional  for  every  1,000  people  living  in  an  incorporated 
city  or  town. 

A  large  city  such  as  Charlotte  would  be  entitled  to  elect  204 
justices  of  the  peace  under  this  plan.  Think  of  how  easy  it  might 
be  for  some  completely  unfit  candidate  to  be  elected  by  the  simple 
act  of  voting  for  himself.  And  what  is  true  in  Charlotte  is  true  in 
towns  and  cities  across  North  Carolina. 

The  amendment  provides  that  the  state  be  divided  into  a  con- 
venient number  of  local  court  districts  by  the  General  Assembly. 
The  General  Assembly  also  will  prescribe  where  the  district 
courts  shall  sit,  but  one  must  sit  in  at  least  one  place  in  each 
county.  Judges  of  these  courts  will  be  elected  for  each  district 
for  terms  of  four  years.  It  is  provided  that  every  district  judge 
shall  live  in  the  district  for  which  he  is  elected.  Thus,  each 
county  will  have  at  least  one  seat  of  a  district  court,  and  there 
will  be  more  if  needed.  The  number  of  judges  serving  a  district 
will  be  determined  by  the  General  Assembly  on  the  basis  of  the 

This,  then,  is  the  court  improvement  program  we  will  vote 
on  in  November.  It  does  away  with  the  glaring  evils  that  have 
existed  and  paves  the  way  for  a  modern,  efficient  system  of  courts 
in  which  the  administration  of  justice  is  uniform  in  practice, 
procedures,  and  costs,  is  not  delayed  by  inefficiencies  resulting 
from  lack  of  proper  administration,  and  is  of  a  high  standard 
because  it  is  administered  by  well-qualified  persons. 

I  wonder  how  many  of  you  have  thought  seriously  about  our 
courts.  Although  many  citizens  may  never  have  to  go  to  court, 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

the  well-being  of  all  citizens  depends  to  a  large  extent  on  the 
quality  of  the  administration  of  justice  in  our  state. 

For  example,  one  of  the  most  serious  problems  in  our  state 
today  is  the  deadly  toll  we  suffer  through  automobile  accidents. 
Experts  in  traffic  safety  tell  us  that  the  right  kind  of  traffic  courts 
is  the  only  basic  answer  to  this  problem.  We  can  do  more  by 
handling  violators  of  highway  safety  regulations  in  a  modern, 
scientific  way  in  the  courts  than  through  any  other  program  or 
plan.  Judges  who  are  able  to  become  expert  in  traffic  matters 
would  protect  you  and  your  family  from  the  dangerous  driver 
and  convince  those  who  are  good,  careful,  safe  drivers  99  per  cent 
of  the  time  of  the  importance  of  extending  this  performance 
through  that  extra  1  per  cent. 

Think  of  the  lives  that  would  be  saved  and  the  losses  in  money 
and  usefulness  that  could  be  avoided  by  reducing  the  number 
and  severity  of  traffic  accidents!  It  can  be  done  better  than  any 
other  way  through  the  proper  handling  of  traffic  offenders  in 
court,  and  this  proper  handling  can  come  to  North  Carolina  if 
we  approve  the  amendment  as  the  first  step. 

We  read  and  hear  every  day  of  new  tragedies  on  our  highways. 
Last  year  there  were  1,254  deaths  in  the  100  counties  in  our  state. 
This  year  the  slaughter  continues.  No  matter  what  else  we  try 
to  do,  we  are  not  going  to  make  our  roads  as  safe  as  we  can 
make  them  until  we  have  an  efficient,  state-wide  system  of  courts 
presided  over  by  able,  safety-minded  judges.  Just  recently  I  read 
an  editorial  deploring  the  high  accident  record  in  a  North  Caro- 
lina county.  The  editor  said: 

There  is  no  doubt  but  what  the  pubhc  can  do  but  so  much  about  traffic 
accidents.  There  must  be  respect  for  the  laws,  and  this  can  only  be  created 
by  the  courts.  .  .  .  One  weak  link  here  is  the  lack  of  a  uniform  court  sys- 
tem. This  can  be  remedied  by  voting  in  the  Constitutional  Amendment  in 
November.  There  is  little  hope  for  justice  as  long  as  the  fee  system  for  the 
justices  of  the  peace  is  continued.  The  courts  should  not  be  set  up  to  make 
a  profit,  but  to  administer  justice.  Only  when  traffic  cases  get  quick  action, 
tried  when  the  witnesses  are  there,  and  under  uniform  system  can  the 
public  hope  to  correct  abuses. 

This  statement  is  repeated  in  substance  many  times  a  day  by 
thoughtful,  informed  people  across  North  Carolina. 

All  of  us  know  the  problem  and  the  answer.  You  are  in  a 
position  to  understand  especially  well  the  operation  and  structure 
of  the  courts  and  your  leadership  from  now  to  November  can 
help  assure  for  North  Carolina  the  uniform  system  of  courts 
that  is  so  essential  to  the  protection  of  your  family  and  the  mem- 
bers of  every  family  in  the  state. 

The  question  facing  all  North  Carolinians  on  November  6 
is  this: 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


Do  we  want  to  give  the  judges,  the  solicitors,  the  attorneys,  the 
plaintiffs,  the  defendants,  the  juries,  and  the  law  enforcement 
officers  the  tools  to  provide  equal  and  exact  justice  in  the  second 
half  of  the  twentieth  century? 

Do  we,  the  citizens  of  North  Carolina,  want  to  try  to  maintain 
justice  in  a  T-model  system,  or  are  we  going  to  do  it  in  a  system 
that  recognizes  more  modern  times? 

In  a  democracy,  justice  is  everybody's  business.  That's  why 
this  court  improvement  is  important  to  every  citizen. 



October  26,  1962 

Governor  Sanford  told  an  appreciative  audience  that  the  State 
Grange  had  contributed  substantially  to  the  progress  of  North 
Carolina.  Qualified  agricultural  leaders  had  been  placed  in  key 
policy  positions  so  that  farm  people  would  have  a  strong  voice  in 
state  government.  Such  men  as  Kerr  Scott  and  his  son.  Bob  Scott, 
both  of  whom  had  served  as  masters  of  the  State  Grange,  were 
cited  as  notable  leaders  of  both  the  state  and  this  particular 
organization.  As  he  outlined  some  of  the  goals  of  the  organization, 
the  Governor  called  its  program  an  ambitious  one.  He  said  state 
government  was  also  trying  to  promote  opportunities  through 
education,  observing  that  the  rural  population  stood  to  gain  most 
from  increased  educational  opportunities.  Good  roads  needed  to 
be  built,  water  resources  to  be  guarded,  flood  control  to  be 
studied,  and  new  industry  to  be  attracted;  these  programs  would 
complement  those  in  the  field  of  agriculture  and  would  benefit 
the  rural  people.  Because  a  balanced  program  of  education,  agri- 
culture, and  industry  would  pay  rich  dividends  to  all,  Sanford 
called  on  members  of  the  State  Grange  to  help  keep  North  Caro- 
lina going  forward. 



October  31,  1962 

[Civil  defense  was  a  matter  of  grave  concern  in  October,  1962.  Though 
President  Kennedy's  firm  action  in  seeking  to  eliminate  Russian  missiles 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

from  Cuba  did  not  trigger  militant  repercussions,  national  tension  had 
mounted  and  the  realities  of  defense  were  uppermost  in  the  minds  of  citi- 
zens throughout  the  United  States.  The  Cuban  crisis  soon  diminished,  but 
the  need  for  adequate  civil  defense  preparations  continued;  and  the  Gov- 
ernor encouraged  North  Carolinians  to  prepare  for  a  lifetime  of  crises.  The 
state's  concern  for  civil  defense  preparations  had  been  shown  in  a  dramatic 
way  some  months  earlier.  In  April,  1961,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  C.  McAden 
were  chosen  from  many  applicants  to  test  a  fall-out  shelter  at  the  Gov- 
ernor's Mansion.  Living  in  simulated  wartime  conditions  for  three  days,  the 
Charlotte  couple  reported  regularly  to  the  public  on  the  problems  of  survival 
in  event  of  nuclear  attack.] 

President  Kennedy  has  taken  bold  steps  to  eliminate  Russian 
missiles  from  Cuba.  His  success  could  very  well  be  the  turning 
point  in  the  cold  war.  The  Cuban  crisis  may  be  over  but  the  cold 
war  continues,  and  we  are  "destined  ...  to  live  out  most,  if  not 
all,  of  our  lives  in  uncertainty  and  challenge  and  peril.  .  .  ."  The 
intense  danger  during  the  Cuban  crisis  could  arise  again  at  any 
time.  To  use  this  experience  to  urge  greater  preparedness,  I 
want  to  talk  with  you  about  what  we  are  doing  in  North  Caro- 
lina and  what  you  can  do  to  protect  your  family  and  yourself. 

If  our  civil  defense  is  good  enough  to  save  the  lives  of  most  of 
you,  then  the  chances  of  any  enemy  attack  are  reduced.  So,  good 
civil  defense  is  vital  to  us  personally,  to  our  nation's  diplomacy, 
and  to  the  American  defense. 

There  has  been  and  will  be  no  reason  for  panic  and  no  need 
for  hysteria  in  North  Carolina.  We  are  prepared,  and  we  are 
strong,  and  we  know  what  to  do. 

In  North  Carolina  we  can  have  8,000  National  Guardsmen 
on  duty  within  thirty  minutes.  Within  sixty  minutes  we  could 
have  11,400  Guardsmen  ready  for  action.  Standing  orders  for 
this  purpose  already  have  been  issued  by  the  Governor's  Office 
and  company  alert  and  mobilization  plans  have  been  polished  to 
perfection.  Your  National  Guardsmen  are  trained  and  disciplined 
and  prepared  to  act  immediately  on  orders  demanded  by  any 
situation.  This  is  only  a  part  of  our  readiness.  We  have  other 
groups  and  agencies  poised  to  move  into  action. 

Civil  defense  rests  with  the  civilians,  and  we  have  thousands 
who  have  prepared  themselves  to  be  ready,  and  the  entire  state 
is  grateful  for  their  devotion. 

We  have  a  state  civil  defense  director,  five  area  directors,  and 
local  directors  in  ninety-eight  counties.  The  job  of  these  people 
should  not  be  misunderstood.  They  are  not  in  possession  of 
magic  devices  to  take  over  our  protection  in  time  of  emergency. 
In  time  of  preparation,  which  is  now,  they  serve  as  advisers  to 
government  leaders.  They  also  serve  as  "promoters  of  civil 
defense,"  and  for  a  number  of  years  they  have  been  trying  to 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


get  more  of  you  interested  in  civil  defense.  In  time  of  emergency 
they  serve  as  the  staff  for  the  elected  heads  of  cities,  counties,  and 
the  state,  supervising  communications,  gathering  information, 
and  assisting  as  a  staff  assists  a  wartime  commander. 

It  is  important  to  remember  that  the  responsibilty  to  get  ready 
for  emergency  action  and  to  direct  activities  during  an  emergency 
rests  with  the  elected  officials.  All  county  and  city  officials  have  a 
civil  defense  mission  and  responsibility,  and  you  can  help  them. 
Civil  defense  is  not  for  the  purpose  of  planning  ways  of  hiding, 
but  rather  for  ways  of  protecting  and  strengthening  and  con- 
tinuing the  productive  capacity  of  our  people. 

The  question  is  how  to  withstand  the  initial  assault,  then  get 
up  and  keep  going. 

Thousands  of  people  in  almost  every  county  have  worked  to 
formulate  state  and  local  emergency  plans.  We  have  tested  the 
readiness  of  our  Emergency  Operational  Plans. 

At  the  state  level  for  state-wide  emergency  communications  we 
have  nine  radio  systems.  These  are  RACES,  the  Radio  Amateur 
Organization  with  over  1,500  volunteer  operators,  the  splendid 
radio  system  of  the  Civil  Air  Patrol,  the  State  Highway  Patrol 
Radio  System  functioning  as  our  Civil  Defense  Radio  Warning 
Network  on  a  twenty-four  hour  per  day  basis,  the  Highway  Com- 
mission Radio  Network,  the  State  Forestry  Radio  Network,  Wild- 
life Commission  Radio  System,  the  National  Guard  Radio  Net- 
work and  the  Radio  Units  of  the  Prisons  System  and  SBI. 

Reporting  normal  enemy  or  emergency  activity  will  follow 
traditional  patterns,  but  reporting  fall-out  is  more  complicated. 
We  are  prepared  to  do  a  complete  job  here.  The  Board  of  Health 
has  been  given  the  radiological  monitoring  and  testing  equip- 
ment. It  has  trained  people  and  will  keep  a  state  situation  map 
from  information  constantly  supplied  by  several  thousand  trained 
monitors.  This  information  will  be  passed  on  to  the  public  by 

The  State  Board  of  Health  also  is  assigned  the  responsibility 
for  all  health  measures,  and  many  hospitals  have  formulated 
emergency  plans.  In  addition,  we  have  thirty-five  complete  200- 
bed  emergency  hospitals  stored  across  the  state  which,  if  needed, 
we  can  move  on  short  notice. 

The  Highway  Patrol  is  a  strong  arm  in  any  emergency;  this 
has  been  demonstrated  during  hurricanes.  They  work  with  local 
police  and  sheriffs. 

Rescue  squads  and  rural  fire  departments  are  a  part  of  local 
civil  defense,  and  frequently  the  center  of  it.  Fire,  police,  and 
public  works  departments  are  a  part  of  every  mayor's  emergency 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Every  other  state  agency  has  a  mission  for  the  emergency. 
Every  basic  industry,  such  as  fuels,  building  materials,  food,  has 
a  plan  for  making  its  resources  available. 

I  haven't  time  in  a  limited  broadcast  to  tell  you  everything,  but 
here  is  the  state  plan,  4i/^  inches  thick,  and  8i/^  feet  of  county 
and  city  plans,  showing  that  all  of  the  many  details  have  been 
worked  out. 

There  are  plans  worked  out  at  most  schools.  This  is  a  responsi- 
bility of  the  local  school  board,  with  advice  from  civil  defense. 
You  parents  may  check  in  advance  on  the  plans  at  the  school  your 
children  attend.  Your  principal,  superintendent,  or  school  board 
members  can  talk  with  you  abort  this. 

Many  of  you  have  asked  about  evacuation  plans.  Evacuation 
is  not  as  likely  as  it  was  several  years  ago  because  of  changed 
concept  of  warfare,  and  it  is  not  as  important  in  North  Carolina 
as  it  is  in  New  York.  If  the  situation  demanded  evacuation, 
however,  we  are  organized  to  effect  it.  Routes  and  control  of 
the  flow  of  traffic  are  established.  Private  transportation  would 
be  expected,  but  mass  transportation  also  would  be  available. 
Trucking,  bus,  and  rail  companies  have  plans  for  making  their 
resources  available  for  this,  as  well  as  other  transportation  needs. 
If  evacuation  is  indicated,  you  will  be  given  the  necessary  infor- 
mation by  radio,  and  other  available  means,  and  local  civil 
defense  agencies  have  plans  and  resources  to  receive  people 
evacuated  from  other  areas.  Unless  you  are  specifically  advised  to 
evacuate,  your  safest  place  would  be  to  remain  where  you  have 
some  protection  from  possible  radiation. 

This  is  what  I  consider  the  weakest  point  of  our  plans  for 
civil  defense:  survival  in  fall-out.  This  is  really  the  most  difficult 
question  to  answer— protection  from  radiation— because  nobody 
in  this  country  or  any  other  country  quite  knows  the  answer. 
I'm  going  to  try  to  answer  it,  as  well  as  I  can,  from  the  thousands 
of  pages  which  have  been  written  about  it,  as  it  applies  to  North 
Carolina  today,  with  the  understanding  that  we  do  not  claim 
to  have  the  perfect  answer.  We  will  do  the  best  we  can  with  what 
we  have  today,  and  we  will  improve  later  when  we  know  more. 

In  North  Carolina  we  can  assume  four  things: 

1)  It  would  be  very  wise  for  everybody  to  know  in  advance 
where  he  and  his  family  would  go  to  avoid  fall-out  radiation. 

2)  There  are  many,  many  people  who  cannot  afford  even  a 
fifty-dollar  shelter. 

3)  People  are  unduly  afraid  of  things  they  don't  know  much 
about,  and  they  don't  know  much  about  fall-out. 

4)  It  is  hard  to  get  people  interested  in  shelters  until  they  need 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


Now  with  these  four  understandings,  let's  see  what  is  the  best 
we  can  do. 

First,  what  is  fall-out,  and  what  is  the  danger?  They've  written 
books  about  this,  but  let's  try  to  boil  it  down. 

Little  particles  of  sand,  water,  and  other  material  blown  sky 
high  by  a  nuclear  explosion  float  down  and  are  moved  about  by 
the  winds.  Because  these  particles  were  involved  in  the  nuclear 
explosion  they  continue  to  give  off  radiation  for  a  period,  which 
will  grow  less  and  less  as  it  burns  out  or  "decays."  The  greatest 
danger  would  be  for  about  twenty-four  to  forty-eight  hours,  but 
some  danger  might  continue  for  a  week  or  so.  Obviously  places 
very  near  the  explosion  would  remain  dangerous  for  many  weeks. 
Our  fall-out  reporting  service  would  keep  you  informed  by  radio 
and  other  means  about  local  radiation. 

While  these  particles  are  floating  down  they  can  fall  out  any- 
where that  dust  or  sand  or  rain  can  blow.  Once  they  are  settled, 
radiation  from  the  particles  is  concentrated  at  the  surface  where 
they  rest.  Radiation  travels  in  a  straight  line.  So  everything  you 
can  put  between  you  and  the  surface  of  radioactive  particles  is 
that  much  more  protection  for  you. 

You  will  have  some  time  between  the  warning  and  the  danger, 
but  this  will  depend  on  the  distance,  the  wind,  the  size  and  the 
nature  of  the  explosion.  This  time  would  range  from  less  than 
an  hour  to  several  hours.  We  have  the  machinery  to  predict  this 
with  fair  accuracy.  This  information  would  be  passed  on  to  you 
by  CONELRAD  radio  stations,  and  other  means. 

You  can  stand  some  radiation  like  that  from  the  sun  throughout 
life  and  medium  radiation  for  brief  periods.  Radiation  can  cause 
severe  sickness  but  it  is  not  necessarily  fatal. 

Fall-out  cannot  make  things  it  falls  on  radioactive.  Vegetables 
in  the  field,  or  exposed  food  anywhere,  are  contaminated  only 
to  the  extent  they  might  have  particles  on  them  and  can  be  made 
safe  by  washing,  brushing  or  peeling.  Livestock  will  receive  fair 
protection  in  barns  under  most  circumstances.  If  particles  get 
on  you  or  your  clothing  they  can  be  washed  off. 

You  should  make  it  your  business  to  learn  more  about  fall-out, 
and  you  can  get  an  authoritative  bulletin  from  your  local  or  state 
civil  defense  office. 

Now  what  kind  of  fall-out  shelter  do  you  need?  You  might 
have  the  right  to  use  one  of  the  marked,  standard  shelters  in  the 
urban  areas.  This  varies  so  much  from  city  to  city  that  I  sug- 
gest you  see  your  mayor's  civil  defense  director;  and  I  urge  all 
industry  and  building  owners  to  co-operate  in  the  marking  of 
such  shelters. 

You  may  have  built,  or  desire  to  build,  a  complete  family 


Papers  of  Terry  San  ford 

shelter,  and  plans  for  this  may  be  obtained  from  your  local 
civil  defense  office. 

If  you  can't  do  this,  as  many  North  Carolinians  cannot,  here 
are  some  things  to  know: 

Two  feet  of  solid  concrete  or  three  feet  of  earth  will  give  you 
almost  absolute  protection.  Your  imagination,  a  shovel,  some 
boards  or  logs,  can  give  you  some  pretty  good  protection,  without 
spending  any  money.  We  called  them  foxholes  in  World  War  II. 
You  can  get  a  bulletin  from  your  local  civil  defense  office  on 
different  kinds  of  fall-out  shelters. 

Solid  concrete  blocks  can  be  stacked  for  fall-out  protection.  If 
you  aren't  willing  to  build  such  a  shelter  now,  at  least  let  me  urge 
you  to  have  these  materials  ready. 

If  you  get  in  the  basement  of  an  ordinary  brick  veneer  home 
you  will  reduce  your  danger  to  one-tenth  of  the  danger  outside. 
A  little  fixing  would  give  you  better  protection.  One-tenth  might 
still  be  too  great.  If  you  don't  have  a  basement  and  get  in  the 
middle  of  such  a  home  you  will  reduce  the  danger  by  about  one- 

Water  is  the  number-one  necessity  to  store.  You  should  at  least 
have  some  jugs  or  fruit  jars  on  hand.  You  can  be  sure  you  have 
a  faucet  on  your  hot  water  tank,  which  is  a  ready-made  emergency 
storage  tank.  You  should  have  canned  or  packaged  food,  includ- 
ing juices  which  do  not  need  to  be  refrigerated.  You  should  have 
a  radio  which  will  run  if  the  electricity  goes  off.  You  should 
have  a  flashlight.  Other  things  you  may  need  are  listed  in  this 
civil  defense  pamphlet. 

Some  people  will  not  take  full  protection  in  advance.  I'm 
afraid  human  nature  doesn't  work  that  way.  But  you  can  take 
some  of  the  protection,  and  you  can  get  ready  for  additional 
action,  even  if  for  various  reasons  you  do  not  make  more  com- 
plete preparations  now.  And  you  can  understand  the  dangers 

Let  me  make  it  clear  that  I  think  you  should  provide  as  much 
protection  as  you  possibly  can.  Remember  the  first  assumption: 
It  would  be  very  wise  for  everybody  to  know  in  advance  where 
he  and  his  family  would  go  to  avoid  fall-out  radiation. 

This  is  not  the  complete  story,  but  it  is  the  heart  of  it. 

We  have  people  all  over  the  state  anxious  to  give  you  more 

The  best  way  not  to  need  this  protection  is  to  have  it. 

I  would  hope  that  we  never  have  any  reason  to  recoil  from  any 
situation  in  fear.  Civil  defense  is  not  based  on  fear.  It  is  based 
on  confidence  in  our  strength,  our  knowledge,  our  ability  to 
protect  our  nation  and  ourselves. 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


This  nation,  founded  on  freedom,  holding  aloft  the  banner 
for  free  people  around  the  globe,  with  an  abiding  faith  in  God 
and  His  purpose  for  man,  will  endure  so  long  as  our  spirit  and 
our  faith  endure. 



November  11,  1962 

In  observance  of  Veterans  Day,  1962,  a  ceremony  was  held  on 
the  battleship  U.S.S.  "North  Carolina."  The  Governor  referred 
to  the  Cuban  crisis  as  a  recent  event  but  as  a  crisis  which  had 
subsided.  He  referred  to  areas  of  conflict  and  communism  else- 
where: Berlin,  the  Himalayas  of  India,  Viet  Nam,  the  Congo, 
but  the  Governor  said  the  order  of  the  day  was  peace.  The  fact 
that  the  United  States  sought  peace  did  not  mean  that  its  citizens 
would  not  fight  for  freedom.  America,  he  said,  "does  not  fear 
to  negotiate"  but  would  "never  negotiate  out  of  fear."  Sanford 
expressed  hope  that  Communists  would  see  the  lesson  written 
in  the  blood  of  history.  While  military  posts  were  necessary,  the 
ultimate  strength  was  in  education.  There  was  no  question  about 
America's  willingness  to  fight  and  die  but  there  was  a  question 
as  to  her  willingness  to  take  the  leadership  in  defending  America's 
"ancient  heritage"  on  the  education,  industrial,  and  agricultural 
fronts.  The  battle  of  the  free  world  was  being  fought  in  the 
United  Nations;  military  might  had  to  be  kept  strong,  but  it 
was  also  imperative  for  America  to  do  her  best  in  education, 
industry,  and  agriculture.  Sanford  said  the  veterans  did  not  end 
their  jobs  when  they  removed  their  uniforms;  their  duty  con- 
tinued—"until  all  children  have  the  chance  for  education,  until 
all  people  everywhere  have  enough  to  eat  and  enough  clothes  to 
keep  them  warm;  until  mankind  is  free  from  fear,  from  want,  and 
from  dictatorship." 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 



November  15,  1962 

[Speaking  in  his  home  town  of  Fayetteville,  Governor  Sanford  took  the 
opportunity  to  present  his  program  in  the  field  of  higher  education  for  the 
1963  General  Assembly.  He  explained  that  he  planned  to  emphasize  quality 
education  on  the  college  level.  This  speech,  entitled  "Education  Is  the  Only 
Path  to  Progress,"  was  considered  the  administration's  blueprint  for  the 
years  ahead;  it  was  later  issued  as  a  pamphlet.] 

Several  days  ago  a  friend  asked  me,  "What  can  a  poor  man  do 
for  his  children  when  it  is  time  to  send  them  to  college?  I  can't 
afford  it,"  he  said,  "but  college  is  what  they  need  and  deserve." 

My  answer  is  that  North  Carolina  must  say  to  the  young 
people  of  the  state,  "If  you  have  the  will  and  the  skill  you  can 
go  to  college."  We  must  make  it  our  policy  to  provide  the  class- 
rooms, to  establish  the  loan  funds,  to  employ  the  college  teachers, 
and  to  have  the  teaching  facilities  and  everything  needed  to  match 
the  ambitions  of  our  youth. 

We  could  pose  this  question  another  way,  asking,  "What  can 
a  state,  one  which  is  not  as  rich  as  most  others,  do  about  edu- 
cation beyond  the  high  school?"  Quality  education  costs  money, 
yet  it  is  what  the  state  needs  and  deserves,  what  it  must  have  if 
it  is  going  to  get  ahead.  Education  is  the  way  we  have  of  climb- 
ing upward,  one  generation  after  another.  It  is  the  best  hope  we 
have  that  our  children  will  be  better  able  to  make  a  better  living 
and  have  a  good  life  and  meet  the  needs  of  their  own  day. 

We  go  about  this  through  use  of  teachers,  books,  pencils.  Bun- 
sen  burners,  educational  television,  blackboards,  and  countless 
other  things.  What  we  are  going  about,  however,  is  a  matter  of 
the  mind  and  wealth  of  each  individual,  and  of  us  all  as  mem- 
bers of  a  family  of  man  called  North  Carolinians. 

There  are  other  families  of  man  scattered  throughout  the  world 
who  have  not  given  their  people  the  chance  for  education,  and 
they  are  poor  and  depressed  as  a  people.  They  have  been  left 
behind  in  technology,  in  statesmanship,  in  all  development.  Their 
people  live  in  poverty  and  some  of  them  actually  are  starving. 
Millions  of  these  people  live  in  hovels  and  shacks  and  slums, 
beyond  the  attention  of  doctors  and  beyond  the  protection  of 
laws.  The  efforts  of  some  of  these  people  to  rise  from  this  con- 
dition are  among  the  most  dramatic  and  painful  of  our  time. 

We  in  the  South,  and  in  North  Carolina,  were  in  a  state  of 
poverty  once,  too.  We  have  all  heard  that  our  country  has  never 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


lost  a  war;  that's  so,  but  North  Carolina  has.  We  lost  the  bloodiest 
war  in  this  country's  history,  and  one  of  the  bloodiest  wars  ever 
fought  anywhere.  Today  stories  of  that  war  seem  incredible  to  us. 
I  was  reminded  of  that  recently  when  I  made  a  talk  in  Florida 
on  the  subject  of  education. When  I  returned  to  Raleigh,  a  friend 
asked  me  if  I  realized  that  in  December,  1903,  Governor  Charles 
Brantley  Aycock  had  made  a  talk  in  Florida  on  the  same  subject. 
I  had  not  remembered  that,  and  I  got  down  a  biography  of 
Aycock  and  found  the  text.  In  1903,  Aycock  was  two  generations 
closer  to  the  pain  of  that  war  than  we,  and  I  found  he  was 
obliged  to  be  much  more  gloomy  about  the  South  than  I  had 
been  in  my  Florida  talk.  "Today  it  seems  to  me,"  he  said  back 
then,  "that  we  have  less  effect  upon  the  thought  and  action  of 
the  nation  than  at  any  period  of  our  history."  His  was  a  day 
when  the  South  was  trying  to  rid  itself  of  the  squalor  of  the 
Reconstruction  period,  when,  as  he  said,  "lawlessness  stalked  the 
State  like  a  pestilence,  death  walked  abroad  at  noonday,  sleep 
lay  down  armed.  ..."  We  had  lost  a  war,  then  had  lost  control  of 
our  government,  and  during  it  all  we  had  lost  our  sense  of 
well-being  as  a  people.  All  this  had  happened  to  a  people  who 
before  had  often  been  distinguished.  We  had  not  been  wealthy, 
but  we  had  sometimes  known  outstanding  leadership.  Many  a 
schoolboy  can  recite  the  great,  grave  names  of  the  southern  men 
who  stood  at  the  head  of  this  nation  in  days  when  their  leader- 
ship was  not  only  the  distinguishing  mark  of  our  country  but  a 
distinguishing  mark  of  their  time  in  the  world.  In  our  own  state, 
poor  as  it  was,  we  had  at  Chapel  Hill  the  second  largest  uni- 
versity in  America,  second  to  Princeton.  We  had  a  public  school 
system  which  stayed  open  even  during  the  war.  We  had  50,000 
students  in  attendance  during  the  height  of  the  fighting. 

The  war  left  North  Carolina  with  sons  to  bury  and  others  to 
mend;  it  left  us  with  fallen  houses  and  fences  and  sheds  and 
cribs,  and  with  the  sense  of  despondency  which  inevitably  follows 
the  failure  of  a  cause.  Then  came  the  bitter  days  of  sorry  leader- 
ship, a  period  of  poverty,  and  of  bad  feelings  between  the  races. 

Finally,  out  of  this  unwholesomeness,  near  the  turn  of  the 
century,  came  a  group  of  progressive  men.  One  of  them  was 
Charles  Brantley  Aycock.  He  said  that  North  Carolina  had  a 
great  destiny  ahead.  He  told  them  what  many  of  them  didn't 
want  to  hear— that  the  people  must  tighten  their  belts  and  put 
their  money  into  education,  education  for  everybody.  "You 
wealthy  people  may  educate  your  son  and  daughter  to  the  fullest 
extent  possible,"  he  said  in  his  address  in  Florida,  "giving  them 
the  learning  of  all  the  world,  and  after  their  education  put  them 
in  a  community  where  there  are  no  other  educated  people,  and 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

they  will  fail  to  develop  and  grow  as  they  would  if  they  lived  in 
a  community  where  there  was  general  culture.  .  .  .  We  want  the 
schools  to  find  all  of  the  strongest  and  best  in  competition  one 
with  the  other  until  the  fullest  power  of  each  shall  be  developed." 

He  fought  for  education,  believing  education  to  be  the  only 
basic  way  to  build  a  state  and  prepare  for  a  better  life.  For  four 
years  while  he  was  governor,  the  state  built  schoolhouses  on  the 
average  of  one  a  day.  He  left  office  unpopular  and  died  almost 
repudiated;  but  the  people  supported  education,  and  because 
they  did,  North  Carolina  began  to  move  forward.  Progress  came 
grudgingly  and  painfully,  but  it  came,  until  now,  two  generations 
later,  we  have  before  us  opportunities  for  leadership  such  as 
North  Carolina  has  not  known  in  decades. 

The  nature  of  these  opportunities  was  suggested  while  I 
stood  in  Florida  a  few  weeks  ago,  watching  a  rocket  fired  into 
space.  This  is  symbolic  of  the  time  and  place  we  have  inherited. 
Our  farms  and  cities  are  changing  so  fast  that  often  the  changes 
cannot  be  followed.  Brick  by  brick,  concrete  on  steel,  wood  and 
glass,  pressed  wood  and  plastic— we  are  building  houses  and 
factories,  barns  and  cities  that  are  better,  cleaner,  stronger,  safer. 
And  as  this  new  age  comes  on,  our  country  is  turning  to  the 
South  more  and  more.  Our  state  finds  itself  with  labor  ready 
to  go  to  work,  with  raw  materials  ready  to  be  used,  with  power 
lines  and  gas  lines  in  place;  our  roads  are  in;  our  railroads  are 
ready.  We  have  space  here  for  expansion.  We  have  a  sound 
public  school  system.  We  have  ports  and  are  near  markets.  We 
are  today  ready  for  progress  of  a  new  order  if  we  have  the  people 
educated  to  today's  needs.  To  move  into  the  mainstream  of 
American  life  is  our  present  calling,  the  newborn  challenge. 

The  way  we  have  to  follow  to  make  the  best  of  this  challenge 
is  the  way  Aycock  suggested  to  our  grandfathers:  the  way  of  edu- 
cation for  all  the  people.  Education  is  the  one  way  proved  solid 
and  firm  and  ready  for  the  use  of  this  state.  There  is  only  one 
way  we  in  our  history  have  found  fully  dependable,  education 
for  all  people  to  the  limits  of  their  ability. 

So  the  message  of  Charles  Brantley  Aycock  of  fifty-nine  years 
ago  is  the  message  of  today.  The  only  difference  is  that  our  new 
world  demands  more  education  than  did  his. 

Going  from  school  district  to  school  district,  in  recent  months, 
talking  to  young  people,  and  listening,  I  hear  from  them  that 
they  understand  the  challenges  of  our  time,  often  better  than  we 
adults  do.  Most  of  them  want  to  develop  themselves  well  enough 
not  only  to  keep  up,  but  to  contribute  to  the  making  of  the 
future.  Even  little  children  have  caught  the  breath  of  ambition. 

More  of  our  students  realize  that  they  must  finish  high  school 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


and  go  on  to  college.  Their  ambition,  which  is  one  of  the  most 
valuable  resources  of  this  state,  is  one  reason  the  college  tide  is 
swelling.  Another  reason  is  that  we  simply  have  more  young 
people  of  college  age  today  than  ever  before.  We  have  almost 
twice  as  many  students  in  college  now  as  only  ten  years  ago,  and 
the  choices  for  study  and  the  subjects  of  study  are  twice  as  com- 

In  order  to  try  to  keep  ahead  of  the  growing,  complex  need 
for  education,  well  over  a  year  ago  I  appointed  twenty-five  citizens 
to  a  commission— the  Commission  on  Education  Beyond  the 
High  School,  with  able  and  experienced  Irving  E.  Carlyle  as 
chairman.  A  few  weeks  ago  the  members  turned  in  to  me  their 
report,  a  comprehensive  document,  based  on  study  and  deliber- 
ation of  many  months. 

From  this  study  we  can  devise  the  North  Carolina  Master 
Plan  for  education  beyond  the  high  school. 

private  colleges 

It  is  fitting  and  appropriate  that  I  speak  of  advances  in  public 
education  on  the  campus  of  a  private  church-related  college. 

The  Commission  Report  is  careful  to  point  out  that  "nothing 
that  we  are  proposing  is  calculated  to  impair  the  ability  of  the 
private  institutions  to  serve  the  purposes  for  which  they  exist. 
We  want  to  see  the  private  institutions  flourish  and  increase 
their  capacity  to  provide  their  own  unique  contribution  to  the 
task  of  educating  the  people  of  North  Carolina." 

Indeed  it  is  the  sound  policy  of  the  state  of  North  Carolina 
to  encourage  private  institutions  in  every  way.  Except  for  the 
university,  higher  education  began  in  the  church-related  colleges 
in  the  first  half  of  the  last  century  at  Guilford,  Trinity,  Wake 
Forest,  and  others.  I  do  not  want  to  see  their  influence  diminished 
in  any  degree,  and  I  hope  that  all  churches  will  increase  the 
financial  support  they  give  their  colleges. 

Personally,  I  have  long  and  strongly  believed  that  America 
would  not  have  grown  great  in  moral  strength  had  it  not  been 
for  the  influence  of  the  church  colleges.  To  this  mission  I  have 
done  all  that  I  know  how  to  do,  and  when  I  put  down  the  official 
duties  of  my  present  office  I  intend  to  occupy  a  major  part  of  my 
spare  time  to  the  building  of  this  private,  church  college  on 
whose  campus  we  meet  today  and  whose  Board  of  Trustees  I 
am  honored  to  serve  as  chairman. 

We  need  the  influence  of  these  private  colleges  and  we  need 
their  advice.  I  was  asked  to  create  the  mechanics  whereby  the 
private  colleges  could  work  together  with  the  state,  to  give  the 
benefit  of  their  ideas  to  the  Governor  and  the  Board  of  Higher 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

Education,  as  to  how  we  might  improve  the  total  of  education 
and  how  we  might  assist  in  proper  ways  the  development  and 
operation  of  the  private  colleges.  This  ^ve  are  doing,  and  we 
look  forward  to  a  fruitful  partnership. 


By  the  end  of  this  decade  young  people  seeking  admission  to 
college  in  North  Carolina  will  exceed  the  present  capacity  of 
public  colleges  plus  the  planned  capacity  of  private  colleges  by 
more  than  31,000.  This  means  that  the  majority  of  these  young 
people  will  have  no  college  opportunity  unless  we  plan  and  act 
now.  This  figure  might  be  disputed,  and  indeed  has  been  dis- 
puted, but  it  cannot  be  denied  that  the  figure,  whatever,  will 
be  staggering;  neither  can  it  be  disputed  that  the  figure  would  be 
even  higher  if  ^ve  did  ^^vhat  we  should  do  to  encourage  the  per- 
centage of  our  high  school  students  to  attend  college  which  equals 
the  national  percentage.  The  Report  reminds  us:  "In  a  day  when 
some  kind  of  post-high  school  training  is  essential  to  any  sort 
of  profitable  employment,  North  Carolina  cannot  afford  the 
'economy'  of  sending  a  smaller  percentage  of  our  young  people 
to  college  than  do  four-fifths  of  the  50  states." 

How  can  we  provide  the  college  opportunities  for  these  young 
North  Carolinians,  without  which  both  they  and  the  state  ^vill 
wither?  Our  problem  today  might  be  summarized  as  too  few 
classrooms,  too  little  money,  too  little  time.  W^e  cannot  build 
adequate  colleges  in  the  traditional  pattern;  ^ve  don't  have  the 
money.  If  we  did,  too  many  students  could  not  attend  college  in 
the  traditional  pattern;  they  don't  have  the  money.  We  need 
college  opportunities,  in  large  numbers,  of  high  quality,  prepar- 
ing students  for  additional  college,  or  preparing  students  for  life 
and  work  without  additional  college.  We  need  this  at  low  cost, 
quickly,  and  the  students  need  low  tuition  charges. 

With  this  need,  what  can  ^ve  plan?  W^e  already  have  in  our 
state  the  community  college  concept,  and  ^ve  have  the  industrial 
education  center  concept,  having  tried  the  former  on  a  limited 
basis  and  the  latter  on  a  rapidly  expanding  basis.  We  know 
how  these  work,  what  they  can  do,  ^vhom  they  will  reach. 

There  is  consensus  amonsf  outstandino^  educators  with  exten- 
sive  experience  in  the  community  junior  college  field  that,  on 
principle,  the  community  college  should  be  comprehensive,  incor- 
porating in  an  institution  three  things:  appropriate  technical- 
vocational  ^vork,  college  parallel  studies,  and  adult  education 
curriculums,  all  three  being  responsive  to  the  changing  needs  of 
the  area  served  by  the  college.  These  should  be  in  commuting 
distance,  and  we  should  never  anticipate  building  dormitories 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


at  these  institutions. 

We  have  the  framework  and  the  experience.  It  could  be  done 
rapidly,  it  would  be  relatively  low  in  cost,  and  it  would  reach 
the  greatest  possible  number  of  students.  It  would  be  less  costly 
to  the  student. 

This,  then,  will  be  our  plan:  One  system  of  public  two-year 
post  high  school  institutions  offering  college  parallel  studies, 
technical-vocational-terminal  work,  and  adult  education  instruc- 
tion tailored  to  area  needs,  subject  to  state-level  supervision  by 
the  State  Board  of  Education,  and  advised  by  a  proposed  State 
Community  College  Advisory  Council  (consisting  of  at  least 
seven  persons,  appointed  by  the  State  Board  of  Education)  . 

The  details  will  be  arranged  by  the  members  of  the  1963  Gen- 
eral Assembly,  and  for  this  purpose  I  commend  to  them  Chapter 
VIII  of  the  Report  of  the  Commission  on  Education  Beyond  the 
High  School,  which  chapter  I  endorse  in  toto. 

This  broad  recommendation  needs  a  word  of  caution.  We 
will  require  more  comprehensive  community  colleges  than  we 
can  immediately  establish.  It  will  take  several  years  to  do  the 
job  properly  because  we  cannot  start  everywhere  at  once.  Priority 
should  be  given  to  communities  where  there  is  a  demonstrated 
need,  where  there  is  clearly  demonstrated  community  interest, 
and  where  public  schools  are  already  adequately  supported  by 
local  supplements. 

I  am  suggesting  to  the  State  Board  of  Education  that  there  be 
prepared  immediately  "tentative  criteria  and  procedures"  for 
establishment  of  these  colleges,  so  that  interested  communities 
might  know  what  they  can  do  to  establish  one  of  these  colleges. 

I  would  trust  that  the  General  Assembly  would  provide  the 
legislative  standards  for  the  establishment  of  these  colleges, 
leaving  the  locations  to  the  Board  of  Education. 

With  a  system  of  comprehensive  community  colleges  we  will 
be  able  to  meet  the  total  need,  to  challenge  even  more  high  school 
graduates  to  continue  their  learning,  to  raise  the  technical 
competence  of  our  people,  to  improve  the  level  of  an  educated 
citizenry,  to  increase  our  income,  to  provide  enrichment  for  the 
lives  of  those  who  otherwise  would  be  passed  by,  and  to  grow 
in  stature  as  a  state  and  a  people. 

the  public  senior  colleges 

We  now  have  nine  public  senior  colleges  located  from  Cullo- 
whee  to  Pasquotank.  In  addition,  we  have  three  other  insti- 
tutions, ready  and  able— or  almost  able— to  become  public  senior 
colleges  in  Asheville,  Charlotte,  and  Wilmington. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  measure  the  tremendous  contributions 


Papers  of  Terry  Sanford 

made  today  by  our  senior  colleges.  Traveling  many  times  to 
many  places  across  the  state,  you  can  begin  to  realize  the  enrich- 
ment given  by  them  as  you  visit  the  schools  in  the  mountains, 
and  see  leader  after  leader,  teacher  after  teacher,  sent  out  by 
Western  Carolina;  as  you  talk  to  the  graduating  class  of  Appa- 
lachian and  experience  the  wholesome  enthusiasm  of  these  young 
people  going  out  to  add  to  the  hope  and  progress  of  the  edu- 
cation of  their  state;  as  you  feel  the  surge  of  new  intellectual  life 
at  Greenville;  as  you  see  obstacles  battered  down  and  barriers 
overridden  at  Winston-Salem,  and  Fayetteville,  and  Elizabeth 
City;  as  you  see  new  and  needed  leadership  emerging  from  the 
Agricultural  and  Technical  College  and  North  Carolina  College; 
as  you  sense  the  promise  at  Wilmington,  Pembroke,  Charlotte, 
and  Asheville.  These  things  and  more  demonstrate  daily  the 
faith  and  vision  of  the  people  who  have  poured  their  lives  into 
the  making  of  our  state  colleges.  Our  colleges,  public  and  private, 
need  to  obtain  a  new  and  higher  mark  of  excellence  as  they 
train  teachers  and  others  who  in  turn  will  lead  us  to  greater 

We  have  not  been  able  to  support  the  acquisition  of  adequate 
faculties  at  those  institutions,  but  we  are  financially  able  now 
and  we  are  on  the  road  to  correcting  this. 

These  institutions  are  the  great  hope  for  the  majority  of  our 
students  who  will  earn  degrees,  and  they  must  be  equal  to  the 
best  in  quality  and  excellence. 

The  institutions  understand,  as  Davidson  College  understands, 
that  you  do  not  need  to  become  gigantic,  nor  do  you  need  to 
cover  the  field  with  graduate  and  professional  training,  to  achieve 

There  is  sometimes  an  inclination  to  make  every  junior  college 
a  four-year  college  and  every  college  a  university,  but  this  is  vain 
and  foolish.  A  good  college  is  far  better  and  of  far  more  influence 
than  a  sorry  university.  We  cannot  do  without  our  four-year 
colleges  and  we  cannot  afford  to  have  them  second-rate. 

The  future  plans  of  Asheville-Biltmore,  Charlotte,  and  Wil- 
mington are  that  they  expand  to  four-year  colleges.  The  need  is 
there  and  they  have  the  academic  strength  for  such  expansion. 
As  to  when,  I  would  hope  the  General  Assembly  would  delegate 
this  to  the  judgment  of  the  Board  of  Higher  Education,  based 
solely  on  educational  considerations.  As  to  how,  the  commission 
has  thought  through  this  and  has  outlined  excellent  procedures 
in  the  Report.  It  would  seem  to  me  that  each  should  be  given 
target  dates  as  soon  as  possible  so  that  they  might  start  the  sound 
approaches  required. 

I  hope  the  General  Assembly,  the  Board  of  Higher  Education, 

Public  Addresses  and  Summaries 


the  college  trustees,  administration,  and  faculties  will  consider 
carefully  the  many  concrete  recommendations  of  the  Commission 
on  Education  Beyond  the  High  School,  covering  standards,  admis- 
sions, finances,  training  teachers,  research,  counseling,  student 
costs,  remedial  noncredit  programs,  dropouts,  endowments,  aca- 
demic freedom,  student  loans,  the  trimester,  co-operation,  and 
general  improvement. 

the  university 

North  Carolina  has  always  appreciated  its  university,  now  a 
threefold  campus,  whose  presence  has  spurred  such  institutions 
as  Wake  Forest  and  Duke  to  greater  achievement  and  in  turn 
has  been  spurred  on  to  greater  effort  by  their  achievement. 

It  has  attracted  industry,  developed  our  mental  hospitals,  dis- 
covered improved  products  of  agriculture,  nourished  our  schools, 
enriched  our  lives,  and  made  us  money. 

The  Report  of  the  Commission  recommends  two  things.  First 
it  points  out  that  "the  statutes  do  not  contain  an  adequate 
definition  of  Consolidated  University  purposes."  It  would  clarify 
the  definition  and  this  makes  sense.  This  recommendation  will  be 
presented  to  the  General  Assembly  as  suggested  in  the  Report. 

Second,  the  commission  also  recommends  "that  the  statutes  be 
amended  to  authorize  the  Consolidated  University  Board  of 
Trustees  to  establish  additional  campuses  of  the  University  under 
conditions  prescribed"  by  the  Board  of  Higher  Education,  sub- 
ject to  applicable  statutory  procedures.  I  think  this  is  going  to  be 
necessary  in  a  growing,  complex  industrial  state,  and  probably 
we  should  make  a  start  next  year.  This  proposal  will  also  be 
presented  to  the  General  Assembly. 

It  is  worth  repeating  "two  observations  about  the  Consolidated 
University  and  the  future.  First,  as  a  simple  matter  of  economics, 
the  State  now  and  for  the  foreseeable  future  can  afford  only  one 
university,  and  that  one  should  be  the  best  that  intelligent  leader- 
ship can  build.  .  .  .  [Emphasis  mine.] 

"Second,  new  campuses  of  the  Consolidated  University  should 
be  established  only  where  there  is  a  clear  need  for  the  University 
programs  in  graduate  and  professional  fields  that  only  a  uni- 
versity should  offer." 

The  university  is  moving  forward  in  many  ways.  There  are 
things  to  be  done,  plans  to  be  accomplished  which  have  been 
spelled  out  by  the  president